Romanian Armed Forces
Forțele Armate Române (Romanian)
The coat of arms of the Romanian General Staff
Founded12 November 1859
Current form11 April 2000
Service branches Romanian Land Forces
 Romanian Naval Forces
 Romanian Air Force
HeadquartersBucharest, Romania
Leadership
Supreme Commander Klaus Iohannis
Minister of National Defence Angel Tîlvăr
Chief of the General Staff General Gheorghiță Vlad[1]
Personnel
Military age18
ConscriptionNo (stopped on January 1st, 2007)[2]
Available for
military service
11,077,504 (2021), age 18–49
Fit for
military service
9,083,554 (2021), age 18–49
Reaching military
age annually
227,089
Active personnel71,500 (2024)[3]
Reserve personnel55,000 (2023)[3]
Deployed personnel429 (April 2022)[4]
Expenditures
Budget$8.7 billion(2024) [5]
Percent of GDP2.5% (2024) [6]
Industry
Domestic suppliersROMARM, Avioane Craiova, Industria Aeronautica Romana, Aerostar, Romaero
Foreign suppliersCurrent:
 Austria
 France
 Germany
 Israel
 Italy
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Poland
 Portugal
 South Korea
 Spain
 Switzerland
 Turkey
 United Kingdom
 United States
Former:
 Soviet Union
 China
 Czechoslovakia
 North Korea
Annual exports€187,000,000 (2018)[7]
Related articles
HistoryMilitary history of Romania
RanksRomanian Armed Forces ranks and insignia

The Romanian Armed Forces (Romanian: Forțele Armate Române or Armata Română) are the military forces of Romania. It comprises the Land Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Force. The current Commander-in-chief is Lieutenant General Gheorghiță Vlad who is managed by the Minister of National Defence while the president is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces during wartime.

As of 2023, the Armed Forces number 71,500 active personnel and 55,000 reserves. The Land Forces have a reported strength of 35,500, the Air Force 11,700, the Naval Forces 6,800, and Joint Forces 17,500, in 2023.[8] Total defence spending currently accounts for 2.44% of total national GDP, which represents approximately 8.48 billion US dollars.[9] The Armed Forces are built for territorial defence, with support to NATO and EU missions, and contributions to regional and global stability and security.[8] As of 2023, Romania is ranked 47 of 145 out of the countries considered for the annual GFP review.[10]

Military service is voluntary in peacetime (since 2007), and compulsory in case of curfew, war, or national emergency.[11][12][13][14]

History of the Romanian Armed Forces

Main article: List of wars involving Romania

See also: Moldavian military forces and Wallachian military forces

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The modern armies of Moldavia and Wallachia were formed in 1830 following Regulamentul Organic.[15] During the 1848 Wallachian Revolution, Gheorghe Magheru assembled an army at Râureni (now part of Râmnicu Vâlcea). However, Magheru ordered his troops to disband when the Ottoman forces swept into Bucharest to stop the revolution.[16]

Romanian War of Independence

Further information: Romanian War of Independence

Romanian troops returning to Bucharest after the Independence War, 8 October 1878

The current Romanian Land Forces were formed in 1860, immediately after the unification of Wallachia with Moldavia, and were commanded by Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Domnitor of Romania until his abdication in 1866.[17] In 1877, at the request of Nikolai Konstantinovich, Grand Duke of Russia[18] the Romanian army joined the Russian forces, and led by King Carol I, fought in what was to become the Romanian War of Independence. They participated in the Siege of Plevna and several other battles. The Romanians won the war, but suffered about 27,000 casualties. Until World War I, the Romanian army didn't face any other serious actions, although it participated in the Second Balkan War against Bulgaria.

