Economy of Norway
Calendar year
Trade organisations
EFTA, OECD, WTO, EEA and others
Country group
PopulationIncrease 5,367,580 (1 January 2020)[3]
  • Increase $547 Billion (nominal; 2023)[4]
  • Increase $425 billion (PPP; 2023)[4]
GDP rank
GDP growth
  • Increase 3.3% (2022)[5]
  • Increase 2.1% (2023f)[5]
  • Increase 2.5% (2024f)[5]
GDP per capita
  • Increase $92,646 (nominal; 2023)[4]
  • Increase $78,128 (PPP; 2023)[4]
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
2.4% (2020 est.)[7]
Population below poverty line
  • Steady NA[6]
  • Negative increase 16.2% at risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE, 2018)[8]
Positive decrease 24.8 low (2018, Eurostat)[9]
Labour force
  • Increase 2.8 million (Q2 2020)[12]
  • Decrease 66.9% employment rate (Q2 2020)[12]
Labour force by occupation
  • Steady 5.2% (July 2020)[13]
  • Negative increase 12.8% youth unemployment (15 to 24-year-olds; June 2020)[14]
  • Negative increase 129,000 unemployed (Q2 2020)[12]
Average gross salary
€55,200 annual
€40,500 annual
Main industries
ExportsIncrease $102.8 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Export goods
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Main export partners
ImportsIncrease $95.06 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Import goods
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Main import partners
FDI stock
  • Increase $236.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
  • Increase Abroad: $196.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
Increase $22.01 billion (2017 est.)[6]
  • Negative increase $642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.)[6]
  • Norway is a net external creditor
Public finances
Negative increase 36.5% of GDP (2017 est.)[6][note 1]
+4.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)[6]
Revenues217.1 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Expenses199.5 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Economic aid$4.0 billion (donor), 1.1% of GDP (2017) [1]
Increase $65.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
Norway bonds
  10 year
  5 year
  1 year
  6 month
  3 month
Norway's GDP, 1979 to 2004. Source: Statistics Norway.

The economy of Norway is a highly developed mixed economy with state-ownership in strategic areas. Although sensitive to global business cycles, the economy of Norway has shown robust growth since the start of the industrial era. The country has a very high standard of living compared with other European countries, and a strongly integrated welfare system. Norway's modern manufacturing and welfare system rely on a financial reserve produced by exploitation of natural resources, particularly North Sea oil.[18][19][20][21][22]


Pre-industrial revolution

Norway was the poorest of the three Scandinavian kingdoms (the others being Denmark and Sweden) during the Viking Age.[23]

Prior to the industrial revolution, Norway's economy was largely based on agriculture, timber, and fishing. Norwegians typically lived under conditions of considerable scarcity, though famine was rare. Except for certain fertile areas in Hedemarken and Østfold, crops were limited to hardy grains, such as oats, rye, and barley; and livestock to sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, and some poultry; in places this was complemented with hunting. In areas of Central and Northern Norway, the Sami subsisted on the nomadic herding of reindeer. Fishing all around the coast was dangerous work, though fish such as herring, cod, halibut, and other cold-water species were found in abundance. The introduction of the potato to Norway, promoted by practical priests and the king in Copenhagen in the 18th century, provided considerable relief and became common food for Norwegians.

All around the coast, the harvesting of fish (including cod, herring, halibut, and other cold water species) was an important supplement to farming and was in many areas in the north and west the primary household subsistence. Fishing was typically supplemented with crop-growing and the raising of livestock on small farms.

The economic conditions in Norway did not lend themselves to the formation of feudal system, though several kings did reward land to loyal subjects who became knights. Self-owning farmers were—and continue to be—the main unit of work in Norwegian agriculture, but leading up to the 19th century farmers ran out of land available for farming. Many agricultural families were reduced to poverty as tenant farmers, and served as the impetus for emigration to North America. Norway, after Ireland, became the country losing the most people to this emigration in percentage relative to its population

Industrial revolution

Capital formation 1865–2003 Source: Statistics Norway

Aside from mining in Kongsberg, Røros and Løkken, industrialization came with the first textile mills that were built in Norway in the middle of the 19th century. But the first large industrial enterprises came into formation when entrepreneurs' politics led to the founding of banks to serve those needs.

