After independence in 1964, Malta followed a policy of close co-operation with NATO countries. Since 1971, the country sought relations with the rest of the world, including communist countries in Eastern Europe and the non-aligned countries.

After substantially increased financial contributions from several NATO countries (including the United States), the Royal Navy remained in the Malta Dockyard until 1979. Following their departure, Malta charted a new course of neutrality and became an active member of the Non-Aligned Movement. The country joined the Non-Aligned Movement in 1973 as the third European member state after Cyprus and SFR Yugoslavia.[1] Malta is an active participant in the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the Council of Europe, OSCE, and various other international organisations. In these forums, Malta has frequently expressed its concern for the peace and economic development of the Mediterranean region.

On May 1, 2004, Malta withdrew from the Non-Aligned Movement and became a full member of the European Union, with which it had an association agreement since 1971. It was one of ten new members which joined on that date. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs, at Palazzo Parisio, oversees the direction of Maltese foreign policy. The country has close relations with most sovereign countries, with an emphasis on increased trade and foreign direct investment.

Bilateral relations

List of countries which Malta maintains diplomatic relations with:[2]

# Country Date
1  United Kingdom September 1964[3]
2  United States 21 September 1964[4]
3  Australia 21 September 1964[5]
4  France 21 September 1964[6]
5  Italy 21 September 1964[7]
6  Germany 4 December 1964[8]
7  Canada 23 December 1964[9]
8  India 10 March 1965[10]
9  South Korea 30 April 1965[11]
10  Libya 15 June 1965[12]
11  Belgium June 1965[13]
12  Japan 15 July 1965[14]
13  Netherlands 6 October 1965 [15][16]
14  Egypt 2 November 1965[17]
 Holy See 15 December 1965[18]
15  Israel December 1965[19]
16  Pakistan January 1966[20]
17   Switzerland 25 March 1966[21]
18  Greece 30 April 1966[22]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 27 June 1966[23]
19  Austria 9 November 1966[24]
20  Russia 26 July 1967[25]
21  Turkey 10 October 1967[26]
22  Tunisia 21 December 1967[27]
23  Romania 7 June 1968[28]
24  Spain 7 June 1968[29]
25  Czech Republic 10 July 1968[30]
26  Serbia 6 January 1969[31]
27  Norway 7 February 1969[32]
28  Finland 21 February 1969[33]
29  Denmark 26 March 1969[34]
30  Luxembourg 3 June 1969[35]
31  Sweden June 1969[36]
32  Hungary 12 December 1970[37]
33  Syria 1970[38]
34  Bulgaria 10 September 1971[39]
35  Poland 23 October 1971[40]
36  Iraq 3 December 1971[41]
37  North Korea 20 December 1971[42]
38  China 31 January 1972[43]
39  Iran 11 May 1972[44]
40  Cyprus 13 September 1972[45]
41  Kuwait 3 October 1972[46]
42  Zambia 17 October 1972[47]
43  Albania 5 March 1973[48]
44  United Arab Emirates 20 November 1973[49]
45  New Zealand 23 November 1973[50]
46  Sudan 27 November 1973[51]
47  Vietnam 14 January 1974[52]
48  Ghana 27 February 1974[53]
49  Nigeria 24 May 1974[54]
50  Jordan 4 June 1974[55]
51  Bahrain 4 November 1974[56]
52  Oman 4 November 1974[57]
53  Morocco 18 December 1974[58]
54  Algeria 22 January 1975[59]
55  Argentina 29 May 1975[60]
56  Qatar 18 June 1975[61]
57  Brazil 23 June 1975[62]
58  Lebanon 1 July 1975[63]
59  Portugal 22 July 1975[64]
60  Saudi Arabia 1 September 1975[65]
61  Malaysia 8 October 1975[66]
62  Uruguay 13 October 1975[67]
63  Mexico 29 October 1975[68]
64  Panama 19 January 1976[69]
65  Guyana 12 March 1976[70]
66  Gambia 21 October 1976[71]
67  Senegal 3 November 1976[72]
68  Yemen 24 February 1977[73]
