The foreign relations of Norway are based on the country's membership in NATO and within the workings of the United Nations (UN). Additionally, despite not being a member of the European Union (EU), Norway takes a part in the integration of EU through its membership in the European Economic Area. Norway's foreign ministry includes both the minister of foreign affairs and minister of international development.

History

Further information: History of Norway

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs was established on the same day that Norway declared the dissolution of the union with Sweden: June 7, 1905. Although diplomats could not present credentials to foreign governments until the Swedish king formally renounced his right to the Norwegian throne, a number of unofficial representatives worked on the provisional government's behalf until the first Norwegian ambassador, Hjalmar Christian Hauge, sought accreditation by the United States Secretary of State Elihu Root on November 6, 1905.

The initial purposes of the newly formed Foreign Ministry were to represent Norway's interests through diplomatic channels, and to provide consular services for Norwegian shipping and commerce overseas. In 1906, the Storting decided to establish six embassies in Europe, with two more in the Americas: one in the United States and one in Argentina. 20 consular offices were also opened.

During World War I, the foreign ministry was confronted with unprecedented challenges in maintaining neutrality for Norway, in particular in order to protect its merchant fleet.

In 1922, the ministry was consolidated and reorganised to ensure fuller cooperation between the diplomatic and consular branches. The reorganization included the formation of a designated career path for diplomats that included completion of a university entrance examination and professional experience from international trade. The economic hardship of the times forced austerity measures at the ministry for the next several years.

When Norway was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940, the government fled to the United Kingdom and reconstituted in exile in Bracknell, outside London. Kingston House in London was later used. The government moved back to Norway following the peace in 1945.

After the end of World War II, Norway was a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the United Nations, the latter having Norwegian Trygve Lie as inaugural Secretary-General.

Elements of policy

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Since the end of the Cold War, Norway has developed a model to foreign policy known as the "Norwegian model," the goal of which is to contribute to peace and stability through coordinated response among governmental and non-governmental Norwegian organizations; acting as an honest broker in international conflicts; an informal network of Norwegian individuals with access and credibility among parties; and the willingness to take the long view in international issues.

The post-war foreign policy of Norway can be described along four dimensions:

Strategic alliances

Norway's strategic importance for waging war in the North Atlantic became important in the failed neutrality policy of World War II. Norway became a founding member of NATO in order to ally itself with countries that shared its democratic values. Both through diplomatic and military cooperation, Norway has played a visible role in the formation and operations of NATO. It allowed a limited number of military bases and exercises to be based in its territories, which caused some controversy when NATO decided to put forward bases in Northern Norway in preparation for a conflict with the Soviet Union.

International cooperation

Norway supports international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes, recognizing the need for maintaining a strong national defence through collective security. Accordingly, the cornerstones of Norwegian policy are active membership in NATO and support for the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Norway also pursues a policy of economic, social, and cultural cooperation with other Nordic countries—Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland—through the Nordic Council. Its relations with Iceland are very close due to the cultural bond the two nations share. Norway ended a 2-year term on the UN Security Council in January 2003, and chaired the Iraq Sanctions Committee.

Norway, along with Iceland the Farore Islands, is not a member of the European Union, all three are members of the European Economic Area.[1] Membership of the EU has been proposed within Norway, and referendums over Norwegian membership were held in 1972 and 1994. Popular opinion was split between rural and urban areas. See Norway and the European Union.

The present government is not planning to raise the possibility for future membership.

Norway also has a history of co-operation and friendship with the United Kingdom and Scotland, due to their shared cultural heritage since Viking times. The Vikings conquered areas including the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland for several hundred years. Norway is only 300 kilometres (159 Nautical miles) east of Unst, the northernmost island of Shetland. The Norwegian embassy to the United Kingdom is located in London, and Norway also maintains a Consulate General in Edinburgh. A Norway Spruce is given by the city of Oslo and presented to London as a Christmas tree for display in Trafalgar Square as a token of gratitude for the UK's support during World War II. King Haakon, his son Crown Prince Olav and the country's government lived in exile in London throughout the war. As part of the tradition, the Lord Mayor of Westminster visits Oslo in the late autumn to take part in the felling of the tree, and the Mayor of Oslo then goes to London to light the tree at the Christmas ceremony.