Industries also offered employment for a large number of individuals who were displaced from the agricultural sector. As wages from industry exceeded those from agriculture, the shift started a long-term trend of reduction in cultivated land and rural population patterns. The working class became a distinct phenomenon in Norway, with its own neighborhoods, culture, and politics.

Social democratic reforms

After World War II, the Norwegian Labour Party, with Einar Gerhardsen as prime minister, embarked on a number of social democratic reforms aimed at flattening the income distribution, eliminating poverty, ensuring social services such as retirement, medical care, and disability benefits to all, and putting more of the capital into the public trust.

Highly progressive income taxes, the introduction of value-added tax, and a wide variety of special surcharges and taxes made Norway one of the most heavily taxed economies in the world. Authorities particularly taxed discretionary spending, levying special taxes on automobiles, tobacco, alcohol, cosmetics, etc.

Norway's long-term social democratic policies, extensive governmental tracking of information, and the homogeneity of its population lent themselves particularly well for economic study, and academic research from Norway proved to make significant contributions to the field of macroeconomics during this era. When Norway became a petroleum-exporting country, the economic effects came under further study.

Petroleum and post-industrialism

Oil-exporting country

Main article: Energy in Norway

Oil production, Norwegian sector; Source: Statistics Norway

In May 1963, Norway asserted sovereign rights over natural resources in its sector of the North Sea. Exploration started on 19 July 1966, when Ocean Traveler drilled its first well.[24] Oil was first encountered at the Balder oil field at flank of the Utsira High, about 190 km west of Stavanger, in 1967.[25] Initial exploration was fruitless, until Ocean Viking found oil on 21 August 1969.[24] By the end of 1969, it was clear that there were large oil and gas reserves in the North Sea. The first oil field was Ekofisk, produced 427,442 barrels (67,957.8 m3) of crude in 1980. Since then, large natural gas reserves have also been discovered.

Against the backdrop of the Norwegian referendum to not join the European Union, the Norwegian Ministry of Industry, headed by Ola Skjåk Bræk moved quickly to establish a national energy policy. Norway decided to stay out of OPEC, keep its own energy prices in line with world markets, and spend the revenue – known as the "currency gift" – wisely. The Norwegian government established its own oil company, Statoil, and awarded drilling and production rights to Norsk Hydro and the newly formed Saga Petroleum. Petroleum exports are taxed at a marginal rate of 78% (standard corporate tax of 24%, and a special petroleum tax of 54%).[26]

The North Sea turned out to present many technological challenges for production and exploration, and Norwegian companies invested in building capabilities to meet these challenges. A number of engineering and construction companies emerged from the remnants of the largely lost shipbuilding industry, creating centers of competence in Stavanger and the western suburbs of Oslo. Stavanger also became the land-based staging area for the offshore drilling industry. Presently North Sea is past its peak oil production. New oil and gas fields have been found and developed in the large Norwegian areas of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea, including Snøhvit.

Reservations about European Union

Exports and imports in Norway

In September 1972, the Norwegian parliament put to a referendum the question whether Norway should join the European Economic Community. The proposal was turned down with a slim margin. The Norwegian government proceeded to negotiate a trade agreement with the EU that would give Norwegian companies access to European markets. Over time, Norway renegotiated and refined this agreement, ultimately joining the European Free Trade Association and the European Economic Area.

Although Norway's trade policies have long aimed at harmonizing its industrial and trade policy with the EU's, a new referendum in 1994 gave the same result as in 1972, and Norway remains one of only two Nordic countries outside the EU, the other being Iceland.

Although much of the highly divisive public debate about EU membership turned on political rather than economic issues, it formed economic policy in several important ways:

Norwegians have sought accommodations on a range of specific issues, such as products from fish farms, agricultural products, emission standards, etc., but these do not appear to differ substantially from those sought by bona fide EU members. It is expected that the issue of membership will be brought to a referendum again at some point.

