1994 Moldovan postage stamp dedicated to the 'Partnership for Peace'
1994 Moldovan postage stamp dedicated to the 'Partnership for Peace'

The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between the member states of NATO and other states in Europe, including post-Soviet states; 20 states are members.[1] The program contains six areas of cooperation, which aims to build relationships with partners through military-to-military cooperation on training, exercises, disaster planning and response, science and environmental issues, professionalization, policy planning, and relations with civilian government.[2][3]

Amidst security concerns in Eastern Europe after the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union, and also due to the failure of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC), the program was launched during the summit in Brussels, Belgium between January 10 and 11, 1994.[4] In the process, neutral countries also faced a situation in which they had to reconsider maintaining military neutrality; therefore, countries such as Finland, Sweden and Austria joined the Partnership for Peace in 1997.[5]

In the following decade, over the course of the 2000s, the PfP has made great progress. In 2002, it began the Individual Partnership Action Plan in order to provide members an opportunity to be granted further assistance from NATO without having to commit to becoming full members of NATO.[6] The program has additionally started an initiative for education, specifically military education. Over the course of its creation, the program has struggled with funding due to its ever-changing formation of members.[6]

Background

Amidst the security concerns of the post–Cold War era, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) was put into place to pay attention to security issues in Eastern Europe.[7] The NACC was first announced at the Rome summit in November 1991 as NATO's first attempt to incorporate the former Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies into European security frameworks. This was intended to form diplomatic links between NATO and Eastern European military officials on industrial and military conversations.[3] After 1991, the NACC held annual ministerial meetings and regular consultations between Eastern and Western representatives of NATO's political, economic, and military committees. The objective of these meetings was to strengthen the relations between Eastern and Western Europe, thereby contributing to the regional political and military stability. However, the council contained 36 members of considerable geographic, economic, and cultural diversity who were at times in political dispute with each other. Eventually, this caused limited actions on the NACC's primary mission. By 1993, a range of Eastern European countries lost confidence in the NACC. The emergence of new states such as Croatia and Ukraine after the split of Czechoslovakia resulted in Slovakian Foreign Minister, Milan Kňažko, urging the creation of a security framework that would facilitate cooperation on all levels with NATO.[8] The shortcomings of the NACC in their insufficiency when dealing with fast-paced regional events, resulted in heightened pressure by NACC members for a membership into the NATO alliance and also the formation of an alternative program.[3]

The concept of the Partnership for Peace (PfP) was first discussed by the Bulgarian society Novae, after being proposed as an American initiative at the meeting of NATO defense ministers in Travemünde, Germany, between October 20 and 21, 1993, and formally launched on January 10–11, 1994, at the NATO summit in Brussels, Belgium.[9] According to declassified U.S. State Department records,[10] President Bill Clinton characterized to Boris Yeltsin the Partnership for Peace as a "track that will lead to NATO membership" and that "does not draw another line dividing Europe a few hundred miles to the east".[11] In September 1994, however, Bill Clinton said that NATO would expand, but there was no timetable.[12][13] By that time, Boris Yeltsin had claimed a Russian sphere of influence covering the Commonwealth of Independent States.[14]

Purpose

Between October 20 and 21, 1993, in Travemünde, Germany, a meeting for NATO defense ministers was held. In the meeting, the US proposed a program called the Partnership for Peace in response to issues in Eastern Europe.[9] This initiative was designed by the US Secretary of Defense Les Aspin who did not want to exclude Russia from international security arrangements.[15] This was mainly an initiative launched to encourage states to build democracy and active participation towards maintaining international security.[15] The program was also put in place in order to strengthen security cooperation with states in Central and Eastern Europe that were not part of the NATO alliance.[16] In the NATO summit held between January 10 and 11, 1994, the Partnership of Peace was established by NATO under the North Atlantic Council (NAC).[3][15] It was claimed by former US President Bill Clinton that the partnership would give way for countries in Eastern Europe, including those that were part of the Soviet Union and even Russia itself to work together "for the best possible future for Europe".[9]

The Partnership for Peace Framework Document presented six areas of cooperation, including:[17]

States were also promised offices at the NATO headquarters and at a Partnership Coordination Cell which was located near the SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe).[9] States participating in the initiative were to receive perks for cooperating, albeit less than states who had already had full membership in the NATO alliance.[16] NATO along with the US government announced that the existing alliance members would only need minimal contributions towards the cost of the initiative while the Partnership for Peace members would have to fund for most of the cost of the program.[15] The Partnership for Peace also increased the possibility for participating states who were not part of the NATO alliance to be an official member, but never actually guaranteed a NATO membership. It was claimed[by whom?] that the Partnership for Peace was used to delay decisions regarding the move towards expanding NATO membership to non-NATO members in Europe.[9] It was also perceived[by whom?] as a devised plot by the West to prepare Eastern European states for the formation of a European Union by turning them into democratic states through military cooperation.[16] By August 1994, 22 states were part of the Partnership for Peace.[15]