International mediation and nation building

Norway has played an active role as a third party mediator in a number of international conflicts. The late foreign minister Johan Jørgen Holst was instrumental in forging the Oslo Accords between Israel and the PLO. Thorvald Stoltenberg was part of the unsuccessful mediation team in seeking an end to the war in Bosnia. Norway has contributed both mediation services and financial assistance in Guatemala.

As of 2005, Norwegian diplomats are acting as mediators in Sudan, Bosnia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. Some of those countries accuse Norway of supporting and propping up separatist groups. Israel is often bitter with harsh criticisms from Norwegian politicians. The spat was at its highest when finance minister Kristin Halvorsen supported boycott of Israeli goods.[2] in early 2006. Finance ministry spokesman, Runar Malkenes, told the BBC News website that "there are no moves to push for a boycott of Israeli goods" at government level.[3] Eritrea has been actively supported by Norway during its liberation from Ethiopia.[4] As of recent, Ethiopia expelled six Norwegian diplomats due to Norway's alleged support to 'Terrorist group and Eritrea'.[5] Norway retaliated by cutting aid to Ethiopia.

After the Al-Qaeda attack on the United States on September 11, 2001, NATO launched a military invasion to overthrow Al-Qaeda and its Taliban sponsors. Norway was one of 51 donors providing aid and assistance to rebuild the war-torn country. Norway had charge of Faryab Province. The Norwegian-led Provincial Reconstruction Team had the mission of effecting security, good governance and economic development, 2005–2012. But the results were dubious and frustration continued until the U.S. and all other countries finally decided to withdraw by 2021. [6]

International disputes

Territorial claims in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and Peter I Island) are only recognized by Australia, France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

