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Education in Norway
Norwegian Ministry of
Education and Research
Minister of EducationKari Nessa Nordtun (Ap)
National education budget (N/A)
BudgetN/A
General details
Primary languagesNorwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk)
System typeNational
Current systemKunnskapsløftet, since the 2006–2007 academic year
Literacy (2015[1])
Total100%
Male100%
Female100%
Enrollment
Totaln/a
Primary99.9% (graduating)
SecondaryN/A
Post secondary82% (graduating)
Attainment
Secondary diplomaN/A
Post-secondary diplomaN/A
Secondary and tertiary education divided in academic and vocational systems

Education in Norway is mandatory for all children aged from 6 to 16. Schools are typically divided into two divisions: primary and lower secondary schooling.[2] The majority of schools in Norway are municipal, where local governments fund and manage administration. Primary and lower secondary schools are available free of charge for all Norwegian citizens as a given right.[2]

When primary and lower secondary education is completed, upper secondary schooling is entitled to students for enrollment, which prepares students for higher education or vocational studies.[2]

The school year in Norway runs from mid-August to late June the following year. The Christmas holiday from mid-December to early January historically divides the Norwegian school year into two terms. Presently, the second term begins in January.

History of education in Norway

Organized education in Norway dates as far back as 2000 B.C.[citation needed] Shortly after Norway became an archdiocese in 1153, cathedral schools were constructed to educate priests in Trondheim, Oslo, Bergen and Hamar.

After the Reformation of Norway in 1537, following the unification with Denmark in 1536, cathedral schools were turned into Latin schools, and it was made mandatory for all market towns to have such a school.[3]

In 1736 training in reading was made compulsory for all children, but was not effective until some years later, when ambulatory schools (omgangsskoler) were also established. In 1827, Norway introduced the folkeskole ('people's school'), a primary school which became mandatory for seven years in 1889 and nine years in 1969. In the 1970s and 1980s, the folkeskole was abolished, and the grunnskole ('foundation school') was introduced.[4]

Traditionally poorer counties like Finnmark and Hedmark have the highest shares of inhabitants who only have completed the compulsory primary education, with numbers as high as 38%.[5]

Under the Independent Schools Act of 2003, private schooling in Norway has become available.[6] However, very few such schools exist in comparison to Norwegian public schools. Private schools must be founded upon a curriculum used and recognized internationally or an alternative approach to teaching – either religious or pedagogical.[7] These schools must be approved by the government and are heavily grant-aided, and cannot select students based on subjectivity, such as skill or intelligence.[8]

Education today

The Norwegian school system can be divided into three parts: elementary school (barneskole, ages 6–12), lower secondary school (ungdomsskole, ages 13–16), and upper secondary school (videregående skole, ages 16–19). The barneskole and ungdomsskole levels are compulsory, and are commonly referred to as grunnskole ('foundation school').

A Primary School in Norway

Elementary and lower secondary school are mandatory for all children aged 6–16. Before 1997, mandatory education in Norway started at the age of 7. Students often have to change schools when they enter lower secondary school[9] and almost always have to change schools when they enter upper secondary school, as many schools only offer one of the levels.

Primary school (barneskole, grades 1–7, ages 6–12)

In the first year of primary school, students spend most of their time playing educational games and learning social structures, the alphabet, basic addition and subtraction, and basic English skills. In grades 2–7, they are introduced to mathematics, English, science, religion (focusing not only on Christianity but also on all other religions, their purpose, and their history), aesthetics, and music, complemented by geography, history, and social studies in the fifth grade. No official grades are given at this level. However, the teacher often writes a comment, analysis, and sometimes an unofficial grade on tests. Tests are to be taken home and shown to parents. There is also an introductory test to let the teacher know if the student is above average or is in need of some assistance at school.

Lower secondary school (ungdomsskole, grades 8–10, ages 13–16)

When the students enter lower secondary school, at age 12 or 13, they begin being graded on their work. Their grades together with their location in the country will determine whether they get accepted to their upper secondary school of choice or not. From eighth grade, students can choose one elective (valgfag) and one language. Typical offered languages are German, French, and Spanish as well as additional English and Norwegian studies. Before the educational reform of August 2006, students could choose a practical elective instead of the languages. Teens born in 1999 and later could once again choose a practical elective known as (arbeidslivsfag) or career studies upon starting lower secondary school, thus getting the option to choose two electives. The electives vary significantly between schools, even in the same municipality.

A student may take the grade 10 exam in a particular subject early as long as he or she has been granted an exemption from further instruction in the elementary/middle school curriculum of that subject.[10]

In 2009, Norwegian fifteen-year-olds performed better in OECDs Programme for International Student Assessment than other Scandinavian countries, with significant improvement since 2006. In mathematics; however, the top 10% were estimated to lag three years behind the top-scoring students in Shanghai.[11]

Upper secondary school (videregående skole, grades VG1–VG3, ages 16–19)

Secondary education in Norway is primarily based on public schools: In 2007, 93% of upper secondary school students attended public schools.[12] Until 2005, Norwegian law held private secondary schools to be illegal unless they offered a "religious or pedagogic alternative", so the only private schools in existence were religious (Christian), Steiner/Waldorf, Montessori schools, and Danielsen [no]. The first "standard" private upper secondary schools opened in the fall of 2005. Videregående is the equivalent to high school.

