Georgia's location, nestled between the Black Sea, Russia, and Turkey, renders it strategically important. It is developing as the gateway from the Black Sea to the Caucasus and the larger Caspian region, but also serves as a buffer between Russia and Turkey. Georgia has a long and tumultuous relationship with Russia, but it is reaching out to its other neighbours and looking to the West in search of alternatives and opportunities. It signed a partnership and cooperation agreement with the European Union, participates in the Partnership for Peace, and encourages foreign investment. France, Germany, South Korea the United Kingdom and the United States all have embassies in Tbilisi. Georgia in 2004-2008 sought to become a member of NATO, but did not succeed in the face of strong Russian opposition.[1]

Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the OSCE. Because of its strategic location, Georgia is in both the Russian and American spheres of influence,[2] however Georgia's relationship with Russia is at its lowest point since 1921 due to controversies regarding espionage and the Russo-Georgian War. As a result, Georgia broke off diplomatic relations with Russia and has left the Commonwealth of Independent States.[3]

Diplomatic relations

Countries with which Georgia maintains diplomatic relations
Countries with which Georgia maintains diplomatic relations

Georgia maintains diplomatic relations with 186 UN member states, Holy See and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The list below excludes Tanzania as no date is given.[4]

# Country[5] Date
1  New Zealand 11 March 1992
2  United States[6] 24 March 1992
3  Austria 25 March 1992
4  Germany 13 April 1992
5  Cuba 18 April 1992
6  Greece 20 April 1992
7  Netherlands 22 April 1992
8  United Kingdom 27 April 1992
9  Poland 28 April 1992
10  Egypt 11 May 1992
11  Italy 11 May 1992
12  Mongolia[7] 12 May 1992
13  Hungary 14 May 1992
14  Iran 15 May 1992
15  Turkey 21 May 1992
  Holy See 23 May 1992
16  Portugal 23 May 1992
17  Israel 1 June 1992
18  Belgium 5 June 1992
19  Bulgaria 5 June 1992
20  Norway 5 June 1992
21  Chile 8 June 1992
22  Mexico[8] 8 June 1992
23  China[9] 9 June 1992
24  Liechtenstein[10] 10 June 1992
25   Switzerland 10 June 1992
26  Armenia 17 June 1992
27  Estonia 17 June 1992
28  Moldova 25 June 1992
29  Romania[11] 25 June 1992
30  Vietnam[12] 30 June 1992
31  Denmark 1 July 1992
32  Finland 8 July 1992
33  Cyprus 9 July 1992
34  Spain 9 July 1992
35  Kyrgyzstan[13] 10 July 1992
36  Australia 16 July 1992
37  Turkmenistan 16 July 1992
38  Thailand[14] 21 July 1992
39  Ukraine 22 July 1992
40  Canada 23 July 1992
41  Kazakhstan[15] 23 July 1992
42  Zimbabwe[16] 24 July 1992
43  Morocco[17] 30 July 1992
44  Japan 3 August 1992
45  France 21 August 1992
46  Bangladesh 27 August 1992
47  Kuwait 3 September 1992
48  Sweden 19 September 1992
49  Iceland 21 September 1992
50  Philippines[18] 21 September 1992
51  India 28 September 1992
52  United Arab Emirates 20 October 1992
53  Argentina 2 November 1992
54  Azerbaijan 8 November 1992
55  Ghana 4 December 1992
56  South Korea 14 December 1992
57  Czech Republic 1 January 1993
58  Slovakia 1 January 1993
59  Indonesia 25 January 1993
60  Slovenia 28 January 1993
61  Croatia 1 February 1993
62  Malta 1 February 1993
63  Monaco 1 February 1993
64  Singapore[19] 16 February 1993
65  Sudan[20] 10 March 1993
66  Latvia 11 March 1993
67  Qatar 16 March 1993
68  Burundi 21 March 1993
69  Lebanon 1 April 1993
70  South Africa 23 April 1993
71  Brazil 28 April 1993
72  Malaysia[21] 7 May 1993
73  Bahrain 10 May 1993
74  Algeria 27 May 1993
75  Ethiopia 29 June 1993
