Demographics of Georgia
Georgia population pyramid in 2020
Population3,688,647 (1 January 2022)[1]
Density65.3 (2018)
Growth rateDecrease1.5 (2017)
Birth rate14.3‰ (2017)
Death rate12.8‰ (2017)
Life expectancy73.5 years (2018)
Infant mortality rate8.1‰ (2018)
Net migration rate−0.6 (2017)[n 1][2]
Age structure
0–14 years20%[n 1][3]
15–64 years65.4%
65 and over14.6%
Sex ratio
Total0.92 male(s)/female[n 1][3]
At birth1.07 male(s)/female
Under 151.09 male(s)/female
15–64 years0.96 male(s)/female
65 and over0.6 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Georgian(s) adjective: Georgian
Major ethnicGeorgians
Minor ethnicEthnic minorities in Georgia
Language
OfficialGeorgian (Abkhaz)[n 2]
SpokenOthers
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1770[8] 761,000—    
1800[9] 784,700+3.1%
1832[9] 892,100+13.7%
1865[10] 1,289,200+44.5%
1886[10] 1,641,900+27.4%
1897[11] 1,919,400+16.9%
1914[12] 2,697,500+40.5%
1917[12] 2,357,800−12.6%
1921[13] 2,677,000+13.5%
1926 2,666,494−0.4%
1939 3,540,023+32.8%
1959 4,044,045+14.2%
1970 4,686,358+15.9%
1979 4,993,182+6.5%
1989 5,400,841+8.2%
2002 4,371,535−19.1%
2002* 3,991,300−8.7%
2014 3,713,804−7.0%
Note: Present territory of Georgia[4]
* Corrected as per[5][6][7]

The demographic features of the population of Georgia include population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.[14]

Demographic trends

The demographic situation in Georgia, like that of some other former Soviet republics (especially Estonia and Latvia), has been characterized by two prominent features since independence: decline in total population and significant "Georgianization" of the ethnic composition. The proportion of ethnic Georgians increased by full 10 percentage points between 1989 and 2002, rising from 73.7% to 83.7% of the population.[15] This occurred due to two migratory movements: Georgians living and working in other Soviet republics returned to their homeland, while other nationalities left Georgia.[16]

While Georgia was part of the Soviet Union the population grew steadily, rising from less than 4 million in the 1950s to a peak of 5.5 million in 1992 million (including Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region).[17] From 1992 the population began to decline sharply due to civil war and economic crisis driven mass migration throughout the 1990s and into the early 2000s. By 2013, the population has stabilized around 3.7 million (excluding Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region). The 2002 population census in Georgia revealed a net migration loss of more than one million persons, or 20% of the population, since the early 1990s, confirmed by other studies.[18][19] Other factors of the population decline include net birth-death deficits in the period 1995-2010[20] and the exclusion of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region from the statistics since 1994, which population was estimated in 2005 at 178,000 and 49,200, respectively.[21]

Georgia was named among the highest-emigration countries in the world (relative to its population size) in a 2007 World Bank report.[22] Russia received by far most migrants from Georgia. According to United Nations data this totalled to 625 thousand by 2000, which has declined to 450 thousand by 2019.[23] Initially the out-migration was driven by non-Georgian ethnicities, but due to the war and crisis ridden 1990s, and the subsequent bad economic outlook, increasing numbers of Georgians emigrated as well.[16] The 1989 census recorded 341,000 ethnic Russians, or 6.3 per cent of the population,[24] which declined to 26,453 (0.7%) by 2014.[25] The 2010 Russian census recorded about 158,000 ethnic Georgians living in Russia,[26]

The figure below shows the demographic trend in Georgia since 1950.