Status-seeking

A number of scholars have argued that Norway has through its foreign policy engaged in status-seeking.[7][8] Through an activist foreign policy, Norway has sought to elevate its standing among the international system's small powers and middle powers, and earn recognition from the great powers.[7][8]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Norway has diplomatic relations with:[9]
# Country Date
1  United States 30 October 1905
2  Russia 31 October 1905
3  France 5 November 1905
4  United Kingdom 6 November 1905
5  Denmark 7 November 1905
6  Japan 7 November 1905
7  Germany 9 November 1905
8  Belgium 14 November 1905
9  Sweden 18 November 1905
10  Spain 26 November 1905
11  Thailand 30 November 1905
12  Netherlands 4 December 1905
13  Turkey 31 December 1905
14   Switzerland 22 January 1906
15  Portugal 17 March 1906
16  Austria 27 March 1906
17  Argentina 28 March 1906
18  Paraguay 2 April 1906
19  Uruguay 3 April 1906
20  Mexico 9 April 1906
21  Italy 22 May 1906
22  Cuba 20 June 1906
23  China 13 July 1906
24  Bulgaria 20 August 1906
25  Brazil 11 May 1908
26  Iran 14 October 1908
27  Serbia 9 March 1917
28  Romania 14 May 1917
29  Finland 2 March 1918
30  Greece 25 May 1918
31  Chile 9 June 1919
32  Poland 4 July 1919
33  Liechtenstein 25 November 1919
34  Hungary 12 February 1920
35  Peru 3 August 1923
36  Venezuela 4 October 1929
37  Luxembourg 15 April 1931
38  Colombia 6 September 1935
39  Egypt 25 April 1936
40  Ecuador 22 October 1936
41  Bolivia 25 February 1937
42  El Salvador 27 April 1939
43  Guatemala 28 April 1939
44  Costa Rica 2 May 1939
45  Iceland 29 August 1940
46  Canada 24 January 1942
47  Dominican Republic 16 October 1943
48  Haiti 28 October 1943
49  Ethiopia 28 April 1945
50  South Africa 16 June 1946
51  Iraq 28 September 1946
52  Australia 23 June 1947
53  Honduras 3 July 1947
54  Nicaragua 5 July 1947
55  India 15 August 1947
56  Philippines 2 March 1948
57  Panama 21 July 1948
58  Lebanon 10 August 1948
59  Syria 11 August 1948
60  Pakistan 18 December 1948
61  Indonesia 25 January 1950
62  Ireland 17 February 1950
63  Israel 19 July 1950
64  Sri Lanka 13 October 1950
65  Senegal 2 December 1950
66  Myanmar 18 May 1956
67  Sudan 31 May 1956
68  Tunisia 29 August 1958
69  Morocco 30 August 1958
70  South Korea 22 March 1959
71  Nigeria 1 October 1960
72  Madagascar 27 October 1960
73  Yemen 23 March 1961
74  Saudi Arabia 8 May 1961
75  Guinea 21 July 1961
76  Ivory Coast 27 September 1962
77  Algeria 27 October 1962
78  Cyprus 22 March 1963
79  Afghanistan 3 January 1964
80  Niger 24 January 1964
81  Kenya 22 February 1964
82  Uganda 21 July 1964
83  Benin 25 September 1964
84  Tanzania 28 September 1964
85  Zambia 2 February 1965
86  Liberia 17 February 1965
87  Malawi 9 March 1965
88  Ghana 19 May 1965
89  Republic of Congo 23 May 1965
90  Cameroon 15 June 1965
91  Gabon 28 September 1965
92  Kuwait 30 June 1965
93  Libya 20 July 1966
94  Burundi 1966
95  Botswana 30 November 1967
96  Malaysia 8 March 1968
97  Mongolia 11 May 1968
98  Jordan 7 January 1969
99  Malta 11 February 1969
100  Singapore 7 March 1969
101  Democratic Republic of the Congo 27 September 1969
102  New Zealand 10 October 1969
103  Central African Republic 16 May 1970
104  Sierra Leone 20 July 1970
105  Rwanda 30 January 1971
106  Somalia 30 March 1971
107  Albania 29 May 1971
108  Trinidad and Tobago 19 November 1971
109  Vietnam 25 November 1971
110  Togo 10 January 1972
111  Bangladesh 14 April 1972
112    Nepal 26 January 1973
113  Mauritius 30 January 1973
114  Qatar 9 June 1973
115  North Korea 22 June 1973
116  United Arab Emirates 4 July 1973
117  Bahrain 15 July 1973
118  Barbados 24 January 1975
119  Guinea-Bissau 7 April 1975
120  Mozambique 25 June 1975
121  Lesotho 8 May 1976
122  Papua New Guinea 19 August 1976
123  Cambodia 18 November 1976
124  Fiji 18 January 1977[10]
125  Suriname 8 February 1977
126  Cape Verde 9 May 1977
127  Mali 17 June 1977
128  Jamaica 7 October 1977
129  Angola 31 October 1977
130  Guyana 2 August 1979
131  Burkina Faso 21 September 1979
132  Oman 15 April 1980
133  Zimbabwe 18 April 1980
134  Solomon Islands 18 September 1980
  Holy See 2 August 1982
135  Gambia 8 February 1983
136  Seychelles March 1983[11]
137  Mauritania 6 December 1983
138  Maldives 26 March 1984
139  Belize 12 July 1984[12]
140  Brunei 12 October 1984
141  Eswatini 11 December 1984
142  Antigua and Barbuda 14 October 1985[13]
143  Bhutan 5 November 1985[14]
144  Tonga 30 August 1988
145  Vanuatu 30 August 1988
146  Saint Lucia 1990[15]
147  Namibia 21 March 1990
 Cook Islands 18 July 1991
148  Estonia 27 August 1991
149  Latvia 27 August 1991
150  Lithuania 27 August 1991
151  Bahamas 11 November 1991
152  Laos 12 November 1991
153  Belarus 4 February 1992
154  Ukraine 5 February 1992
155  Slovenia 18 February 1992
156  Croatia 20 February 1992
157  Moldova 3 June 1992
158  Armenia 5 June 1992
159  Azerbaijan 5 June 1992
160  Georgia 5 June 1992
161  Kazakhstan 5 June 1992
162  Turkmenistan 8 June 1992
163  Tajikistan 10 June 1992
164  Uzbekistan 10 June 1992
165  Kyrgyzstan 26 June 1992
166  Saint Kitts and Nevis 15 October 1992
167  Marshall Islands 16 October 1992[16]
168  Czech Republic 1 January 1993
169  Slovakia 1 January 1993
170  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 19 February 1993[17]
171  Bosnia and Herzegovina 12 December 1993[18]
172  North Macedonia 20 December 1993
173  Eritrea 14 March 1994[19]
174  Andorra 15 November 1995[20]
175  San Marino 11 December 1996[21]
176  Samoa 1999[22]
177  Grenada 26 April 2000[16]
178  Dominica 26 March 2001[23]
179  Timor-Leste 20 May 2002[24]
180  Montenegro 21 June 2006[25]
 Kosovo 25 October 2008[26]
181  Tuvalu 8 May 2010[27]
182  Monaco 16 November 2010[28]
183  South Sudan 9 July 2011[29]
184  Palau 31 May 2017[30]
185  Federated States of Micronesia 12 April 2018[31]
186  Kiribati 17 August 2019[32]