Post-industrial economic developments

GDP growth 1865–2004

Several issues have dominated the debate on Norway's economy since the 1970s:

Norwegian exports in 2006

State ownership role

Public vs. private consumption Source: Statistics Norway

The Norwegian state maintains large ownership positions in key industrial sectors concentrated in natural resources and strategic industries such as the strategic petroleum sector (Equinor), hydroelectric energy production (Statkraft), aluminum production (Norsk Hydro), the largest Norwegian bank (DNB) and telecommunication provider (Telenor). The government controls around 35% of the total value of publicly listed companies on the Oslo stock exchange, with five of its largest seven listed firms partially owned by the state.[27] When non-listed companies are included the state has an even higher share in ownership (mainly from direct oil license ownership). Norway's state-owned enterprises comprise 9.6% of all non-agricultural employment, a number that rises to almost 13% when companies with minority state ownership stakes are included, the highest among OECD countries.[28] Both listed and non-listed firms with state ownership stakes are market-driven and operate in a highly liberalized market economy.[29]

The oil and gas industries play a dominant role in the Norwegian economy, providing a source of finance for the Norwegian welfare state through direct ownership of oil fields, dividends from its shares in Equinor, and licensure fees and taxes. The oil and gas industry is Norway's largest in terms of government revenue and value-added. The organization of this sector is designed to ensure the exploration, development and extraction of petroleum resources result in public value creation for the entire society through a mixture of taxation, licensing and direct state ownership through a system called the State's Direct Financial Interest (SDFI). The SDFI was established in 1985 and represents state-owned holdings in a number of oil and gas fields, pipelines and onshore facilities as well as 67% of the shares in Equinor. Government revenues from the petroleum industry are transferred to the Government Pension Fund of Norway Global in a structure that forbids the government from accessing the fund for public spending; only income generated by the funds' capital can be used for government spending.[30]

The high levels of state ownership have been motivated for a variety of reasons, but most importantly by a desire for national control of the utilization of natural resources. Direct state involvement began prior to the 20th century with the provision of public infrastructure, and expanded greatly into industry and commercial enterprises after the Second World War through the acquisition of German assets in several manufacturing companies. The largest expansion of state ownership occurred with the establishment of Statoil in 1972. Industries and commercial enterprises where the state owns stakes are and market-driven, with marketization extending to public service providers as well as industry.[29]


GDP per capita development in Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden and Finland

The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2021 (with IMF staff estimates in 2022–2027). Inflation under 5% is in green. [31]

Year GDP

(in Bil. US$PPP)

GDP per capita

(in US$ PPP)


(in Bil. US$nominal)

GDP per capita

(in US$ nominal)

GDP growth


Inflation rate

(in Percent)


(in Percent)

Government debt

(in % of GDP)