76  Albania 8 July 1993
77  Zambia[22] 14 October 1993
78  Belarus 6 January 1994
79  North Korea[23] 11 March 1994
80  Jordan 6 April 1994
81  Libya 10 May 1994
82  Uruguay[24] 11 May 1994
83  Pakistan[25] 12 May 1994
84  Saudi Arabia[26] 27 May 1994
85  Afghanistan 12 July 1994
86  Tajikistan[27] 4 August 1994
87  Uzbekistan 19 August 1994
88  Lithuania 16 September 1994
89  Luxembourg 17 October 1994
90  Cambodia[28] 17 November 1994
91  Serbia 26 June 1995
92  Yemen[29] 5 September 1995
93  Ivory Coast[30] 21 December 1995
94  Tunisia[31] 7 March 1996
95  Jamaica[32] 31 July 1996
96  Ireland 12 September 1996
97  Mozambique 13 September 1996
98  San Marino 19 November 1996
99  Angola 10 March 1997
100  Sierra Leone[33] 7 April 1997
101  Colombia 6 June 1997
102  Ecuador 28 January 1998
103  Bosnia and Herzegovina 16 March 1998
104  Costa Rica 5 May 1998
105  Sri Lanka[34] 16 June 1998
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 24 July 1998
106  Guinea 31 July 1998
107  Laos[35] 6 November 1998
108  Panama 18 November 1998
109  Bolivia 20 November 1998
110  El Salvador[32] 17 May 1999
111  Myanmar[32] 16 August 1999
112  Nigeria June 2000
113  Djibouti[32] 22 November 2000
114    Nepal[32] 22 September 2005
115  Andorra 5 April 2006
116  Oman 1 January 2007
117  Madagascar 24 May 2007
118  Iraq 18 September 2007
119  Montenegro 29 October 2007
120  Peru 14 January 2010
121  Botswana[32] 15 January 2010
122  Cape Verde[32] 22 January 2010
123  Dominican Republic 22 January 2010
124  Marshall Islands[32] 18 February 2010
125  Saint Lucia[32] 25 February 2010
126  Brunei 1 March 2010
127  Liberia[32] 4 March 2010
128  Paraguay 9 March 2010
129  Maldives[32] 11 March 2010
130  Samoa[32] 12 March 2010
131  Comoros[32] 26 March 2010
132  Fiji[32] 29 March 2010
133  Antigua and Barbuda 7 April 2010
134  Gambia 21 April 2010
135  Guatemala 27 April 2010
136  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[32] 27 April 2010
137  Equatorial Guinea 23 June 2010
138  Kenya[32] 2 July 2010
139  Senegal[32] 19 August 2010
140  Uganda[32] 9 December 2010
141  Dominica 15 December 2010
142  Central African Republic[36] 22 December 2010
143  East Timor[32] 22 December 2010
144  Democratic Republic of the Congo[37] 14 January 2011
145  Somalia[32] 26 January 2011
146  Tuvalu[32] 4 February 2011
147  Mauritius[32] 3 March 2011
148  Republic of Congo[38] 3 March 2011
149  Guinea-Bissau 9 March 2011
150  Honduras 9 March 2011
151  Solomon Islands[32] 11 March 2011
152  Rwanda[32] 23 March 2011
153  Trinidad and Tobago[32] 8 April 2011
154  Bahamas 13 May 2011
155  Suriname[32] 27 May 2011
156  Mauritania[32] 16 June 2011
157  Federated States of Micronesia[32] 12 August 2011
158  Gabon 19 September 2011
159  Malawi[39] 19 September 2011
160  Palau[39] 17 October 2011
161  Saint Kitts and Nevis[32] 26 October 2011
162  Grenada 23 November 2011
163  Haiti[32] 16 December 2011
164  Eritrea[32] 24 February 2012
165  Guyana 23 April 2012
166  Niger[32] 30 May 2012
167  Mali[32] 31 May 2012
168  South Sudan[32] 15 June 2012
169  Kiribati 28 September 2012
170  Burkina Faso[32] 2 October 2012
171  Seychelles[32] 15 March 2013
172  Vanuatu[32] 12 July 2013
173  Lesotho[32] 23 September 2013
174  Cameroon[32] 26 September 2013
175  Togo[32] 27 May 2014
176  Chad[32] 19 June 2014
177  Sao Tome and Principe[40] 12 September 2014
178  Benin[32] 25 September 2014
179  Tonga[32] 18 February 2015
180  Namibia[32] 5 November 2015
181  Eswatini[32] 20 May 2016
182  Papua New Guinea[32] 4 October 2016
183  Belize 1 October 2017
184  Barbados[32] 8 March 2018
185  North Macedonia[32] 15 March 2019