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria
  • Norway has an embassy in Algiers.
  • Algeria has an embassy in Oslo.
 Angola
  • Norway has an embassy in Luanda.
  • Angola has an embassy in Oslo.
 Burundi
  • Norway has an embassy in Bujumbura.
  • Burundi has an embassy in Oslo.
 Egypt
  • Norway has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Oslo.
 Eritrea
  • Norway has an embassy in Asmara.
  • Eritrea has an embassy in Oslo.
 Ethiopia
  • Norway has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Oslo.
 Ghana
  • Norway has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Oslo.
 Kenya See Kenya–Norway relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Oslo.
 Madagascar
  • Norway has an embassy in Antananarivo.
  • Madagascar has an embassy in Oslo.
 Malawi
  • Norway has an embassy in Lilongwe.
  • Malawi has an embassy in Oslo.
 Mali
  • Norway has an embassy in Bamako.
  • Mali has an embassy in Oslo.
 Morocco See Morocco-Norway relations
  • Morocco has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Rabat.
 Mozambique
  • Norway has an embassy in Maputo.
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Oslo.
 Nigeria
  • Norway has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Oslo.
 South Africa
 Sudan See Norway–Sudan relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Tanzania
  • Norway has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania has an embassy in Oslo.
 Tunisia
  • Norway has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Oslo.
 Uganda
  • Norway has an embassy in Kampala.
  • Uganda has an embassy in Oslo.
 Zambia
  • Norway has an embassy in Lusaka.
  • Zambia has an embassy in Oslo.
 Zimbabwe
  • Norway has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Oslo.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina
  • Norway has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentina has an embassy in Oslo.
 Belize August 20, 1906

Since 2011, Belize and Norway have an Agreement concerning the exchange of information relating to tax matters they had signed in 2010.[33]

 Brazil See Brazil–Norway relations
 Canada See Canada–Norway relations

Canada has an embassy in Oslo.[35]

 Chile See Chile–Norway relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Oslo.
 Colombia
  • Norway has an embassy in Bogotá.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Oslo.
 Cuba
  • Norway has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Oslo.
 El Salvador See El Salvador–Norway relations
 Grenada

Both countries have signed Tax Convention on May 19, 2010.[36]

 Guyana 1979

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 August 1979.[37]