Second Balkan War

Further information: Second Balkan War

Romania mobilized its army on 5 July 1913, with intention of seizing Southern Dobruja, and declared war on Bulgaria on 10 July.[19] In a diplomatic circular that said, "Romania does not intend either to subjugate the polity nor defeat the army of Bulgaria", the Romanian government endeavoured to allay international concerns about its motives and about increased bloodshed.[19] According to Richard Hall, "the entrance of Romania into the conflict made the Bulgarian situation untenable and the Romanian thrust across the Danube was the decisive military act of the Second Balkan War."[20]

World War I

Main article: Romanian Campaign (World War I)

Marshal Alexandru Averescu

On July 6, 1916, Romania declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, following the initial success of the Brusilov Offensive (a major Russian offensive against the armies of the Central Powers on the Eastern Front). The Romanian armies entered Transylvania (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), together with Russian forces. However, German forces under the command of General Erich von Falkenhayn stalled the attack in November, 1916, and drove back the Romanians. At the same time, Austrian and Turkish troops invaded southern Romania, forcing the country into a two-front war. The Central Powers drove deep into Romania and conquered the south of the country (Wallachia, including Bucharest) by the end of 1916. The Romanian forces, led by Marshal Constantin Prezan, retreated into the north-east part of Romania (Moldavia). In the summer of 1917 however, Prezan, aided by the future Marshal, General Ion Antonescu, successfully defended the remaining unoccupied territories against German and Austro-Hungarian forces led by Field Marshal August von Mackensen.[21] General Alexandru Averescu led the Second Army in the victories of the Battle of Mărăști (July 22 to August 1, 1917) and the Battle of Mărășești (August 6 to September 8, 1917). As a result of the Russian Revolution, Romania was left isolated and unable to continue the war, and was forced to sign the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers.[22] Later on, in 1919, Germany agreed, in the Treaty of Versailles Article 259, to renounce all the benefits provided to it by the Treaty of Bucharest in 1918. After the successful offensive on the Thessaloniki front, which put Bulgaria out of the war, Romania re-entered the war on November 10, 1918, a day before its end in the West.[23]

World War II

Main article: Romania during World War II

Romanian infantry in 1943

After General (later Marshal) Ion Antonescu took power in September 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact with the Axis Powers and subsequently took part in Operation Barbarossa in 1941. An expeditionary force invaded the Soviet Union in Bessarabia and southern Ukraine, alongside the German Wehrmacht. The expeditionary force, 'Army Group Antonescu', was composed on 22 June 1941 of the 3rd Army, the 4th Army, the 2nd Army Corps, and the 11th Infantry Division.[24] The 3rd Army comprised the 4th Army Corps (6th and 7th Infantry Divisions), the Cavalry Corps, the Mountain Corps, two separate artillery battalion, a TA unit, and the Air Force's 3rd Army Cooperation Command. The 4th Army consisted of the 3rd Army Corps, the 5th Army Corps, the 11th Army Corps (two fortress brigades), and the 4th Army Cooperation Command. The army group-level 2nd Army Corps, under Major General N. Macici, controlled the 9th and 10th Infantry Divisions and the 7th Cavalry Brigade. Additionally the Divizia 1 Blindată (România) [ro] was formed for service on the Eastern Front. The Army Group's first offensive, in conjunction with the Eleventh Army, Operation Munchen, enabled Romania to retake the territory immediately east of the Dnister, former part of Moldavia. The Romanian Armies saw their first major battles at Odessa and Sevastopol, and in 1942 advanced with other Axis forces deeper into Soviet territory during Operation Blue.

The greatest disaster for the Romanian expeditionary force on the Eastern Front came at Stalingrad, where, during the Soviet counter-offensive of November 1942, the thinly spread forces of the Third Army (deployed north of Stalingrad) and of the Fourth Army (deployed south of Stalingrad) were attacked by vastly superior Soviet forces and suffered combined losses of some 158,000 personnel.