Membership

.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  European NATO members (1994)  present NATO members which were formerly PfP members    Partnership for Peace members  States which aspire to PfP membership

On April 26, 1995 Malta became a member of PfP;[18] it left on October 27, 1996, in order to maintain its neutrality.[19] On March 20, 2008, Malta decided to reactivate their PfP membership;[20] this was accepted by NATO at the summit in Bucharest on April 3, 2008.[21] During the NATO summit in Riga on November 29, 2006, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia were invited to join PfP,[22] which they did[23] on December 14, 2006.[24]

Current members

Collective Security Treaty Organization members

See also: Collective Security Treaty Organization

Country PfP membership[23]
 Armenia October 5, 1994
 Belarus January 11, 1995
 Kazakhstan May 27, 1994
 Kyrgyzstan June 1, 1994
 Russia June 22, 1994
 Tajikistan February 20, 2002

European Union members

See also: European Union–NATO relations

Country PfP membership[23]
 Austria February 10, 1995
 Finland May 9, 1994
 Ireland December 1, 1999
 Malta April 26, 1995[18] (withdrew on October 27, 1996;[19] reactivated its membership on March 20, 2008;[20] this was accepted by NATO on April 3, 2008.[21])
 Sweden May 9, 1994

GUAM members

See also: GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development

Country PfP membership[23]
 Azerbaijan May 4, 1994
 Georgia March 23, 1994
 Moldova March 16, 1994
 Ukraine February 8, 1994

Other members

Country Membership[23]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina December 14, 2006
 Serbia
  Switzerland December 11, 1996
 Turkmenistan May 10, 1994
 Uzbekistan July 13, 1994

Aspiring members

Finland

Main article: Finland–NATO relations

Finland's cooperation with NATO and participation in the PfP demonstrates that it has gained access to information and gained influence on security-related decisions, and that Finland is doing its part in managing crises in the European-Atlantic region. It is hoped that a strengthened partnership with the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) will benefit the security and stability of the Baltic region. The Finnish government's 1997 defense white paper strongly advocated the development of interoperability to support international crisis management in line with the PfP concept. The 1998-2008 defense program began in May 1997 at the "Spirit of PfP" training in northern Norway.[5]

Sweden

Main article: Sweden–NATO relations

In 1994, Sweden's foreign minister declared that Sweden's policy could no longer be classified as neutral because the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the extinction of the Warsaw Treaty had eliminated two alliances to be classified as neutral. In 1996, 61% of the Swedish preferred to participate in future European defense cooperation, and 55% believed Sweden should strengthen its relationship with NATO. For Sweden, the PfP is an "essential component of the emerging European security order." In 1997, Sweden participated in 15 different PfP field exercises, three of which were held and adopted 35 different interoperability objectives within the PfP's planning and review process.[5]

Austria

Austria's participation in PfP was strengthened in 1996. Their views on PfP focused on maintaining the ability and readiness to contribute to operations 'under the authority and/or responsibility of the United Nations and/or NATO and/or OSCE'. An important area of Austrian PfP contribution is private emergency planning. 30% of all PfP activities in this field came from Austria in 1997. In that year, Austria participated in 227 activities, including 14 peacekeeping operations involving 713 people, within the framework of the NATO/PfP program.[5]

Previous members

Fourteen former member states of the PfP (namely Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia), have subsequently joined NATO.

NATO members that were previously PfP members[23]
Country Joined PfP Became full NATO member
 Poland February 2, 1994 March 12, 1999
 Hungary February 8, 1994
 Czech Republic March 10, 1994
 Romania January 26, 1994 March 29, 2004
 Lithuania January 27, 1994
 Estonia February 3, 1994
 Slovakia February 9, 1994
 Latvia February 14, 1994
 Bulgaria
 Slovenia March 30, 1994
 Albania February 23, 1994 March 29, 2009
 Croatia May 25, 2000
 Montenegro December 14, 2006 June 5, 2017
 North Macedonia November 15, 1995[1] March 27, 2020

Note

1.^ as Republic of Macedonia before February 2019.