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
    Originally determined/estimated population since 1950.[28][30][31]
    Correction through retro-projection (1994–2017) by UN and Geostat [32][33]

Note: 1993–1994 drop is exclusion of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region from population statistics.[34]

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

Data correction

The 2014 census, executed in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), found a population gap of approximately 700,000 compared to the 2014 data from the National Statistical Office of Georgia, Geostat, which was cumulatively built on the 2002 census. Consecutive research estimated the 2002 census to be inflated by 8 to 9 percent,[20] which affected the annually updated population estimates in subsequent years. One explanation put forward by UNFPA is that families of emigrants continued to list them in 2002 as residents for fear of losing certain rights or benefits. Other factors that distorted the demographic data included a lack of quality in the registration system of migration, births, deaths and marriages. It was not until around 2010 that parts of the system became reliable again. With the support of the UNFPA, the demographic data of the period 1994–2014 has been retro-projected. The results of the project were presented and published in 2018.[6][5] Based on this back-projection Geostat has corrected its data for these years, both in its annual publications starting from 2018, and its public access database.[7]

Vital statistics

Density of the population of Georgia by municipality (2018)
Distribution of the population of Georgia by municipalities
Municipalities of Georgia by the population's predominant gender
Percentage of ethnic Georgians by municipality
Cities and towns in Georgia by population size
Ethnic composition of the regions of Georgia

Sources: United Nations,[35] Demoscope[36], GeoStat[37]
Total population from 1994: excluding Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region. Corrected as per retro-projection[5][6] and as published in public access database.[7]

Births and deaths

Total area

Population per 1 Jan. Live births1 Deaths1 Natural change1 Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Crude migration change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1950 3,528,000 82,900 27,000 55,900 23.5 7.7 15.9
1951 3,585,000 86,800 26,900 59,900 24.2 7.5 16.7 -0.5
1952 3,646,000 85,700 26,600 59,100 23.5 7.3 16.2 0.8
1953 3,710,000 87,200 26,300 60,900 23.5 7.1 16.4 1.2
1954 3,775,000 91,400 26,000 65,400 24.2 6.9 17.3 0.2
1955 3,839,000 92,500 25,700 66,800 24.1 6.7 17.4 -0.4
1956 3,904,000 89,800 26,500 63,300 23.0 6.8 16.2 0.7
1957 3,967,000 89,700 27,000 62,700 22.6 6.8 15.8 0.3
1958 4,031,000 93,100 27,400 65,700 23.1 6.8 16.3 -0.2
1959 4,044,000 98,300 27,400 70,900 24.0 6.7 17.3 -14.3
1960 4,129,000 102,866 27,015 51,866 24.7 6.5 18.2 2.8 2.65
1961 4,190,000 104,429 27,621 53,429 24.7 6.5 18.2 -3.4 2.65
1962 4,258,000 101,717 30,394 51,717 23.7 7.1 16.6 -0.4 2.63
1963 4,325,000 100,326 29,620 51,326 23.0 6.8 16.2 -0.5 2.62
1964 4,389,000 97,433 29,708 48,433 22.0 6.7 15.3 -0.5 2.62
1965 4,450,000 94,987 31,291 46,987 21.2 7.0 14.2 -0.3 2.60
1966 4,505,000 92,026 30,389 44,026 20.3 6.7 13.6 -1.2 2.57
1967 4,556,000 89,302 32,904 42,302 19.5 7.2 12.3 -1.0 2.53
1968 4,598,000 89,660 32,416 43,660 19.4 7.0 12.4 -3.2 2.52
1969 4,640,000 87,069 35,169 41,069 18.7 7.5 11.2 -2.1 2.45
1970 4,674,000 90,207 34,283 45,207 19.2 7.3 11.9 -4.6 2.62
1971 4,729,000 90,396 35,325 45,396 19.0 7.4 11.6 0.2 2.61
1972 4,778,000 86,402 36,409 41,402 18.0 7.6 10.4 0 2.53
1973 4,818,000 88,577 35,911 44,577 18.3 7.4 10.9 -2.5 2.58
1974 4,856,000 89,761 37,145 45,761 18.4 7.6 10.8 -2.9 2.59
1975 4,895,000 89,712 39,292 45,712 18.3 8.0 10.3 -2.3 2.52
1976 4,920,000 90,605 38,875 46,605 18.3 7.9 10.4 -5.3 2.52
1977 4,960,000 89,028 40,139 45,028 17.9 8.1 9.8 -1.7 2.33
1978 4,986,000 88,766 40,239 45,766 17.8 8.1 9.8 -4.6 2.31
1979 4,993,000 89,803 41,907 47,896 17.8 8.4 9.5 -8.1 2.34
1980 5,029,000 89,458 43,346 46,112 17.6 8.6 9.1 -1.9 2.26
1981 5,071,000 92,501 43,961 48,540 18.1 8.6 9.5 -1.1 2.29
1982 5,100,000 91,784 42,734 49,050 17.9 8.4 9.6 -3.9 2.25
1983 5,134,000 92,660 43,301 49,359 18.0 8.4 9.6 -2.9 2.20
1984 5,167,000 95,841 45,787 50,054 18.5 8.8 9.7 -3.3 2.24
1985 5,230,000 97,739 46,153 51,586 18.7 8.8 9.9 2.3 2.27
1986 5,234,000 98,155 46,354 51,801 18.7 8.8 9.9 -9.1 2.26
1987 5,266,000 94,595 46,332 48,263 17.8 8.7 9.1 -3.0 2.19
1988 5,397,000 91,905 47,544 44,361 17.1 8.9 8.3 16.6 2.13
1989 5,401,000 91,138 47,077 44,061 16.8 8.7 8.1 -7.4 2.15
1990 5,424,000 92,815 50,721 43,895 17.1 9.3 8.1 -3.8 2.29
1991 5,453,000 89,091 52,416 36,675 16.3 9.6 6.7 -1.4 2.07
1992 5,467,000 72,631 55,076 17,555 13.4 10.2 3.2 -0.6 1.72
1993 5,346,000 55,594 56,270 −676 11.5 11.6 −0.1 -22.0