During April–May 1944 the Romanian forces led by General Mihai Racoviță, together with elements of the German Sixth Army were responsible for defending Northern Romania during the Soviet First Jassy-Kishinev Offensive, and took part in the Battles of Târgu Frumos. In late August 1944, the Red Army entered eastern Romania. The Battle of Jassy took place on August 20–25, 1944. 150 000 German soldiers died (80 000 in Stalingrad), 106 000 Germans was taken as prisoners by the Red Army (108 000 in Stalingrad); the fate of the rest 80 000 remain unknown. On August 23, 1944, a coup led by King Michael I of Romania deposed Marshal Antonescu and set up a pro-Soviet government. It has been estimated that the royal coup shortened the war by six months.[25] Romania soon declared war on Nazi Germany, and the First and Fourth Armies were pressed into action. After the expelling of the last Wehrmacht remnants from Romania, the Romanian Armies took part in the Siege of Budapest and the Prague Offensive of May 1945.

Highlights (Axis)

Cold War

After the Romanian Communist Party seized power, the Armed Forces of Romania was reformed to mirror the soviet model. It was reestablished as the Romanian People's Army (Romanian: Armata Populară Română) under the original supervision of Minister of Defence, Emil Bodnăraș. Between 1955 and 1991, the Romanian People's Army took part in events of the Warsaw Pact, of which Romania was a member. During this period, the army was supplied with weapons and equipment from the Soviet Union. From 1947 to 1960, the country divided into 3 military regions: Western (Cluj), Eastern (Bacău), and South (Bucharest).

In 1980 the Romanian Land Forces was reorganized in 4 Army Commands: 1st (Bucharest), 2nd (Buzau), 3rd (Craiova) and 4th (Cluj-Napoca). In the four Army Commands were 8 Mechanized Divisions, 2 Tank Divisions and 1 Tank Brigade, as well as 4 Mountain Brigades (specialized motorized infantry units).

In 1989 the RLF had, as armored equipment, a total of 2715 combat vehicles: 945 outdated (soviet WW-2 type) T-34-85 tanks, 790 soviet and Czechoslovak T-55/-55A/-55AM tanks, 415 Romanian built TR-77-580, 535 Romanian built TR-85-800 and 30 Soviet T-72 "Ural-1" tanks.

Post-1990

The People's Army was dissolved after the Romanian Revolution in the beginning of 1990 and was rebranded as the Romanian Armed Forces. Since 1994, Romania has been actively participating in the Partnership for Peace program and on 29 March 2004, it officially joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). During the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, Romania placed its territory and airspace at disposal for NATO troop and even sent troops to the Kosovo Force contingent in the summer of 1999 to stabilize the situation in Kosovo and Metohija. On 15 November 2002, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine created a multinational engineering battalion called "Tisa" , which includes an engineering company from the armed forces.[34] Romania has taken part in the War in Afghanistan since July 2002, with Romanian contingent being increased from 962 to more than 1,500 troops in 2009.[35][36] The armed forces also took part in the War in Iraq from 2003 to August 2009, in which the losses of the Romanian contingent amounted to 3 soldiers killed and at least 11 wounded.

Structure

The civil oversight of the Romanian Armed Forces is the prerogative of the Ministry of National Defence (Ministerul Apărării Naționale), a department of the Romanian government. The highest professional military body of command and control is the General Staff of Defence (Statul Major al Apărării).

Ministry of National Defence (Ministerul Apărării Naționale), Bucharest[37]

Main departments under the direct command of the minister of national defence:

General Staff of Defence

General Staff of Defence (Statul Major al Apărării)

Equipment

Main article: List of equipment of the Romanian Armed Forces

LAROM multiple rocket launchers
F-16 multi-role fighter at Fetești Air Base in October 2016.

The Land Forces have overhauled their equipment in recent years, and are today a modern army with multiple NATO capabilities. The Land Forces are at present planning on replacing the TAB APC vehicles with new armored personnel carriers produced in conjunction with the Germany company Rheinmetall.[44] The Air Force currently operates F-16 A/B Block 15 MLU fighters. The Air Force has also received 7 new C-27J Spartan tactical airlift aircraft, in order to replace the bulk of the old transport force. Two modernized ex-Royal Navy Type 22 frigates were acquired by the Naval Forces in 2004 and a further four modern missile corvettes will be commissioned in the next few years. Three domestically produced IAR 330 Puma NAVAL helicopters were also ordered by the Naval Forces, and were commissioned in late 2008. In 2021, Romania had in total 943 tanks, 1500+ armored vehicles, 808 towed artillery and 240 rocket projectors.