 Honduras See Honduras–Norway relations
 Mexico 1906 See Mexico–Norway relations
  • Mexico has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Mexico City.
 Peru
  • Norway has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Oslo.
 United States 1905 See Norway–United States relations
 Uruguay
  • Norway is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Norway from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
 Venezuela
  • Norway has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Oslo.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan–Norway relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Kabul.
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Bangladesh 1971
  • Norway has an embassy in Dhaka.
  • Bangladesh has an embassy in Oslo.
 Cambodia
  • Norway has an embassy for Cambodia based in Bangkok.
  • Cambodia has an embassy for Norway based in London.
 China October 5, 1954 See China–Norway relations
 India 1947 See India–Norway relations
 Indonesia See Indonesia–Norway relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Oslo.
 Iran
  • Norway has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Oslo.
 Iraq
  • Norway has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Oslo.
 Israel See Israel–Norway relations

Norway was one of the first countries to recognize Israel on February 4, 1949. Both countries established diplomatic relation later that year.

 Japan November 1905
  • Norway has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Jordan
  • Norway has an embassy in Amman.
  • Jordan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Kazakhstan
  • Norway has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Laos
  • Norway has an embassy for Laos based in Bangkok.
  • Laos has an embassy for Norway based in Stockholm.
 Lebanon
  • Norway has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Oslo.
 Maldives
  • Norway has an embassy in Colombo whose it's consular areas also covers Maldives.
  • Maldives has an embassy in Berlin whose it's consular areas also covers Norway.
 Malaysia 1957 See Malaysia–Norway relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Stockholm whose it's consular areas also covers Norway.
 Mongolia January 11, 1968 See Mongolia–Norway relations
  • Mongolia is accredited to Norway from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Norway is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Myanmar
  • Norway has an embassy in Yangon.
  • Myanmar has an embassy in Oslo.
   Nepal January 26, 1973 See Nepal–Norway relations

Diplomatic relations were established on January 26, 1973. Norway established an embassy in Kathmandu in 2000.[47] Norway's aid to Nepal was around 2 million NOK in 2008. Norwegian aid prioritizes education, good governance and energy.[citation needed] In 2008, Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and Minister of the Environment and International Development Erik Solheim visited Nepal.[48] In 2009, Prime Minister Prachanda visited Norway.[49] In May 2008, a small bomb exploded outside the Norwegian embassy in Kathmandu. No one was injured.[50][51]

  • Norway has an embassy in Kathmandu.
  • Nepal has an embassy in Oslo.
 Pakistan 1947 See Norway-Pakistan relations

Pakistan and Norway have friendly ties. Norway and Pakistan ties date back to the 1980s, the Pakistani community is the largest foreign immigrant community in Norway.

  • Norway has an embassy in Islamabad.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Palestine

A Palestinian representation in Oslo has had status of "general delegation". In December 2010 during a visit to Norway Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad announced that this mission would be upgraded to a diplomatic mission. This will take effect early in 2011. With the rank of ambassador its head will have the title "head of the Palestinian mission". Norway thus becomes the fourth European country to take similar steps, following Spain, France and Portugal. The upgrade does not constitute recognition of a Palestinian state by Norway, however.[52]

 Philippines March 2, 1948 See Norway–Philippines relations

Relations between the Philippines and Norway were established on March 2, 1948, the Philippines has an embassy in Oslo while Norway has an embassy in Manila. Norway is also involved in the peace process in the Philippines related to Moro and Communist insurgencies and is also a member country of the International Monitoring Team for the GPH-MILF Peace Process. Norway is also the third country facilitator for the GPH-CPP–NPA–NDF Peace Process. Trade between the Philippines and Norway amounted up to $73 million.[53][54][55]

  • Norway has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in Oslo.
 Saudi Arabia See Norway–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Riyadh and consulate-general in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Oslo.
 Singapore
  • Norway has an embassy in Singapore.
  • Singapore has an embassy in Oslo.
 South Korea March 2, 1959[56] See Norway-South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Kongeriket Noreg and the Republic of Korea began on March 2, 1959.