69  Cuba 11 April 1977[74]
70  Peru 27 April 1977[75]
71  Philippines 9 June 1977[76]
72  Venezuela 17 September 1977[77]
73  Eswatini 19 April 1979[23]
74  Mongolia 8 August 1979[78]
75  Nicaragua August 1979[citation needed]
76  Indonesia 1 December 1979[79]
77  Bangladesh 20 December 1979[80]
 State of Palestine 1979[81]
78  Ecuador 1 January 1980
79  Guinea 30 March 1980[82]
80  Mali 1 December 1980[83]
81  Ethiopia 30 November 1982[84]
82    Nepal 25 September 1983[85]
83  Thailand 17 December 1984
84  Maldives 5 March 1985
85  Colombia 31 March 1986[86]
86  Brunei 15 August 1986[87]
87  Bolivia 7 July 1987
88  Singapore 16 May 1988[88]
89  Seychelles 11 April 1989
90  Chile 11 December 1989[89]
91  Ireland 13 June 1990[90]
92  Estonia 1 January 1992[91]
93  Latvia 1 January 1992[92]
94  Ukraine 5 March 1992[93]
95  Slovenia 29 June 1992[94]
96  Croatia 30 June 1992[95]
97  Slovakia 1 January 1993[96]
98  Kazakhstan 4 February 1993[97]
99  South Africa 10 February 1993[98]
100  Belarus 16 February 1993[99]
101  Kyrgyzstan 19 February 1993[100]
102  Turkmenistan 25 February 1993[101]
103  Uzbekistan 25 February 1993[102]
104  Georgia 26 February 1993[103]
105  Armenia 7 June 1993[104]
106  Lithuania 7 February 1994
107  Marshall Islands 8 February 1994
108  Azerbaijan 9 January 1995[105]
109  San Marino 17 July 1995[106]
110  Andorra 25 July 1995
111  Bosnia and Herzegovina 14 October 1995[107]
112  Guatemala 11 December 1995
113  Moldova 3 July 1996[108]
114  Iceland 3 July 1998
115  Sri Lanka 27 January 2000[109]
116  Monaco 11 April 2001[110]
117  Sierra Leone 16 October 2001
118  Liechtenstein 12 May 2003[111]
119  East Timor 20 May 2003
120  Honduras 8 June 2004
121  El Salvador 9 June 2004
122  Paraguay 8 July 2004
123  Uganda 21 July 2004
124  Samoa 22 July 2004
125  Antigua and Barbuda 23 July 2004
126  Bahamas 20 September 2004
127  Vanuatu 29 September 2004
128  Belize 1 October 2004
129  Jamaica 27 October 2004
130  Kenya 5 November 2004
131  Namibia 9 December 2004[112]
132  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 10 December 2004
133  Botswana 6 January 2005[113]
134  Cambodia 13 January 2005[114]
135  Dominica 11 February 2005[115]
136  Mauritius 19 May 2005[116]
137  Barbados 21 October 2005
138  Saint Kitts and Nevis 25 November 2005[117]
139  Tuvalu 20 January 2006
140  Cameroon 27 January 2006
141  Lesotho 11 April 2006[118]
142  Montenegro 19 July 2006
143  Tonga 3 May 2007
144  Tajikistan 25 September 2007[119]
145  Afghanistan 8 February 2008
146  Burkina Faso 8 February 2008
147  Togo 16 May 2008
148  Liberia 20 May 2008
149  Nauru 19 November 2008
150  Niger 11 December 2008
151  Eritrea 18 December 2008
152  Benin 25 March 2009
153  Mozambique 18 May 2009
154  Trinidad and Tobago 24 September 2009
155  Saint Lucia 11 March 2010
156  Angola 15 June 2010
157  Solomon Islands 23 December 2010
158  Laos 13 January 2011
159  Republic of the Congo 14 February 2011
160  Grenada 26 May 2011
161  Malawi 21 July 2011[120]
 Kosovo 23 September 2011[121]
162  Somalia 11 June 2014[122]
163  Fiji 11 December 2014
164  Burundi 12 January 2015
165  Tanzania 11 June 2015
166  Ivory Coast 6 November 2015[123]
167  Cape Verde 17 March 2016
168  North Macedonia 25 January 2017[124]
169  Dominican Republic 23 February 2017[125]
170  Myanmar 5 April 2017
171  Papua New Guinea 6 October 2017[126][127]
 Cook Islands 6 October 2017[128]
172  Djibouti 26 June 2018
173  Rwanda 12 July 2018
174  Palau 17 July 2018
175  São Tomé and Príncipe 24 September 2018
176  Federated States of Micronesia 25 September 2018
177  Madagascar 22 September 2021
178  Kiribati 21 September 2022
179  Suriname 18 May 2023[129]
180  Costa Rica Unknown
181  Mauritania Unknown

Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union See 2004 enlargement of the European Union

Malta joined the European Union as a full member on 1 May 2004.

 NATO See Austria–NATO relations

Malta is not a member of NATO.

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Egypt 4 November 1965
 Gambia 21 October 1976

Both countries have a Memorandum on Migration Matters.[132]

 Ghana 27 February 1974
  • Ghana has a high commission in Valletta.
  • Malta has a high commission in Accra.
 Lesotho 11 April 2006
 Libya 15 June 1965 see Libya–Malta relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations soon after Malta's independence.
  • Libya has an embassy in Balzan.
  • Malta has an embassy in Tripoli.[134]

Malta has enjoyed cordial relations with Libya ever since its Independence. In 1984, a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation was signed with Gaddafi's regime by Dom Mintoff. This treaty included a security protocol in which Libyan forces agreed to train and arm their Maltese counterparts. Libya supplied Malta with refined crude oil starting in 1975. Libyan nationals did not require visas to enter Malta until 2004.

 Tunisia 20 December 1967
  • Both countries established official diplomatic relations soon after Malta's independence.
  • Malta has an embassy in Tunis.[135]
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Valletta.
  • Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • Tunisian Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Malta
  • Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
  • Maltese and Tunisian Arabic are very similar languages. The two countries share very rich historical links.
 Uganda 21 July 2004

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 28 May 1975
  • Argentina is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Malta is accredited to Argentina from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Valletta and maintains an honorary consulate in Buenos Aires.
 Brazil 23 June 1975
  • Brazil is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy and maintains an honorary consulate in Valletta.
  • Malta has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada 21 December 1964
 Chile 11 December 1989

In July 2017, Maltese President Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca paid an official visit to Chile.

  • Chile is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy and maintains an honorary consulate in Valletta.
  • Malta is accredited to Chile from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Valletta.
 Guyana 12 March 1976
 Mexico 29 October 1975
  • Mexico is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy and maintains an honorary consulate in Valletta.
  • Malta is accredited to Mexico from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Valletta.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 10 December 2004
 Trinidad and Tobago 24 September 2009
 United States 21 September 1964 See Malta–United States relations