1980 60.6 14,799.8 64.4 15,746.3 Increase4.5% Negative increase10.9% 1.7% 47.7%
1981 Increase67.4 Increase16,399.9 Decrease63.6 Decrease15,484.7 Increase1.6% Negative increase13.6% Negative increase2.0% Positive decrease43.4%
1982 Increase71.7 Increase17,388.9 Decrease62.6 Decrease15,196.3 Increase0.2% Negative increase11.3% Negative increase2.6% Positive decrease38.5%
1983 Increase77.5 Increase18,733.9 Decrease61.6 Decrease14,906.2 Increase4.0% Negative increase8.5% Negative increase3.4% Positive decrease35.4%
1984 Increase85.1 Increase20,527.7 Increase62.1 Increase14,968.8 Increase6.1% Negative increase6.2% Positive decrease3.1% Positive decrease35.2%
1985 Increase92.7 Increase22,281.1 Increase65.4 Increase15,728.2 Increase5.6% Negative increase5.7% Positive decrease2.6% Negative increase36.9%
1986 Increase98.4 Increase23,564.6 Increase78.7 Increase18,853.1 Increase4.0% Negative increase7.2% Positive decrease2.0% Negative increase46.0%
1987 Increase102.6 Increase24,428.7 Increase94.2 Increase22,445.0 Increase1.8% Negative increase8.7% Negative increase2.1% Positive decrease38.5%
1988 Increase105.9 Increase25,091.7 Increase101.9 Increase24,143.1 Decrease-0.3% Negative increase6.7% Negative increase3.1% Positive decrease32.4%
1989 Increase111.2 Increase26,269.0 Increase102.6 Increase24,245.4 Increase1.0% Increase4.5% Negative increase4.9% Positive decrease32.3%
1990 Increase117.6 Increase27,669.5 Increase119.8 Increase28,187.2 Increase1.9% Increase4.1% Negative increase5.2% Positive decrease28.9%
1991 Increase125.3 Increase29,320.7 Increase121.9 Increase28,514.5 Increase3.1% Increase3.4% Negative increase5.5% Negative increase39.2%
1992 Increase132.8 Increase30,878.7 Increase130.8 Increase30,432.9 Increase3.6% Increase2.3% Negative increase5.9% Negative increase45.0%
1993 Increase139.8 Increase32,317.7 Decrease120.6 Decrease27,880.6 Increase2.8% Increase2.3% Steady5.9% Negative increase53.7%
1994 Increase150.0 Increase34,488.5 Increase127.1 Increase29,236.4 Increase5.1% Increase1.4% Positive decrease5.4% Positive decrease50.6%
1995 Increase159.5 Increase36,494.1 Increase152.0 Increase34,790.0 Increase4.2% Increase2.5% Positive decrease4.9% Positive decrease32.7%
1996 Increase170.6 Increase38,828.6 Increase163.5 Increase37,225.3 Increase5.0% Increase1.3% Positive decrease4.8% Positive decrease28.4%
1997 Increase182.7 Increase41,391.4 Decrease161.4 Decrease36,561.4 Increase5.3% Increase2.6% Positive decrease4.0% Positive decrease25.8%
1998 Increase189.6 Increase42,692.1 Decrease154.2 Decrease34,717.1 Increase2.6% Increase2.3% Positive decrease3.2% Positive decrease23.6%
1999 Increase196.1 Increase43,841.6 Increase162.3 Increase36,278.3 Increase2.0% Increase2.4% Positive decrease3.2% Negative increase25.0%
2000 Increase207.0 Increase45,989.4 Increase171.2 Increase38,047.9 Increase3.2% Increase3.1% Negative increase3.4% Negative increase28.7%
2001 Increase216.0 Increase47,803.6 Increase174.0 Increase38,494.7 Increase2.1% Increase3.0% Negative increase3.5% Positive decrease27.3%
2002 Increase222.6 Increase48,948.7 Increase195.5 Increase42,998.0 Increase1.4% Increase1.3% Negative increase3.9% Negative increase34.0%
2003 Increase229.0 Increase50,086.8 Increase228.9 Increase50,046.3 Increase0.9% Increase2.5% Negative increase4.5% Negative increase43.2%
2004 Increase244.5 Increase53,167.4 Increase264.5 Increase57,512.2 Increase4.0% Increase0.5% Positive decrease4.5% Negative increase44.0%
2005 Increase258.8 Increase55,878.3 Increase308.9 Increase66,687.8 Increase2.6% Increase1.5% Negative increase4.6% Positive decrease42.5%
2006 Increase273.2 Increase58,478.9 Increase345.6 Increase73,970.2 Increase2.4% Increase2.3% Positive decrease3.4% Negative increase52.8%
2007 Increase289.0 Increase61,205.9 Increase400.9 Increase84,915.6 Increase3.0% Increase0.7% Positive decrease2.5% Positive decrease49.7%
2008 Increase295.9 Increase61,820.4 Increase462.3 Increase96,563.2 Increase0.5% Increase3.8% Negative increase2.7% Positive decrease47.8%
2009 Decrease292.7 Decrease60,439.5 Decrease386.2 Decrease79,746.9 Decrease-1.7% Increase2.2% Negative increase3.3% Positive decrease42.7%
2010 Increase298.3 Increase60,773.6 Increase428.8 Increase87,356.2 Increase0.7% Increase2.4% Negative increase3.8% Negative increase43.2%
2011 Increase307.5 Increase61,827.8 Increase498.3 Increase100,197.2 Increase1.0% Increase1.3% Positive decrease3.4% Positive decrease29.8%
2012 Increase328.0 Increase65,101.0 Increase509.5 Increase101,129.9 Increase2.7% Increase0.7% Positive decrease3.3% Negative increase31.1%
2013 Increase340.1 Increase66,742.1 Increase522.8 Increase102,576.7 Increase1.0% Increase2.1% Negative increase3.8% Negative increase31.6%
2014 Decrease338.5 Decrease65,647.1 Decrease498.4 Decrease96,657.6 Increase2.0% Increase2.0% Positive decrease3.6% Positive decrease29.9%
2015 Decrease313.3 Decrease60,189.9 Decrease385.8 Decrease74,115.2 Increase2.0% Increase2.2% Negative increase4.5% Negative increase34.5%
2016 Decrease308.5 Decrease58,735.9 Decrease368.8 Decrease70,223.8 Increase1.1% Increase3.6% Negative increase4.7% Negative increase38.1%
2017 Increase332.1 Increase62,782.1 Increase398.4 Increase75,306.7 Increase2.3% Increase1.9% Positive decrease4.2% Negative increase38.6%
2018 Increase343.9 Increase64,590.3 Increase437.0 Increase82,082.1 Increase1.1% Increase2.8% Positive decrease3.9% Negative increase39.7%
2019 Increase352.6 Increase65,829.9 Decrease404.9 Decrease75,594.0 Increase0.7% Increase2.2% Positive decrease3.7% Negative increase40.9%
2020 Increase354.3 Decrease65,804.0 Decrease362.2 Decrease67,265.9 Decrease-0.7% Increase1.3% Negative increase4.6% Negative increase46.8%
2021 Increase383.4 Increase70,796.1 Increase482.2 Increase89,041.6 Increase3.9% Increase3.5% Positive decrease4.4% Positive decrease43.4%
2022 Increase425.6 Increase78,127.6 Increase504.7 Increase92,646.0 Increase3.6% Increase4.7% Positive decrease3.9% Positive decrease40.3%
2023 Increase452.1 Increase82,496.2 Decrease486.4 Decrease88,748.8 Increase2.6% Increase3.8% Positive decrease3.8% Positive decrease39.5%
2024 Increase471.9 Increase85,599.5 Increase495.1 Increase89,809.9 Increase2.2% Increase2.7% Positive decrease3.7% Positive decrease39.2%
2025 Increase488.4 Increase88,050.6 Increase502.8 Increase90,663.8 Increase1.6% Increase2.5% Steady3.7% Positive decrease38.7%
2026 Increase504.0 Increase90,331.6 Increase509.6 Increase91,330.9 Increase1.3% Increase2.0% Steady3.7% Positive decrease38.2%
2027 Increase520.4 Increase92,711.2 Increase522.6 Increase93,107.3 Increase1.3% Increase2.0% Steady3.7% Positive decrease37.7%


