The gross national income (GNI), previously known as gross national product (GNP), is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents.[2]: 44

Comparing GNI to GDP shows the degree to which a nation's GDP represents domestic or international activity. GNI has gradually replaced GNP in international statistics.[3][4] While being conceptually identical, it is calculated differently.[5] GNI is the basis of calculation of the largest part of contributions to the budget of the European Union.[6] In February 2017, Ireland's GDP became so distorted from the base erosion and profit shifting ("BEPS") tax planning tools of U.S. multinationals, that the Central Bank of Ireland replaced Irish GDP with a new metric, Irish Modified GNI (or "GNI*"). In 2017, Irish GDP was 162% of Irish Modified GNI.[7]

## Comparison of GNI and GDP

${\displaystyle \mathrm {GNI} =\mathrm {GDP} +{\text{Money flowing from foreign countries))-{\text{Money flowing to foreign countries))}$

Comparison of GNI (Atlas method), GNI and GDP
2018 World Bank (millions of current US$) No. Country GNI (Atlas method)[8] GNI[9] GDP[10] value (a) a - GDP value (b) b - GDP 1 United States 20,636,317 91,974 20,837,347 293,004 20,544,343 2 China 13,181,372 -426,779 13,556,853 -51,298 13,608,151 3 Japan 5,226,599 255,276 5,155,423 184,100 4,971,323 4 Germany 3,905,321 -42,299 4,058,030 110,410 3,947,620 5 France 2,855,844 -45,685 2,832,584 43,684 2,804,484 6 United Kingdom 2,777,405 -77,891 2,816,805 -38,491 2,855,296 7 India 2,727,893 9,161 2,691,040 -27,692 2,718,732 8 Italy 2,038,376 -45,488 2,106,525 22,661 2,083,864 9 Brazil 1,902,286 16,804 1,832,170 -53,312 1,885,482 10 Canada 1,665,565 -47,776 1,694,054 -19,287 1,713,341 ## GNI (Atlas method) nominal Nominal, Atlas method – millions of current US$ (top 15)[3]

Rank 2023 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
1  United States 26,894,543  United States 25,526,912  United States 23,684,736  United States 21,445,453  United States 21,734,159  United States 20,709,155  United States 19,224,810  United States 18,433,936  United States 18,124,086  United States 17,725,039  United States 17,023,066
2  China 18,899,260  China 18,206,073  China 16,883,573  China 14,843,775  China 14,512,889  China 13,385,455  China 12,104,948  China 11,387,927  China 10,883,163  China 10,246,590  China 9,193,838
3  Japan 4,859,878  Japan 5,324,575  Japan 5,487,896  Japan 5,169,146  Japan 5,315,223  Japan 5,300,391  Japan 4,943,005  Japan 4,887,582  Japan 5,006,472  Japan 5,656,061  Japan 6,225,973
4  Germany 4,559,133  Germany 4,527,641  Germany 4,329,964  Germany 3,989,008  Germany 4,105,522  Germany 3,937,444  Germany 3,617,063  Germany 3,646,623  Germany 3,740,019  Germany 3,858,306  Germany 3,807,840
5  India 3,630,237  India 3,394,542  India 3,064,476  India 2,661,734  United Kingdom 2,890,071  United Kingdom 2,792,597  United Kingdom 2,752,284  United Kingdom 2,818,536  United Kingdom 2,890,071  United Kingdom 2,879,862  France 2,890,903
6  United Kingdom 3,266,990  United Kingdom 3,297,427  United Kingdom 3,052,770  France 2,651,967  India 2,878,536  France 2,764,774  France 2,564,094  France 2,608,889  France 2,737,258  France 2,874,055  United Kingdom 2,744,028
7  France 3,072,464  France 3,078,221  France 2,968,919  United Kingdom 2,599,175  France 2,861,603  India 2,713,330  India 2,439,594  India 2,246,784  India 2,097,598  Brazil 2,457,007  Brazil 2,571,101
8  Italy 2,244,585  Italy 2,261,746  Italy 2,153,654  Italy 1,928,007  Italy 2,085,349  Italy 2,045,243  Italy 1,899,454  Italy 1,938,263  Brazil 2,084,247  Russia 2,137,991  Russia 2,179,425
9  Canada 2,162,633  Canada 2,075,404  Canada 1,865,477  South Korea 1,712,697  Brazil 1,953,067  Brazil 1,920,050  Brazil 1,808,497  Brazil 1,839,992  Italy 2,004,023  Italy 2,122,305  Italy 2,142,306
10  Russia 2,084,758  Russia 1,879,408  South Korea 1,821,293  Brazil 1,686,363  Canada 1,752,253  South Korea 1,688,927  Canada 1,567,890  Canada 1,585,229  Russia 1,725,234  India 2,020,998  India 1,941,117
12  South Korea 1,835,476  Brazil 1,774,307  Brazil 1,689,214  Russia 1,575,000  Russia 1,655,618  Russia 1,505,175  Russia 1,352,319  Russia 1,426,946  South Korea 1,465,140  Australia 1,531,471  Australia 1,528,597
13  Australia 1,681,999  Australia 1,582,214  Australia 1,470,331  Australia 1,375,626  Spain 1,431,194  Spain 1,372,430  Australia 1,267,317  Australia 1,309,602  Australia 1,441,971  South Korea 1,428,957  Spain 1,362,931
14  Spain 1,556,447  Spain 1,533,031  Spain 1,426,623  Spain 1,287,271  Australia 1,392,624  Australia 1,326,718  Spain 1,263,572  Spain 1,281,503  Spain 1,321,902  Spain 1,355,256  South Korea 1,360,191
15  Mexico 1,554,336  Mexico 1,378,549  Mexico 1,256,693  Mexico 1,129,323  Mexico 1,241,846  Mexico 1,191,161  Mexico 1,143,310  Mexico 1,190,381  Mexico 1,280,512  Mexico 1,311,930  Mexico 1,267,698