As of 2017, graduation from videregående skole was at 73%.[13]

Prior to 1994, there were three branches of upper secondary schooling: general (language, history, etc.), mercantile (accounting, etc.), and vocational (electronics, carpentry, etc.) studies. The high school reform of 1994 ("Reform 94") merged these branches into a single system. Among the goals of the reform was that all students should have a certain amount of general studies large enough to make them eligible for higher education later, meaning more theory in vocational studies, and that it should be possible to cross over from one education path to another without losing too much credit. In the old system, two years of carpentry would be wasted if one wanted to switch to general studies, but in the new system one could keep credit for at least half of it.[14]

Since the introduction of the reform Kunnskapsløftet ('the knowledge promise' or 'the lifting of knowledge', the word løfte having two meanings) in the fall of 2006, a student can apply for a general studies (studieforberedelse) or a vocational studies (yrkesfag) path. Inside these main paths, there are many sub-paths to follow. An upper secondary school usually offers general and vocational curriculum.[15] Vocational studies usually follow a typical structure named the "2+2 model": after two years of school training (with workshops and a short internship in industry), the student does an apprenticeship for two years in an enterprise or a public institution. The apprenticeship is divided into one year of training and one year of practical work. Some vocational curricula are nonetheless entirely school-based, and others include three years of apprenticeship instead of two.[15]

The new reform makes the incorporation of IT into the schooling mandatory, and many counties (responsible for the public high schools) offer laptops to general studies students for free or for a small fee. Kunnskapsløftet also makes it harder to switch between electives that are taken in the second and third year in the general studies path.

Students graduating upper secondary school are called russ in Norwegian. They often celebrate with parties and festivities, which are held a few weeks before the final examinations of the final year.

Educators in Norwegian schools

The titles of educators in Norwegian schools vary with the degrees they have.

Higher education

Main article: Higher education in Norway

Higher education is anything beyond upper secondary school, and normally lasts three years or more. To be accepted to most higher education schools, a student must have attained a general university admissions certificate (generell studiekompetanse). This can be achieved by taking general studies while in upper secondary school or through the law of 23/5 where a person must be above 23 years of age, have five years of combined schooling and work experience and have passed exams in Norwegian, mathematics, natural sciences, English and social studies. Some degrees also require special electives in second and third grade (e.g. maths and physics for engineering studies.) The majority of higher educational institutions are run by the state and take responsibility for their own instruction, research, and dissemination of knowledge. The Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), a professionally independent agency under the Ministry of Education and Research, assures the quality of higher education in Norway.

The main building of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim.

Where there are more applicants than students admitted, applicants are ranked based on their grades from upper secondary school. To gain access to studies commonly requiring a high GPA, like medicine, law and engineering, many students re-sit their upper secondary school examinations to improve their grades.

Higher education is broadly divided into:

There is no formal distinction between vocational and non-vocational higher education.[15]

Timeline of Norwegian higher education

Before the 19th century the main source for higher education of Norwegians was the University of Copenhagen.

Special education

Norway's first large-scale education institution for people with intellectual disabilities was founded in 1898 by educator Emma Hjorth.[18] Since the 1970s, the government has legislated the policy that all children should be educated in local schools. Since then, special education has taken place mostly in ordinary schools.[19] The need for special education in school depends on the individual student's abilities and capabilities. Pupils who cannot manage to yield learning outcomes from the typical teaching style have a right to special education.

In special education, the Educational/Psychological Service maintains highly qualified specialists, educational psychologists, social welfare workers, and kindergarten teachers, playing the role of safety net in society. The Educational/Psychological Service visits school, provides students with help when needed, and assists their family members. In addition to the society system, special educators play a significant role, particularly in the content of their instructions.[20]

According to The Act relating to Universities and Colleges, universities and university colleges must take responsibility for the students' learning environment. Institutions are expected to create an inclusive and flexible learning environment that represents universal design.[17]

Grading

Norway has multiple different grading systems, both unique ones and ones that have been based on foreign grading systems. The former most common system of grades used at university level was based on a scale running from 1.0 (worst) through 6.0 (best) with 4.0 or above being considered passing grades.

The way the new Bologna system was introduced implies that students who had started their studies while the old system still was in effect will graduate with transcripts containing grades from both systems (i.e. both numbers and letters).

Lower levels of education use a scale running from 1 through 6, with 6 being the highest and 2 the lowest passing grade. For non-final tests and mid-term evaluations the grades are often postfixed with + or - (except 6+ and 1-) and it is also common to use grades such as 5/6 or 4/3 indicating borderline grades. However, the grades students get on their final diploma are either 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6.