In 2022, the sector with the highest number of companies registered in Norway is Services with 296,849 companies followed by Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate with 118,411 companies respectively.[32]

Economic structure and sustained growth

The emergence of Norway as an oil-exporting country has raised a number of issues for Norwegian economic policy. There has been concern that much of Norway's human capital investment has been concentrated in petroleum-related industries. Critics have pointed out that Norway's economic structure is highly dependent on natural resources that do not require skilled labor, making economic growth highly vulnerable to fluctuations in the demand and pricing for these natural resources. The Government Pension Fund of Norway is part of several efforts to hedge against dependence on petroleum revenue.

Because of the oil boom since the 1970s, there has been little government incentive to help develop and encourage new industries in the private sector, in contrast to other Nordic countries like Sweden and particularly Finland. However the last decades have started to see some incentive on national and local government levels to encourage formation of new "mainland" industries that are competitive internationally. In addition to aspirations for a high-tech industry, there is growing interest in encouraging small business growth as a source of employment for the future. In 2006, the Norwegian government formed nine "centers of expertise" to facilitate this business growth.[33] Later in June 2007, the government contributed to the formation of the Oslo Cancer Cluster (OCC) as a center of expertise, capitalizing on the fact that 80% of cancer research in Norway takes place in proximity to Oslo and that most Norwegian biotechnology companies are focused on cancer.[33]

Further information on the biotechnology company: Keep-it Technologies

Agriculture of Norway

Pest control

Pesticide usage information for the entire country is available from Statistics Norway.[34]

Antimicrobial resistance

Overall the risk of antimicrobial resistance in the food supply chains is "negligible". Specifically cattle, milk/dairy products, fish, seafood, drinking water, and pork are considered to be negligible risks. On the other hand, there is a more-than-negligible risk from contact with live pigs (farming and processing them), live poultry, and poultry meat.[35]

Economic impacts of climate change


A warmer climate will have its pros and cons for the Norwegian agriculture. Higher temperatures combined with new types of plants adapted to the milder climate may yield larger harvests and possibly making two harvests possible per year. The impact of climate change will vary between regions as there are already today a lot of local differences in precipitation etc. An earlier time of snow melting in areas with a dry climate may lead to crops drying out and dying. In wetter regions, further increased precipitation may cause outbreaks of fungus invasion on crops.