Relations by country

Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union See Georgia–European Union relations
 NATO See Georgia–NATO relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 27 May 1993 See Algeria–Georgia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 May 1993.
  • Algeria is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Georgia is represented in Algeria through its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
 Egypt 11 May 1992[41] See Egypt–Georgia relations
 South Africa 23 April 1994 See Georgia–South Africa relations

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Brazil April 1993 See Brazil–Georgia relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada 23 July 1992 See Canada–Georgia relations
  • Canada is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Mexico 8 June 1992[43] See Georgia–Mexico relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Mexico City.[44]
  • Mexico is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey and maintains an honorary consulate in Tbilisi.[45]
 Nicaragua[note 1] 14 September 1994[46]28 November 2008[47] See Georgia–Nicaragua relations

Nicaraguan-Georgian diplomatic relations established on 19 September 1994[46] and ended on 29 November 2008. The Georgian Foreign Ministry said that it had cut diplomatic ties with Nicaragua in a response to the latter's recognition of independence of breakaway South Ossetia and Abkhazia.[47]

 United States 23 April 1992[48] See Georgia–United States relations

On 9 January 2009, the U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Georgian Foreign Minister Grigol Vashadze signed a Charter on Strategic Partnership, a nonbinding document outlining areas of cooperation and reiterating the U.S. support for Georgia's territorial integrity and to Georgia's NATO membership.[49]

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 17 July 1992[50] See Armenia–Georgia relations
  • There are nearly 250,000 Armenians in Georgia, among them 115,000 living in Samtskhe-Javakheti and 83,000 in Tbilisi.[51] The Georgian minority in Armenia is less sizable.
  • Armenia and Georgia have a long history of cultural and political relations. The interaction peaked in the Middle Ages when both nations engaged in prolific cultural dialogue and allied themselves against the neighboring Muslim empires. There were frequent intermarriages between Armenian and Georgian the royal and noble families and both ethnicities intermingled in several border areas.
  • Armenia has an embassy in Tbilisi. and general consulate in Batumi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly and the EU's Eastern Partnership.
 Azerbaijan 18 November 1992[52] See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
 China 9 June 1992[53] See China–Georgia relations
 East Timor 22 December 2011 See East Timor–Georgia relations

Georgia is represented in Timor by its embassy in Jakarta.[55]

 Hong Kong See Georgia–Hong Kong relations
 India 28 September 1992[56] See Georgia–India relations
 Iran 15 May 1992[58] See Persia-Georgia relations, Georgia–Iran relations
  • Persia and Georgia have had relations for thousands of years.
 Iraq 18 September 2007 See Georgia–Iraq relations
 Israel 1 June 1992[59] See Georgia–Israel relations
 Japan 3 August 1992[60] See Georgia–Japan relations
  • Since November 2006, Georgia has maintained an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Tbilisi.

Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan

 Kazakhstan 24 July 1992[61] See Georgia–Kazakhstan relations
 Kyrgyzstan 10 July 1992 See Georgia–Kyrgyzstan relations
 Malaysia 7 May 1993[64] See Georgia–Malaysia relations
 Myanmar 16 August 1999 See Georgia–Myanmar relations
 South Korea 14 December 1992[65] See Georgia–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and Georgia began on 14 December 1992.[66]

 Syria 18 May 1993[70]5 June 2018[71] See Georgia–Syria relations

Georgia began the procedure of terminating diplomatic relations with Syria due to Damascus' recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