Legacy

During the post-Cold War era, equal distribution of opportunities to contribute to peacekeeping operations was made, but the status of middle and neutral powers such as Sweden, Finland, and Ireland also decreased. Therefore, neutral countries also faced a situation in which they had to reconsider maintaining military neutrality in the current international political unipolar system. In June 1997, a senior NATO official said a broader role was aimed at working closer with NATO and finally joining the alliance. While the PfP provides a framework for cooperative relations with Russia, it did not include a membership into NATO. Although the PfP has made important contributions to crisis management, such as peacekeeping operations, Ireland is still not a NATO member.[5]

Evolution

In 2001, NATO granted ‘Membership Action Plans (MAP) to 9 of the 26 PfP countries, this program of assistance assures that member states have political advice by NATO. In 2002, NATO began the Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) initiative during the 2002 Prague Summit.[6] The goal of this plan was to provide member states of PfP a chance to be granted assistance from NATO to ''establish reform goals'' without the pressure of committing to NATO.[6] In 2003: The Alliance assumed strategic command, control, and coordination of the mission and established a permanent International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) headquarters in Kabul. Since then, the operation has grown to about 120,000 troops from 47 countries.[6] In 2004: During the NATO Summit in Istanbul, the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative was launched. During this summit, six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council were included. Over the course of the summit, NATO also established the less formalized partnership Partners across the Globe, which cooperate with NATO.[6] In 2008, the Partnership for Peace had implications during the conflict in Georgia.[35] In August 2008, following a planned attack from Georgia against Tskhinvali. President Dmitry Medvedev referred to 8/08/08 as “Russia’s 9/11”.[35] This was caused from an attempt to ‘’control the breakaway republic’’ as it accommodated peacekeeping bases of Russia.[35] This event had implications for the program as it perceived the representation of a former "U.S.-Georgia bilateral Train-and-Equip program" to an expansion for the program and its allies.[6][35] As of 2010, only 3 of the 22 current PfP countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Montenegro) had MAPs’’.[6] Additionally, ‘’11 PfP countries were contributing about 2,000 troops to the operation, and four Central Asian and two Caucasus partners were providing logistical and/or host nation support".[6]

Partnership for Peace Education Initiative

The Partnership for Peace has pushed for education programs amongst members of both NATO and The Partnership for Peace composed of professional military education. Its purpose is to ‘’contribute to peace and security in the Euro-Atlantic region and beyond.’’ These education programs and training are mostly focused on Central Asia and the South Caucasus.[36]

Struggles with funding

The Partnership for Peace has had ramification on its budget caused by the ever-changing formation of members. For instance, the average annual Wales Initiative Funding (WIF) established for the program was set at $43 million during the fiscal years of 1996 to 2005. In consequence of a decline in the number of countries participating in the program, annual funding was reduced to $29 million in fiscal years 2006 through 2010.[6] Another factor includes the reduction of distribution of WIF funding in the program amongst aspiring members of NATO.[6]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 97 UN member states (with another 15 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition), while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