 Sri Lanka 1948
  • Norway has an embassy in Colombo.
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Oslo.
 Syria

In March 2012 the Norwegian Foreign Ministry announced that the Norwegian embassy in Damascus will be temporarily closed, mainly due to the deteriorating security situation in the country, however Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre also emphasized the closing being a political signal. One Norwegian diplomat will remain, stationed at the Danish embassy.[60] Norway has been aligned with the Western nations' criticism of the Assad government and with allegations from human rights organizations of violence against protesters from the military and security forces.

 Thailand
  • Norway has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Oslo.
 Turkey See Norway–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates 1972
  • Norway has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Oslo.
 Vietnam November 25, 1971
  • Norway has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Oslo.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania
  • Norway has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Albania has an embassy in Oslo.
 Armenia June 5, 1992
  • Armenia is represented in Norway through its embassy in Copenhagen (Denmark).
  • Norway has an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Approximately 2,000 Armenians live in Norway.
 Azerbaijan
  • Norway has an embassy in Baku.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Austria
  • Norway has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an embassy in Oslo.
 Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Norway has an embassy in Sarajevo.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Oslo.
 Bulgaria August 20, 1906
 Croatia 1992 See Croatia–Norway relations
 Cyprus See Cyprus–Norway relations

Diplomatic relations were established on March 22, 1963.[62] The government in Cyprus considers that "bilateral relations between Cyprus and Norway are excellent in all fields".[63]

Neither country has resident ambassadors. Cyprus is represented in Norway through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden and 2 honorary consulates, one in Oslo and the second in Kristiansand. Norway is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Athens, Greece and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.[64] Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.[63]

On August 21, 1951, there was a Consular Convention and an Exchange of Letters relating to establishing diplomatic relations. On May 2, 1951, there was a Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income. On May 17, 1962, there was an Exchange of Letters constituting an Agreement on the Abolition of Visa Requirement in Nicosia. On March 5, 1963, there was an Agreement on Commercial Scheduled Air Transport signed in London.[65]

Norway provides direct funding to the Cypriot Government and also to local authorities, NGOs and educational institutions through EEA and Norway Grants.[66] The NGO Fund in Cyprus is co-financed by the European Economic Area (EEA) Financial Mechanism and the Norwegian Financial Mechanism. It was established in 2004.[67] In 2006, Norway increased its commitment to offer a total contribution of 4.66 million euros.[67] In 2007 a delegation from the EEA and Norway Grants went to Cyprus to "monitor the spending of Norwegian funds given to Cyprus as part of the European Economic Area."[68] In 2008 Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre traveled to Cyprus to meet President Demetris Christofias. They met to discuss Norway's assistance to the Cypriot village of Salamiou, in Paphos. The Norwegians plan to rebuild an old elementary school in the village. It will then become a Regional Centre for Environmental Education at the cost of €735,000.[69]

The taxation levels in Cyprus are considerably lower than in Norway, and Cyprus has actively courted Norwegians to move to Cyprus.[70] Among the Norwegians who moved to Cyprus is the shipping billionaire John Fredriksen, who was the richest man in Norway.[71][72][73]

In 1996 tax rules in Norway were changed to keep shipping companies competitive and under the Norwegian flag. By 2008 changes to the tonnage tax regime to harmonize them with the European Union forced some companies to register in Cyprus.[74] Norwegian Service rig company Prosafe moved their headquarters to Cyprus.[75]

Several Norwegian retirees also moved to Cyprus; this too is largely to benefit from the lower tax rate on Cyprus and the minimal crime.[76] The Norwegian colony on Cyprus is in Paphos.[76]

 Czech Republic
  • Norway has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and NATO.
 Denmark See Denmark–Norway relations

Both countries have a very long history together, both countries were part of the Kalmar Union between 1397 and 1523. Norway was in Union with Denmark between 1537 and 1814. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1905, after Norway's independence. Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, of NATO, and of the Council of Europe. There are around 15,000 Norwegian people living in Denmark and around 20,000 Danish people living in Norway.[79]

 Estonia
 European Union See Norway–European Union relations

Norway is part of the EU market via the European Economic Area and the Schengen Area.