Manpower

Main article: Romania in NATO

Romanian soldiers on patrol in Afghanistan

Romania joined NATO in 2004. As a consequence, extensive preparations were made to abolish conscription by 2007 and create a professional army in place of a conscripted one.

The new armed forces include 71,500 active personnel and 55,000 reserves. Some 35,500 make up the Romanian Land Forces, 11,700 serve as the Romanian Air Force and 6,800 are in the Romanian Naval Forces; the remaining 17,500 serve in other fields.[8]

Future

Soldiers of the 2nd Mountain Brigade inspect an ammo crate during exercise Combined Resolve VII on 3 September 2016

The Romanian Military will essentially undergo a three-stage restructuring. As of 2017, the first two stages have been completed. 2015 marked the end of the second stage when the armed forces reached a superior compatibility with NATO forces.[45] In 2025, the long-term stage is to be completed. The stages aim at modernizing the structure of the armed forces, reducing the personnel as well as acquiring newer and more improved technology that is compatible with NATO standards.[45]

The military sees obsolete Soviet-era equipment as a major limitation and intends to buy modern combat equipment under the Armata 2040 project.[46] Between 2017 and 2023, Romania acquired the MIM-104 Patriot air defence systems, Piranha V armored vehicles, as well as US M142 HIMARS multiple launch rocket systems.[8] A program for acquiring F-35 fifth-generation fighters is also currently underway with deliveries expected in 2032.[47]

Current deployments

As of April 2022, Romania has 429 military personnel deployed in international missions. Largest deployments being: 203 troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of EUFOR Althea, 101 troops in Poland as part of NATO Enhanced Forward Presence and 54 troops in Kosovo as part of KFOR.[4]

Other militarized institutions

Soldiers of the 30th Honor Guard Brigade (at that time Regiment) "Mihai Viteazul" during the 2007 Bastille Day Military Parade in Paris.

The following Romanian institutions have military status but are not part of the Armed Forces:

See also

Citations

  1. ^ "Șeful Statului Major al Apărării". defense.ro.
  2. ^ "Romania Ends Conscription". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 8 April 2008.
  3. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies 2023, p. 126.
  4. ^ a b "Situația cu efectivele Armatei României participante la misiuni internaționale". SMAp.
  5. ^ https://www.romania-insider.com/romania-defence-budget-2024#:~:text=The%20Romanian%20government%20will%20ensure,still%20below%202.5%25%20of%20GDP.
  6. ^ https://www.romania-insider.com/romania-defence-budget-2024#:~:text=The%20Romanian%20government%20will%20ensure,still%20below%202.5%25%20of%20GDP.
  7. ^ [1] Archived 2015-01-18 at the Wayback Machine Gandul, 13 January 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d International Institute for Strategic Studies 2023, pp. 140–141.
  9. ^ "Defence Expenditure of NATO Countries (2014-2023)" (PDF). NATO. 7 July 2023. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  10. ^ "2022 Romania Military Strength". Global Firepower.
  11. ^ "Country report and updates". War Resisters' International. 15 June 2023. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  12. ^ "Romania Ends Conscription". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  13. ^ "End to National Service Cheers Young Romanians". iwpr.net. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  14. ^ "LEGE 446 30/11/2006 - Portal Legislativ". legislatie.just.ro. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  15. ^ Șomâcu, Cornel (23 April 2015). "Înființarea armatei pământene în zorii secolului al XIX-lea" (in Romanian).
  16. ^ (in Romanian) Liviu Maior, 1848–1849. Români și unguri în revoluție (Romanians and Hungarians in the revolution), Bucharest, Editura Enciclopedică, 1998.
  17. ^ "Repere istorice". mapn.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  18. ^ The telegram of Nikolai to Carol I (in Romanian): "Turcii îngrãmãdind cele mai mari trupe la Plevna ne nimicesc. Rog sã faci fuziune, demonstratiune si dacã-i posibil sã treci Dunãrea cu armatã dupã cum doresti. Între Jiu si Corabia demonstratiunea aceasta este absolut necesarã pentru înlesnirea miscãrilor mele" ("The Turks massed together the greatest troop at Pleven to lay us waste. I ask you to make mergers, demonstrations and if it is possible cross the Danube with the army as you wish. Between Jiu and Corabia, the demonstration is absolutely necessary to facilitate my movements.)
  19. ^ a b Hall (2000), p. 117.
  20. ^ Hall (2000), pp. 117–18.
  21. ^ Vincent Esposito, Atlas of American Wars, Vol 2, text for map 40
  22. ^ John Keegan, World War I, pg. 308.
  23. ^ World War I Documents, Articles 248-263 Archived 2007-12-10 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on February 28, 2008.
  24. ^ Leo Niehorster, Army Group Antonescu, 22 June 1941 Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, accessed June 2011
  25. ^ Constantiniu, Florin, O istorie sinceră a poporului român ("An Honest History of the Romanian People"), Ed. Univers Enciclopedic, București, 1997, ISBN 973-9243-07-X.
  26. ^ a b c d Spencer C. Tucker, ABC-CLIO, Sep 6, 2016, World War II: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection, p. 1422
  27. ^ Mark Axworthy, London: Arms and Armour, 1995, Third Axis, Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941–1945, p. 58
  28. ^ Mark Axworthy, London: Arms and Armour, 1995, Third Axis, Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941–1945, pp. 127-128
  29. ^ Samuel W. Mitcham, Stackpole Books, 2007, The German Defeat in the East, 1944-45, p. 163
  30. ^ Joseph Rothschild, University of Washington Press, May 1, 2017, East Central Europe between the Two World Wars, p. 317
  31. ^ David M. Glantz, Jonathan M. House, University Press of Kansas, Jul 13, 2019, Stalingrad, p. 351
  32. ^ Steven J. Zaloga, Bloomsbury Publishing, Apr 20, 2013, Tanks of Hitler’s Eastern Allies 1941–45, p. 31
  33. ^ Mark Axworthy, London: Arms and Armour, 1995, Third Axis, Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941–1945, pp. 153 and 221
  34. ^ Румыния полностью вывела свои войска из Ирака // REGNUM.RU от 21 августа 2009
  35. ^ Румыния // "Зарубежное военное обозрение", № 9 (798), сентябрь 2013. стр. 91
  36. ^ Tony Perry. Romania shows its support for the U.S.-led mission in Afghanistan // "Los Angeles Times" от 19 августа 2010
  37. ^ "Central structures under the direct command of the minister of national defence". Ministry of National Defence.
  38. ^ "Conducere". Statul Major al Apărării.
  39. ^ "Direcții". Statul Major al Apărării.
  40. ^ "Categorii de forțe". Statul Major al Apărării.
  41. ^ "Comandamente". Statul Major al Apărării.
  42. ^ "Reprezentanțe". Statul Major al Apărării.
  43. ^ "Alte structuri". Statul Major al Apărării.
  44. ^ Adamowski, Jaroslaw (8 August 2017). "Romania to Award Armored Vehicles Deal to Germany's Rheinmetall".
  45. ^ a b Ministry of National Defence, Strategia de transformare a Armatei României ("Strategy for the transformation of the Romanian Army") Archived 2008-02-16 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ https://sg.mapn.ro/proiecte/Strategia%20militara%20a%20Romaniei%201.pdf
  47. ^ "The Bucharest Parliament approved the procedure for the purchase of 32 F-35 aircraft". romanianbusinessjournal.ro. 24 October 2023.

References

Further reading