1Births and deaths until 1959 are estimates.

Excluding Abkhazia and South Ossetia

Population per 1 Jan. Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Crude migration rate (per 1000) Fertility rates
1994 4,922,900 57,311 50,326 6,985 11.8 10.4 1.4 -80.5 1.53
1995 4,742,300 56,486 49,219 7,267 11.9 10.1 1.8 -38.5 1.57
1996 4,573,200 55,153 48,251 6,902 11.6 10.2 1.4 -37.1 1.60
1997 4,410,200 54,136 48,026 6,110 11.4 10.5 1.1 -36.7 1.63
1998 4,289,600 51,491 47,907 3,584 11.0 10.5 0.5 -27.8 1.60
1999 4,197,600 48,408 47,909 499 10.7 10.6 0.1 -21.5 1.55
2000 4,116,800 48,167 48,250 −83 10.7 10.7 −0.0 -19.2 1.59
2001 4,037,500 46,620 47,133 −513 10.5 10.6 −0.1 -19.2 1.57
2002 3,991,300 45,127 47,514 −2,387 10.2 10.8 −0.6 -10.8 1.53
2003 3,965,800 45,450 47,114 −1,664 10.3 10.7 −0.4 -6.0 1.56
2004 3,937,700 45,751 49,746 −3,995 10.3 11.2 −0.9 -6.2 1.58
2005 3,917,000 46,063 49,534 −3,471 10.4 11.1 −0.7 -4.6 1.59
2006 3,888,000 46,845 50,014 −3,169 10.6 11.2 −0.6 -6.8 1.62
2007 3,872,700 48,499 50,204 −1,705 11.1 11.4 −0.3 -3.6 1.69
2008 3,847,600 52,442 50,490 1,952 13.6 13.1 0.5 -7.0 1.84
2009 3,829,000 56,568 50,794 5,774 14.8 13.3 1.5 -6.3 2.01
2010 3,799,800 55,230 51,066 4,164 14.6 13.5 1.1 -8.7 2.00
2011 3,773,600 51,565 49,818 1,747 13.7 13.3 0.4 -7.3 1.89
2012 3,739,300 49,969 49,347 622 13.4 13.2 0.2 -9.3 1.85
2013 3,718,400 49,657 48,564 1,093 13.4 13.1 0.3 -5.9 1.86
2014 3,716,900 60,635 49,087 11,548 16.3 13.2 3.1 -3.5 2.31
2015 3,721,900 59,249 49,121 10,128 15.9 13.2 2.7 -1.4 2.31
2016 3,728,600 56,569 50,771 5,798 15.2 13.7 1.5 0.3 2.24
2017 3,721,900 53,293 47,822 5,471 14.3 12.9 1.4 -3.2 2.14
2018 3,729,600 51,138 46,524 4,614 13.7 12.5 1.2 0.9 2.12
2019 3,723,500 48,296 46,659 1,637 13.0 12.5 0.4 -2.0 2.01
2020 3,716,900 46,520 50,537 −4,017 12.5 13.6 −1.1 -0.7 1.97
2021 3,728,600 45,946 59,906 −13,960 12.3 16.1 −3.8 6.9 1.98
2022 3,688,647 42,319 49,118 -6,799 11.5 13.3 -1.8 -8.9 1.82
2023 3,736,400 40,214 42,756 -2,542 10.8 11.4 -0.6 13.5