Malta and the United States established full diplomatic relations upon Malta's independence in 1964; overall relations are currently active and cordial. The United States has been sympathetic to Malta's campaign to attract private investment, and some firms operating in Malta have U.S. ownership or investment. These include major hotels, manufacturing and repair facilities, and some offices servicing local and regional operations.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 7 June 1993
  • Armenia is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome.
  • Malta is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Warsaw, Poland and has an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 China 31 January 1972 see China–Malta relations
 Cyprus 13 September 1972 See Cyprus–Malta relations
 Georgia 26 February 1993
 India 10 March 1965 see India–Malta relations
  • Malta opened a high commission in New Delhi in 2007.
  • India opened a high commission in Malta at St Venera in early 2018.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Israel December 1965
  • Malta has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • See also Maltese Jews.
  • In December 2015, Israel singled Malta and five other EU countries for sanctions because they supported a decision that goods made in Jewish communities in the West Bank and the Golan Heights should be specially marked.[143]
 Kyrgyzstan 19 February 1993
 Pakistan January 1966
  • Malta is represented in Pakistan through its embassy in Beijing (China) and an honorary consulate in Karachi. Pakistan is represented in Malta through its embassy in Tripoli (Libya) and an honorary consulate in Marsa.
  • In 2007, in a meeting in Malta between Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri and Foreign Minister of Malta Michael Frendo, the two countries agreed to continue the ongoing cooperation between the two countries in the United Nations and other international forums as well and reviewed bilateral ties with a view to strengthening relations between Pakistan and Malta in all spheres, especially trade and investment.[145] Foreign Minister Kasuri emphasized the need for exchanging trade delegations to exploit true potential for enhancing economic cooperation between the two countries, which are the "gateways" to their respective regions. Dr. Michael Frendo agreed to send an expert delegation to Pakistan to seek opportunities for enhancing bilateral trade relations. Pakistan also sought Malta's support for Pakistan's initiative for equitable market access to the European Union through a Free Trade Agreement or similar mechanism.[146][147] Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • In 2002 a Maltese citizen, who was born in Pakistan, was sentenced to seven years in prison in Malta. He was found guilty of kidnapping 11 Pakistani babies that were brought to Malta for adoption.[148] In 2009 it was reported that a Pakistan-based human trafficking ring has set up a successful business in Malta, where Pakistanis seeking illegal entry into mainland Europe are being furnished with new travel documents and transported on to Italy and Spain. It was reported that sources within the Pakistani Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) said that the illegal migration of Pakistanis to Europe was being carried out through Malta, from where the migrants are being transported by ship to Sicily and onward to countries such as Italy and Spain.[149]
 Saudi Arabia 1 September 1975
  • Malta has an embassy in Riyadh and an honorary consulate in Jeddah.[150]
  • Saudi Arabia is represented through its embassy in Rome (Italy).[151]
 South Korea April 2, 1965[152]

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and Malta began on April 2, 1965.

  • On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of diplomatic relations] in 2015 President Park Geun-hye exchanged celebratory messages with Maltese President Marie Louise Coleiro Preca
  • Bilateral Trade in 2014
    • Exports 1,014,000,000 US dollars
    • Imports 514,000,000 US dollars
  • Bilateral Investments(2014):
    • South Korea's investment in Malta was 31,490,000 US dollars
    • Malta's investment in South Korea was 5,883,000,000 US dollars[153]
 Tajikistan 25 September 2007
 Turkey 10 October 1967 See Malta–Turkey relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria 9 November 1966
 Belarus 16 February 1993
  • Belarus is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy).[155]
  • Malta is represented in Belarus through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[156]
 Belgium June 1965
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations soon after Malta's independence.
  • Belgium has an honorary consulate in Valletta.[157]
  • Malta has an embassy in Brussels and an honorary consulate in Antwerp.[158]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Bulgaria 11 September 1971
  • Bulgaria is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy).[159]
  • Malta has 2 honorary consulates in Bulgaria (in Sofia and Varna).[160]
  • Malta joined the European Union as a full member on May 1, 2004, while Bulgaria joined on January 1, 2007.
 Croatia 30 June 1992
 Czech Republic 10 July 1968 and 1 January 1993
  • The Czech Republic is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome, (Italy) and through an honorary consulate in Valletta.[162]
  • Malta is represented in the Czech Republic through a non-resident ambassador based in the Foreign Ministry at Valletta.[163]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Denmark 26 March 1969
  • Denmark is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and through an honorary general consulate in Valletta.
  • Malta has an embassy in Copenhagen and 3 honorary consulates (in Aarhus, Copenhagen and Odense).[164]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Estonia 1 January 1992
 Finland 21 February 1969 See Finland–Malta relations
 France 21 September 1964
 Germany 16 February 1965
 Greece 30 April 1966 See Greece–Malta relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Valletta.
  • Malta has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Holy See 15 December 1965
 Hungary 12 December 1970
  • Hungary is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome, Italy and through an honorary consulate in Valletta.
  • Malta is represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna, Austria and through an honorary consulate in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Iceland 3 July 1998

Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 3, 1998.[171]

 Ireland 13 June 1990
 Italy See Italy–Malta relations
 Kosovo 22 September 2011
 Lithuania 7 February 1994
 Moldova 3 July 1996
 Netherlands 1965 See Malta–Netherlands relations
 North Macedonia 25 January 2017

Both countries established diplomatic relations on January 25, 2017.[186]

 Poland
  • Malta has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Valletta.
  • Both countries became members of the European Union on 1 May 2004.
 Portugal November 1968 See Malta–Portugal relations
 Romania 7 June 1968
  • Malta has an honorary consulate in Bucharest.[189]
  • Romania has a non-resident embassy for Malta in Rome (Italy) and an honorary consulate in Valletta.[190]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Malta joined the European Union as a full member on May 1, 2004, while Romania joined on January 1, 2007.
 Russia 26 July 1967 See Malta–Russia relations
 Serbia 4 June 1968 See Malta–Serbia relations
  • Malta is represented in Serbia through a non-resident ambassador based in Valletta (in the Foreign Ministry).[193]
  • Serbia is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and through an honorary consulate in Valletta.[194]
  • Malta is an EU member and Serbia is an EU candidate.
 Slovakia 1 January 1993 See Malta–Slovakia relations
  • Malta is represented in Slovakia through a non-resident ambassador based in Valletta (in the Foreign Ministry).[195]
  • Slovakia is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and an honorary consulate in Valletta.[196][197]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • The foreign relations between Malta and Slovakia are not very intensive. Foreign policy of Malta is concentrated rather on cooperation with Algeria, Tunis, Libya and Egypt. There is, however, 41 years lasting cooperation between those two countries.[198]
  • In 2001 Slovak prime minister Mikuláš Dzurinda visited Malta at the invitation of Maltese premier Edward Fenech Adami, and negotiated the integration of both countries into European Union and economic cooperation between Malta and Slovakia.[199]
  • In 2008 Slovakian agency SARIA signed a treaty of reciprocal assistance related to third-world countries, with Malta Enterprise.[198]
  • Slovak prime minister Robert Fico visited Maltese capital Valletta in 2008.[200]
 Slovenia 29 June 1992
 Spain 10 October 1968 See Malta–Spain relations
 Sweden June 1969
 Ukraine 5 March 1992 See Malta–Ukraine relations
  • The Maltese embassy in Moscow (Russia) is also accredited as a non-resident embassy to Ukraine.
  • Ukraine is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
 United Kingdom 21 September 1964 See Malta – United Kingdom relations

In the 1950s and 1960s, serious consideration was given in both countries to the idea of a political union between the United Kingdom and Malta. However, this plan for "Integration with Britain" foundered, and Malta gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1964.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 21 September 1964 see Australia–Malta relations

Both countries have full embassy level diplomatic relations since 1967. Australia has a High Commission in Valletta. Malta has a High Commission in Canberra, 2 Consulates-General (in Melbourne and Sydney), and 4 honorary consulates (in Adelaide, Ascot Vale, Melbourne and Perth).

Maltese president Eddie Fenech Adami embarked on a state visit to Australia in February 2009, where he met with Governor-General Quentin Bryce and Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd. During an official dinner in honour of the Maltese President, Kevin Rudd declared "Australia would not be as complete without Malta".[207] In the same month, Maltese Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Affairs Minister Tonio Borg visited Australia for discussions with Australian foreign minister Stephen Smith, where the commercial relationship between the two countries were discussed, in particular the signing of a contract between a Perth-based shipbuilding company and the Maltese armed forces for the construction and delivery of four inshore patrol craft.[208]

Malta and the Commonwealth of Nations

Malta has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations since 1964, when it became an independent Dominion under the name 'State of Malta'.

Malta became a republic in the Commonwealth of Nations on December 13, 1974, when the last Governor-General of Malta, Sir Anthony Mamo became the first President of Malta.

See also

References

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