 Taiwan none Republic of China passports are not valid for entry in Georgia, while the Taiwanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs declared Georgia as a "non-friendly country" to Taiwan.[72]
 Tajikistan 4 August 1994 See Georgia–Tajikistan relations
 Turkey 21 May 1992[74] See Georgia–Turkey relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 8 July 1993[77] See Albania–Georgia relations
  • Albania is represented in Georgia through a non resident ambassador based in Ankara, (Turkey).
  • Georgia is represented in Albania through a non resident ambassador based in Ankara, (Turkey).
 Austria 18 January 1993[78] See Austria–Georgia relations
 Belarus 14 July 1992 See Belarus–Georgia relations
  • Belarus has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Minsk.
 Bulgaria 5 June 1992[79] See Bulgaria–Georgia relations
 Croatia See Croatia–Georgia relations
 Cyprus 9 July 1993[82] See Cyprus–Georgia relations
  • Cyprus is represented in Georgia through a non resident ambassador based in Athens, (Greece).
  • Georgia has an embassy in Nicosia.
 Denmark 1 July 1992[83] See Denmark–Georgia relations
 France 21 August 1992[84] See France–Georgia relations
  • France has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Germany 13 April 1992[85] See Georgia–Germany relations
 Greece 20 April 1992 See Georgia–Greece relations
 Hungary 14 May 1992[88] See Georgia–Hungary relations
 Iceland 21 September 1992 See Georgia–Iceland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1992.

 Italy 11 May 1992[90] See Georgia–Italy relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Latvia 11 March 1993[91] See Georgia–Latvia relations
 Liechtenstein 10 June 1992 See Georgia–Liechtenstein relations
 Lithuania 16 September 1994[93] See Georgia–Lithuania relations
 Luxembourg 23 June 1992 See Georgia–Luxembourg relations
 Malta 1 February 1993[96] See Georgia–Malta relations
 Moldova 25 June 1992[97] See Georgia–Moldova relations
 Monaco 2 March 2009 See Georgia–Monaco relations
 Montenegro 29 October 2007 See Georgia–Montenegro relations
 Netherlands 22 April 1992[98][99] See Georgia–Netherlands relations
 Norway 5 June 1992 See Georgia–Norway relations
 Poland 28 April 1992[101] See Georgia–Poland relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tbilisi.
 Romania 25 June 1992[102] See Georgia–Romania relations
 Russia[note 1] 1 July 19922 September 2008[103] See Georgia–Russia relations

On 29 August 2008, in the aftermath of the 2008 South Ossetia war, Deputy Foreign Minister Grigol Vashadze announced that Georgia had broken diplomatic relations with Russia. He also said that Russian diplomats must leave Georgia, and that no Georgian diplomat would remain in Russia, while only consular relations would be maintained. Russian foreign ministry spokesman Andrei Nesterenko said that Russia regretted this step.[104]

 Serbia 26 June 1995[105] See Georgia–Serbia relations
 Slovenia 13 January 1993 See Georgia–Slovenia relations
 Spain 9 July 1992 See Georgia–Spain relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Sweden 19 September 1992[107] See Georgia–Sweden relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • After the war, when Abkhazia and South Ossetia broke away from Georgia, Georgia and Sweden both did not recognize the independence of both states. There were protests near the Russian embassy in Stockholm, as the war was going on 12 August 2008. The protests was held by a group of Georgians and Swedes.
  Switzerland 10 June 1992[108] See Georgia–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine 22 July 1992[110] See Georgia–Ukraine relations

Relations between Georgia and Ukraine and between the Georgian and Ukrainian people in particular last from the Middle Ages.

 United Kingdom 27 April 1992[111] See Georgia–United Kingdom relations
  Vatican City 5 May 1992 See Georgia–Holy See relations

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 16 July 1992[114] See Australia–Georgia relations
  • Australia is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Canberra.
 Fiji 29 March 2010[115] See Fiji–Georgia relations
 Kiribati 28 September 2012[119] See Georgia–Kiribati relations
 Tuvalu 4 February 2011[120]16 February 2012[121]
31 March 2014[122]
On 16 February 2012 Georgia issued a presidential order ending diplomatic relations with Tuvalu. This comes in response to a visit by the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, Willy Telavi, to Abkhazia and South Ossetia in September 2011, where he announced that the Pacific nation would recognise the two states.[121]However, the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, Enele Sopoaga retracted the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia on 31 March 2014 when Tuvalu's Foreign Minister Taukelina Finikaso signed an agreement to establish diplomatic relations with Georgia. Tuvalu's Foreign Minister said that his country supports Georgia's territorial integrity in its international recognized borders.[122][123]

Overview

Georgia has established relations with 185 countries and the Order of Malta. Georgia has terminated its diplomatic relations with Russia,[note 1][104] Nicaragua[note 1][47] and Syria.[note 1][71]

Georgia has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

See also

Further reading

Notes

References

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