References

  1. ^ North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (December 3, 2009). "Partner countries". Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  2. ^ "Partnership for Peace programme". NATO.
  3. ^ a b c d Simon, Jeffrey (1994). Partnership for Peace: Stabilizing the East. Defense Technical Information Center. OCLC 713348684.
  4. ^ Sunley, Johnathan. Tasks for NATO II: improve the partnership for peace. OCLC 82596203.
  5. ^ a b c d e Ishizuka, Katsumi (2014). Ireland and International Peacekeeping Operations 1960-2000. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 978-1-135-29526-4. OCLC 879023336.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Christoff, Joseph A. (2009). "GAO Report on NATO Enlargement: Albania and Croatia". Connections: The Quarterly Journal. 08 (2): 75–91. doi:10.11610/connections.08.2.06. ISSN 1812-1098.
  7. ^ Kruzel, Joseph (1995). "Partnership for Peace and the Transformation of North Atlantic Security". In Papacosma, S. V.; Heiss, M. A. (eds.). NATO in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 339–345. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-60836-2_15. ISBN 978-1-349-60838-6. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  8. ^ de Santis, Hugh (December 1994). "Romancing NATO: Partnership for peace and East European stability". Journal of Strategic Studies. 17 (4): 61–81. doi:10.1080/01402399408437570. ISSN 0140-2390.
  9. ^ a b c d e Borawski, John (April 1995). "Partnership for Peace and beyond". International Affairs. Royal Institute of International Affairs. 71 (2): 233–246. doi:10.2307/2623432. JSTOR 2623432.
  10. ^ "The President's Meeting with Czech Leaders". National Security Archive. William J. Clinton Presidential Library. January 11, 1994 – via George Washington University.
  11. ^ Savranskaya, Svetlana; Blanton, Tom. "NATO Expansion: What Yeltsin Heard". National Security Archive. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  12. ^ Jim Goldberger (November 22, 2019). "Promises Made, Promises Broken? What Yeltsin Was Told About NATO in 1993 and Why It Matters". War on the Rocks. Retrieved June 4, 2022.
  13. ^ "Background Briefing". Clinton White House. September 21, 1994. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  14. ^ John M. Goshko (September 27, 1994). "Yeltsin Claims Russian Sphere of Influence". Washington Post. Retrieved June 12, 2022.
  15. ^ a b c d e E., Gallis, Paul (1994). Partnership for peace. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. OCLC 299723964.
  16. ^ a b c Ruhle, Michael; Williams, Nicholas (July 4, 1994). "Partnership for Peace: A Personal View from NATO". The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters. 24 (1). doi:10.55540/0031-1723.1717. ISSN 0031-1723. S2CID 221896802.
  17. ^ "Partnership for Peace: Framework Document issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the Meeting of the North Atlantic Council". NATO. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  18. ^ a b North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (April 26, 1995). "Secretary General's Council Welcoming Remarks, Visit by Maltese Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Professor Guido de Marco, Wednesday, April 26, 1995". Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  19. ^ a b Bohlen, Celestine (November 12, 1996). "New Malta Chief Focuses on Neutrality". New York Times. Retrieved April 5, 2008. Within hours of taking office, Mr. Sant withdrew Malta's membership in Partnership for Peace, a NATO military cooperation program that is so loosely defined that its sign-up list now spans the spectrum from Russia to Switzerland. [...] Mr. Sant says none of those moves should be interpreted as anti-European or anti-American, but simply as the best way of insuring Malta's security.
  20. ^ a b Gambin, Karl (April 3, 2008). "Malta reactivates Partnership for Peace membership". DI-VE. Retrieved April 3, 2008. The cabinet has agreed to reactivate its membership in the Partnership for Peace which was withdrawn in 1996, the government said on Thursday.
  21. ^ a b North Atlantic Treaty Organization (April 3, 2008). "Malta re-engages in the Partnership for Peace Programme". Retrieved April 3, 2008. At the Bucharest Summit, NATO Heads of State and Government welcomed Malta’s return to the Partnership for Peace Programme. At Malta's request, the Allies have re-activated Malta's participation in the Partnership for Peace Programme (PfP).
  22. ^ North Atlantic Treaty Organization (November 29, 2006). "Alliance offers partnership to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia". Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Signatures of Partnership for Peace Framework Document". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. October 5, 2006. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  24. ^ "Serbia inducted into NATO". Associated Press. December 14, 2006. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
  25. ^ Wilson, Damon (April 1, 2019). "NATO membership for Cyprus. Yes, Cyprus". Atlantic Council. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  26. ^ "Cypriot parliament votes to join NATO's Partnership for Peace". SETimes. February 25, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  27. ^ "Cyprus – Vouli Antiprosopon (House of Representatives)". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
  28. ^ Dempsey, Judy (November 24, 2012). "Between the European Union and NATO, Many Walls". New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  29. ^ Kambas, Michele; Babington, Deepa (February 24, 2013). "Cypriot conservative romps to presidential victory". Reuters. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
  30. ^ "Cyprus dismisses reports on NATO scenarios". KNEWS - Kathimerini Cyprus. June 5, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2020.
  31. ^ "Hoxhaj në Lituani, merr përkrahje për MSA-në dhe vizat (Video)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kosovo. April 3, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  32. ^ "Kosovo seeks to join international organisations". Turkish Weekly. July 19, 2012. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  33. ^ "Kosovo looking to join the Adriatic Charter". January 21, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  34. ^ Thaçi, Hashim. "Prioritetet e reja të Politikës së Jashtme të Kosovës". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kosovo.
  35. ^ a b c d Herd, Graeme P.; Flesch, Daniel A. (2008). "The Georgia Crisis: Implications for the Partnership for Peace". Connections: The Quarterly Journal. 08 (1): 1–10. doi:10.11610/connections.08.1.01. ISSN 1812-1098.
  36. ^ Keagle, James M. (2012). "A Special Relationship: U.S. and NATO Engagement with the Partnership for Peace to Build Partner Capacity Through Education". Connections: The Quarterly Journal. 11 (4): 59–73. doi:10.11610/connections.11.4.07. ISSN 1812-1098.