The productive forest in Norway is expected to increase considerably due to climate change, but not without complications. Mild winters will reduce the resistance of trees and their frost tolerance. Freeze-thaw cycles will also be more frequent during mild winters, damaging the trees. Pest invasions and diseases are expected to be more frequent as new pests can move rapidly northwards. It is also possible that insects will be able to reproduce one more generation per summer due to higher temperatures, so that for instance the European spruce bark beetle may damage spruce trees with an extra invasion per summer.

Regional variation

See also: List of Norwegian counties by GDP

Region GDP per capita 2015
in euros As % of EU-28 average
 European Union 29,000 100%
 Norway 46,300 160%
Richest Oslo and Akershus 51,800 178%
Agder and Rogaland 40,600 140%
Vestlandet 39,400 136%
Trøndelag 35,500 122%
Nord-Norge 33,500 115%
Sør-Østlandet 30,000 103%
Poorest Hedmark and Oppland 29,100 100%

Source: Eurostat[36]

See also


  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  2. ^ "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Population on 1 January". Eurostat. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: April 2023". International Monetary Fund.
  5. ^ a b c "The outlook is uncertain again amid financial sector turmoil, high inflation, ongoing effects of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, and three years of COVID". International Monetary Fund. 11 April 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  7. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  8. ^ "People at risk of poverty or social exclusion". Eurostat. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  9. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  10. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)". UNDP. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  12. ^ a b c "Labor Force Survey". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  13. ^ "Unemployment by sex and age – monthly average". Eurostat. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  14. ^ "Unemployment rate by age group". OECD. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  15. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  16. ^ a b c Rogers, Simon; Sedghi, Ami (15 April 2011). "How Fitch, Moody's and S&P rate each country's credit rating". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  17. ^ "Scope affirms Norway's AAA rating with Stable Outlook". Scope Ratings. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  18. ^ The economic effects of north sea oil on the manufacturing sector Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Hilde Christiane Bjørnland
  19. ^ Overview of the Norwegian oil and gas sector Archived 23 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Embassy of Denmark, Oslo
  20. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2012.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ The Oil Industry and Government Strategy in the North Sea Øystein Noreng
  22. ^ "The rich cousin". The Economist. 1 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  23. ^ Bagge, Sverre (2010). From Viking Stronghold to Christian Kingdom: State Formation in Norway, c. 900-1350. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-87-635-0791-2.
  24. ^ a b "Norway's petroleum history". Archived from the original on 27 July 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  25. ^ Riber, Lars; Dypvik, Henning; Sørlie, Ronald (2015). "Altered basement rocks on the Utsira High and its surroundings, Norwegian North Sea" (PDF). Norwegian Journal of Geology. 95 (1): 57–89. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  26. ^ "Norway – Corporate – Taxes on corporate income". Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  27. ^ Lie, Einar (6 April 2016). "Context and Contingency: Explaining State Ownership in Norway". Enterprise & Society. 17 (4): 904–930. doi:10.1017/eso.2016.18. S2CID 157325276.
  28. ^ Korin Kane (17 September 2018). "The Size and Sectoral Distribution of State-Owned Enterprises" (PDF). Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  29. ^ a b "Norway – Marketisation of Government Services State-Owned Enterprises" (PDF). 2003. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  30. ^ "The Government's Revenues". Norwegian Petroleum. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  31. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
  32. ^ "Industry Breakdown of Companies in Norway". HitHorizons.
  33. ^ a b Aldridge 2008
  34. ^ "Pesticide use". Statistics Norway. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  35. ^ Yazdankhah, Siamak; Grahek-Ogden, Danica; Hjeltnes, Brit; Langsrud, Solveig; Lassen, Jørgen; Norström, Madelaine; Sunde, Marianne; Eckner, Karl; Kapperud, Georg; Narvhus, Judith; Nesbakken, Truls; Robertson, Lucy; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Skjerdal, Olaug Taran; Skjerve, Eystein; Vold, Line; Wasteson, Yngvild; Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety. Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chains in Norway (Rep. No. 2015:29). Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment [Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø]. ISBN 978-82-8259-184-3.
  36. ^ Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices by NUTS 2 regions Archived 24 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Eurostat
  1. ^ data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

References and further reading