 Finland See Finland–Norway relations
 France 1905 See France–Norway relations
 Georgia
  • Norway has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Oslo.
 Germany See Germany–Norway relations
 Greece See Greece–Norway relations
  Holy See 1982
  • The Holy See is accredited to Norway form its nunciature in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Norway is accredited to the Holy See from its embassy in Bern, Switzerland.
 Hungary 1920
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1920, but diplomatic representations were set up only in 1947–1948.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Oslo and 2 honorary consulates (in Stavanger and Sarpsborg).[87]
  • Norway has an embassy in Budapest.[88]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and NATO.
 Iceland See Iceland–Norway relations

In 2007, the two countries signed a defense agreement, covering surveillance and military defense of Icelandic air space and economic zone. It means that Norwegian jet fighters and surveillance aircraft will be patrolling Icelandic air space. It is underlined that the agreement with Norway only covers peacetime. In case of a military conflict it is still NATO and the United States Government that will carry the main responsibility for Iceland's defense.[89] The agreement was signed following the decision to pullout US military from the Keflavík naval air base.[90]

 Ireland
 Italy
 Kosovo See Kosovo–Norway relations

Norway recognized Kosovo on March 28, 2008.[95] Norway has an embassy in Pristina, while Kosovo has hinted that it will include Norway in the second wave of embassy openings.

 Latvia
  • Norway has an embassy in Riga.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and NATO.
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg
 Malta 1965
  • Malta is accredited to Norway from its embassy in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Norway is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
 Moldova See Moldova–Norway relations
 Monaco
  • Norway is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.[96][97]
  • Monaco maintains an honorary consulate in Oslo.[98]
 Montenegro
  • Norway has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Netherlands
 North Macedonia 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1993.[99]

  • Norway has an embassy in Skopje.
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland See Norway–Poland relations
 Portugal
 Romania April 3, 1917 See Norway–Romania relations
  • Both nations were established formal relations on April 3, 1917.
  • Norway has an embassy in Bucharest.[100]
  • Romania has an embassy in Oslo.[101]
  • Both nations are full members of NATO and of the Council of Europe.
 Russia October 30, 1905 See Norway–Russia relations
 Serbia See Norway–Serbia relations
 Slovakia
 Slovenia
  • Norway is accredited to Slovenia from its embassy in Zagreb, Croatia.
  • Slovenia is accredited to Norway from its embassy in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and NATO.
 Spain See Norway–Spain relations
 Sweden 1905 See Norway-Sweden relations

Both nations established diplomatic relations in 1905, after the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905.

  Switzerland See Norway-Switzerland relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Bern and two consulates-general in Geneva and Zürich.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Oslo.
 Ukraine 1992 See Norway–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom 1905 See Norway–United Kingdom relations

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1905 See Australia–Norway relations

The bilateral countries between Australia and Norway were established diplomatic relations in 1905, following the Norway's independence since 1814.

 New Zealand 1905 See New Zealand–Norway relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1905, after Norway's independence. There are approximately 1,400 Norwegians living in New Zealand and 409 New Zealanders living in Norway.[113]

Reidar Sveaas, director of P&O Maritime Ltd. and honorary consul to Auckland said in 2000 that excellent opportunities existed for New Zealand to trade with the world's second largest oil-producing country, Norway.[114]

New Zealand joined 11 other countries in 2006 in delivering a formal diplomatic protest to the Norwegian Foreign Ministry in Oslo over Norway's plans to increase its whaling activities.[115]

In 2004, New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark became as the first Prime Minister to ever visits Norway. She said that both countries see eye-to-eye on almost everything but the commercial harvesting of whales.[116]

See also

References

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Further reading