Source: Geostat public database,[7] Geostat website, section Population and Demography.[38] [39]

Current vital statistics

Source: [38]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January – June 2022 20,195 26,681 -6,486
January – June 2023 19,431 21,944 -2,513
Difference Decrease -764 (-3.78%) Positive decrease -4,737 (-17.75%) Increase +3,973

Life expectancy

Life expectancy in Georgia since 1950
Life expectancy in Georgia since 1960 by gender
Period Life expectancy in

Years[40]

1950–1955 60.65
1955–1960 Increase 62.65
1960–1965 Increase 64.65
1965–1970 Increase 66.65
1970–1975 Increase 68.15
1975–1980 Increase 69.64
1980–1985 Decrease 69.63
1985–1990 Increase 70.45
1990–1995 Decrease 70.11
1995–2000 Increase 71.09
2000–2005 Increase 72.60
2005–2010 Increase 72.65
2010–2015 Increase 72.74
2015–2020 Increase 73.52
2020–2025 Increase 74.24

Structure of the population

Structure of the population (01.01.2019) :[41]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 1 790 600 1 929 600 3 720 200 100
0–4 141 300 131 900 273 200 7,35
5–9 134 600 124 300 258 900 6,96
10–14 118 500 106 200 224 700 6,04
15–19 109 100 96 500 205 600 5,53
20–24 115 400 104 000 219 400 5,90
25–29 129 700 126 100 255 800 6,88
30–34 136 000 135 100 271 100 7,28
35–39 126 500 127 600 254 100 6,83
40–44 119 100 121 400 240 500 6,46
45–49 115 100 119 100 234 200 6,30
50–54 111 800 121 300 233 100 6,27
55–59 120 800 139 800 260 600 7,00
60–64 102 500 129 300 231 800 6,23
65–69 80 800 112 800 193 600 5,20
70–74 51 300 80 200 131 500 3,53
75–79 36 100 64 800 100 900 2,71
80–84 28 900 58 700 87 600 2,36
85+ 13 000 30 600 43 600 1,17
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 394 400 362 400 756 800 20,35
15–64 1 186 000 1 220 200 2 406 200 64,68
65+ 210 100 347 100 557 200 14,97

Ethnic groups

Georgians are the predominant ethnic group in Georgia, according to the 2014 census 86.83% of the population. The proportion in 2014 was much higher than in preceding censuses as in 2014 Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region were not under government control and therefore not included. As a result of this the proportion of Ossetians and Abkhazians was very low (0.39% and 0.02%, respectively).