Examinations

At the conclusion of their school careers, upper secondary pupils aspire to graduate with a diploma. This is obtained by those who have passed all their subjects, and lists grades which are "based on teachers' determination of overall achievement marks of their own students."[21] As well as these teacher-assigned grades, the students' diplomas may feature one or more examination grades. A minority of students will be chosen at random to sit an exam, a concept called trekkfag in Norwegian. The word fag means 'subject', whilst the verb å trekke can be translated as 'to draw, to pick', as one would describe picking a card from a pack. The dictionary translation of trekkfag is given as a description of the concept: "subjects students may be chosen to sit an exam for."[22]

Academic schedule

Academic year in Norway

In Norway's schools, there are two semesters. The new academic year begins in the middle of August. The first semester begins in August and ends in December. The second semester begins in January and ends in June.[23]

Breaks

In Norway's school, there are several long vacations. For example, after the academic year ends in June, students in Norway have summer vacation, which is eight weeks from the middle of June until the middle of August. They also have Christmas holidays after the first semester ends in December until the second semester begins in January. In addition, in the last week of October, pupils in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools have fall break, with another week-long break (winter break) in the middle of February. Students at universities or university colleges typically do not have fall and winter breaks.[23]

National holidays

In Norway, there are thirteen national holidays that students are free from school. In the middle of April, there are four days of Easter break. Norway celebrates International Workers' Day on May 1 and its Constitution Day on May 17. Furthermore, Norway also celebrates Ascension Day in May, with the exact date depending on the each year. Ten days after Ascension Day, the country celebrates Pentecost, and Whit Monday the next day. Students do not have to attend school on these national holidays. However, some of the holidays are included in the long break. For example, New Year's day and Christmas are national holidays in Norway, but students have Christmas holidays at that time.[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Norway Literacy". indexmundi.com.
  2. ^ a b c "General information about education in Norway". Nokut. Retrieved 2022-12-02.
  3. ^ Aamodt, Per (1990). "A New Deal for Norwegian Higher Education?". European Journal of Education. 25 (2): 171–185. doi:10.2307/1503087. JSTOR 1503087.
  4. ^ Cultice, Wendell (1967). "The School System of Norway". The Clearing House. 42 (2): 119–121. doi:10.1080/00098655.1967.11477461. JSTOR 30183285.
  5. ^ "Her bor de med høyest utdanning". Archived from the original on 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  6. ^ regjeringen.no (2019-10-14). "The Independent Schools Act". Government.no. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  7. ^ "Norway | Eurydice". eurydice.eacea.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  8. ^ "Act relating to independent schools (The Independent Schools Act) - Lovdata". lovdata.no. Retrieved 2022-12-01.
  9. ^ Nilssen, Fred Harald. (2014, 25. juni). Grunnskolen. In Store norske leksikon. [1].
  10. ^ in Norwegian § 2-1 - Mulighet for å avlegge eksamen før 10. trinn[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ "PISA-Programme for International Student Assessment". Archived from the original on 2011-01-20. Retrieved 2010-12-08.
  12. ^ "Statistics Norway: Upper secondary school students by type of study and school ownership". Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Norwegian) - select all regions, all 'studieretning', all 'eierforhold', year 2007 revidert. Click 'vis tabell' ('show table'), compute percentages from result.
  13. ^ "Aldri har så mange fullført videregående skole". 29 August 2017.
  14. ^ Johnson, Palmer (1936). "The Norwegian System of Public Secondary Education". The School Review. 44.8 (1936): 608–14. doi:10.1086/439985. JSTOR 1080362. S2CID 144518118.
  15. ^ a b c "TVET in Norway". UNESCO-UNEVOC. 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  16. ^ Nordland, Eva (1969). "Teacher Training for Norwegian Schools". International Review of Education. 15 (1): 65–74. Bibcode:1969IREdu..15...65N. doi:10.1007/BF01428142. JSTOR 3442072. S2CID 145531280.
  17. ^ a b "Education – from Kindergarten to Adult Education" (PDF). European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. Retrieved 2023-07-21.
  18. ^ Simonsen, Eva (2023-01-27). "Emma Hjorth". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2023-07-17.
  19. ^ Befring, Edvard (1990-01-01). "Special Education in Norway". International Journal of Disability, Development and Education. 37 (2): 125–136. doi:10.1080/0156655900370205. ISSN 1034-912X.
  20. ^ Cameron, David Lansing; Lindqvist, Gunilla (2014-07-03). "School district administrators' perspectives on the professional activities and influence of special educators in Norway and Sweden". International Journal of Inclusive Education. 18 (7): 669–685. doi:10.1080/13603116.2013.803609. ISSN 1360-3116. S2CID 144682267.
  21. ^ Tveit, Sverre (10 September 2013). "Educational assessment in Norway". Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. 21 (2): 230. doi:10.1080/0969594X.2013.830079. hdl:10852/88050. S2CID 144067411.
  22. ^ "Trekkfag (Norwegian to English)". Ordnett.no. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  23. ^ a b "外務省: 世界の学校を見てみよう! ノルウェー". www.mofa.go.jp. Retrieved 2022-12-04.
  24. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway (2016). "Norway Data 2015". Data of Norway.

Further reading

Official authorities

Reports from international organizations