## GNI (Atlas method) PPP

PPP – millions of international dollars (top 15)[4]

Rank 2023 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
1  China 34,388,534  China 31,576,043  China 28,620,862  China 25,044,516  China 24,232,656  China 22,355,235  China 20,567,696  China 19,169,812  United States 18,608,138  United States 17,984,237  United States 17,140,708
2  United States 27,525,100  United States 25,926,000  United States 23,777,600  United States 21,479,588  United States 21,760,847  United States 20,883,383  United States 19,837,150  United States 18,983,369  China 18,129,539  China 17,445,351  China 16,241,642
3  India 14,324,038  India 12,858,238  India 11,250,341  India 9,639,773  India 9,837,436  India 9,131,972  India 8,264,362  India 7,706,181  India 7,120,994  India 6,732,248  India 6,416,831
4  Japan 6,554,254  Japan 6,254,021  Japan 5,866,681  Japan 5,554,842  Japan 5,616,185  Japan 5,548,453  Japan 5,456,930  Japan 5,338,419  Japan 5,404,453  Japan 5,221,591  Japan 5,194,308
5  Russia 6,366,121  Russia 5,884,375  Russia 5,598,676  Germany 4,952,942  Germany 5,021,459  Germany 4,730,328  Germany 4,491,248  Germany 4,268,496  Germany 3,977,709  Germany 3,883,390  Germany 3,712,582
6  Germany 6,092,387  Germany 5,799,414  Germany 5,351,636  Russia 4,542,377  Russia 4,434,791  Russia 4,128,705  Russia 3,705,398  Russia 3,440,587  Russia 3,428,610  Russia 3,639,325  Russia 3,611,853
7  Brazil 4,325,589  Brazil 4,055,711  France 3,728,403  France 3,370,362  France 3,527,047  France 3,197,838  France 3,050,429  France 2,924,693  Brazil 2,932,875  Brazil 3,107,798  Brazil 3,077,182
8  France 4,235,079  France 3,984,079  Brazil 3,669,595  Brazil 3,289,682  United Kingdom 3,332,513  Brazil 3,098,566  United Kingdom 3,009,162  Brazil 2,846,198  France 2,777,205  France 2,719,730  France 2,666,952
9  Indonesia 4,221,517  Indonesia 3,870,444  United Kingdom 3,561,213  United Kingdom 3,151,687  Brazil 3,244,271  United Kingdom 3,087,113  Brazil 2,924,571  United Kingdom 2,824,431  United Kingdom 2,706,923  United Kingdom 2,619,025  United Kingdom 2,516,787
10  United Kingdom 3,974,003  United Kingdom 3,866,883  Indonesia 3,434,771  Indonesia 3,134,896  Indonesia 3,166,892  Indonesia 2,978,437  Indonesia 2,766,769  Indonesia 2,628,825  Indonesia 2,538,121  Indonesia 2,518,157  Indonesia 2,448,797
11  Turkey 3,729,107  Italy 3,324,775  Italy 2,988,508  Italy 2,660,830  Italy 2,797,692  Italy 2,629,049  Italy 2,531,220  Italy 2,427,622  Mexico 2,251,300  Mexico 2,200,816  Italy 2,183,587
12  Italy 3,446,469  Turkey 3,227,873  Turkey 2,627,527  Mexico 2,375,085  Mexico 2,564,439  Mexico 2,538,888  Mexico 2,464,263  Mexico 2,393,565  Italy 2,225,429  Italy 2,200,447  Mexico 2,088,045
13  Mexico 3,207,460  Mexico 2,972,064  Mexico 2,608,640  Turkey 2,362,958  Turkey 2,313,729  Turkey 2,271,021  Turkey 2,235,991  Turkey 2,094,056  Turkey 1,999,739  Turkey 1,844,207  South Korea 1,737,910
14  South Korea 2,846,253  South Korea 2,706,619  South Korea 2,542,823  South Korea 2,360,461  South Korea 2,290,264  South Korea 2,229,385  South Korea 2,112,226  South Korea 2,034,378  South Korea 1,939,637  South Korea 1,801,276  Saudi Arabia 1,730,115
15  Spain 2,535,604  Canada 2,384,385  Canada 2,114,747  Spain 1,850,441  Spain 2,065,307  Spain 1,908,195  Spain 1,843,464  Spain 1,738,407  Spain 1,621,469  Saudi Arabia 1,777,122  Turkey 1,688,340

## Gross national product

Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country. Unlike gross domestic product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP indicates allocated production based on location of ownership. In fact it calculates income by the location of ownership and residence, and so its name is also the less ambiguous gross national income.

GNP is an economic statistic that is equal to GDP plus any income earned by residents from overseas investments minus income earned within the domestic economy by overseas residents.

GNP does not distinguish between qualitative improvements in the state of the technical arts (e.g., increasing computer processing speeds), and quantitative increases in goods (e.g., number of computers produced), and considers both to be forms of "economic growth".[11]

When a country's capital or labour resources are employed outside its borders, or when a foreign firm is operating in its territory, GDP and GNP can produce different measures of total output. In 2009 for instance, the United States estimated its GDP at $14.119 trillion, and its GNP at$14.265 trillion.[12]

The term gross national income (GNI) has gradually replaced the Gross national product (GNP) in international statistics.[3][4] While being conceptually identical, the precise calculation method has evolved at the same time as the name change.[5]

### Use of GNP

The United States used GNP as its primary measure of total economic activity until 1991, when it began to use GDP.[13] In making the switch, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) noted both that GDP provided an easier comparison of other measures of economic activity in the United States and that "virtually all other countries have already adopted GDP as their primary measure of production".[14] Many economists have questioned how meaningful GNP or GDP is as a measure of a nation's economic well-being, as it does not count most unpaid work and counts much economic activity that is unproductive or actually destructive.[15]

### GNI vs GDP

While GDP measures the market value of all final goods and services produced in a given country, GNI measures income generated by the country's citizens, regardless of the geographic location of the income. In many states, those two figures are close, as the difference between income received by the country versus payments made to the rest of the world is not significant. According to the World Bank, the GNI of the US in 2016 was 1.5% higher than GDP.[16]

In developing countries, on the other hand, the difference might be significant due to a large amount of foreign aid and capital inflow. In 2016, the GNI[17] of Armenia was 4.45% higher than GDP.[18] Based on the OECD reports, in 2015 alone, Armenia has received a total of US$409 million development assistance. Over the past 25 years, USAID has provided more than one billion USD to improve the living of the people in Armenia. GNI equals GDP plus wages, salaries, and property income of the country's residents earned abroad that also constitutes the higher GNI figure. According to the UN report on migration from Armenia in 2015–17, every year around 15–20 thousand people leave Armenia permanently,[19] and roughly 47% of those are working migrants that leave the country to earn income and sustain the families left in Armenia. In 2016 Armenian residents received in a total of around$150 million remittances.[20] Armenia's GNI, measured in US dollars, amounted to USD 13.5 billion in 2021, according to the National Statistical Office. This is an 8.23% increase over the prior year. GNI in USD terms in Armenia has historically ranged from a record high of USD 13.8 billion in 2019 to a record low of USD 1.06 billion in 1992. Regarding interest rates on GNI expressed in USD, Armenia is ranked 119th out of the 155 monitored nations.[21]

## References

1. ^ "World Bank's Income Groups". Our World in Data. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
2. ^ Todaro, Michael P.; Smith, Stephen C. (2012). Economic development (11 ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-13-801388-2.
3. ^ a b c World Bank. "GNI, Atlas method". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
4. ^ a b c World Bank. "GNI, PPP (international $)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2022-10-23. 5. ^ a b "Glossary:Gross national income (GNI)". Eurostat Statistic Explained. Eurostat. Retrieved 2016-06-23. 6. ^ "Monitoring GNI for own resource purposes". Eurostat Statistic Explained. Eurostat. Retrieved 2016-06-23. 7. ^ Heike Joebges (January 2017). "CRISIS RECOVERY IN A COUNTRY WITH A HIGH PRESENCE OF FOREIGN-OWNED COMPANIES: The Case of Ireland" (PDF). IMK Macroeconomic Policy Institute, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung. 8. ^ "GNI, Atlas method (current US$)". World Bank.
9. ^ "GNI (current US$)". World Bank. 10. ^ "GDP (current US$)". World Bank.
11. ^ Daly, Herman E. (1996), Beyond Growth. Beacon Press
12. ^ "Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States" (PDF). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. 17 September 2010. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
13. ^ "BEA: Glossary "G"". Bureau of Economic Analysis. 5 September 2007. Archived from the original on June 4, 2007.
14. ^ "Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of U.S. Production" (PDF). August 1991.
15. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
16. ^ "BEA: The World Bank - US figures". the World Bank. 2017.
17. ^ "BEA: Armenia GNP". Macrotrends. 2019.
18. ^ "BEA: Armenia GDP". Macrotrends. 2019.
19. ^ "BEA: Migration Rate and Associated Issues in Armenia in 2016–2017". UN Armenia. 2017.
20. ^ "BEA: Inflow of Remittances by Balance of Payments". Central Bank of Armenia. 2019.
21. ^