Population of Georgia in 2014

  Georgians (86.8%)
  Azerbaijanis (6.3%)
  Armenians (4.5%)
  Russians (0.7%)
  Ossetians (0.4%)
  Yazidis (0.3%)
  Ukrainians (0.2%)
  Greeks (0.2%)
  Assyrians (0.1%)
  Others (0.5%)
Population of Georgia according to ethnic group 1800–1897
Ethnic
group
18001 18322 18653 18864 18975
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Georgians 622,600 79.4 677,100 75.9 950,600 73.8 1,188,100 72.4 1,331,300 69.4
Armenians 47,000 6.0 84,000 9.4 122,600 9.5 172,900 10.5 197,000 10.3
Russians 25,900 2.0 42,500 2.6 101,000 5.3
Ossetians 29,300 3.7 32,300 3.6 45,500 3.6 71,000 4.3 81,500 4.2
Transcaucasian Tatars 30,000 3.8 27,000 3.0 51,500 4.0 62,600 3.8 81,100 4.2
Abkhazians 52,000 6.6 56,600 6.3 60,000 4.6 38,000 2.3 42,600 2.2
Greeks 500 0.1 7,000 0.8 12,000 0.9 28,800 1.8 38,500 2.0
Jews 3,300 0.4 4,000 0.5 7,800 0.6 11,700 0.7 17,200 0.9
Germans 4,200 0.3 5,500 0.3 7,400 0.4
Others 4,100 0.5 9,100 0.7 20,800 1.3 21,800 1.1
Total 784,700 892,100 1,289,200 1,641,900 1,919,400
1 Source: [42] 2 Source: [42] 3 Source: [43] 4 Source: [43] 5 Source: [43]
Population of Georgia according to ethnic group 1926–2014
Ethnic
group
census 19261 census 19392 census 19593 census 19704 census 19795 census 19896 census 20026 census 20147
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Georgians 1,788,186 66.8 2,173,922 61.4 2,600,588 64.3 3,130,741 66.8 3,433,011 68.8 3,787,393 70.1 3,661,173 83.8 3,224,564 86.8
Azerbaijanis 137,921[44] 5.2 188,058[45] 5.3 153,600 3.8 217,758 4.6 255,678 5.1 307,556 5.7 284,761 6.5 233,024 6.3
Armenians 307,018 11.5 415,013 11.7 442,916 11.0 452,309 9.7 448,000 9.0 437,211 8.1 248,929 5.7 168,102 4.5
Russians 96,085 3.6 308,684 8.7 407,886 10.1 396,694 8.5 371,608 7.4 341,172 6.3 67,671 1.5 26,453 0.7
Ossetians 113,298 4.2 147,677 4.2 141,178 3.5 150,185 3.2 160,497 3.2 164,055 3.0 38,028 0.9 14,385 0.4
Yazidis 2,262 0.1 12,915 0.4 16,212 0.4 20,690 0.4 25,688 0.5 33,331 0.6 18,329 0.4 12,174 0.3
Kurds 7,955 0.3 2,514 0.1 1,596 0.0
Ukrainians 14,356 0.5 45,595 1.3 52,236 1.3 49,622 1.1 45,036 0.9 52,443 1.0 7,039 0.2 6,034 0.2
Greeks 54,051 2.0 84,636 2.4 72,938 1.8 89,246 1.9 95,105 1.9 100,324 1.9 15,166 0.3 5,544 0.2
Assyrians 2,904 0.1 4,707 0.1 5,005 0.1 5,617 0.1 5,286 0.1 6,206 0.1 3,299 0.1 2,377 0.1
Jews 30,389 1.1 42,300 1.2 51,582 1.3 55,382 1.2 28,298 0.6 24,795 0.5 2,333 0.0 1,405 0.0
Abkhazians 56,847 2.1 57,805 1.6 62,878 1.5 79,449 1.7 85,285 1.7 95,853 1.8 3,527 0.1 864 0.0
Others 65,961 2.5 58,711 1.7 37,026 0.9 38,665 0.8 39,690 0.8 50,502 0.9 18,766 0.4 17,282 0.5
Total 2,677,233 3,540,023 4,044,045 4,686,358 4,993,182 5,400,841 4,371,535 3,713,804
1 Source: [1]. 2 Source: [2]. 3 Source: [3]. 4 Source: [4]. 5 Source: [5]. 6 Source: [6]. 7 Source: [7].

Languages

"Languages of Georgia" redirects here. For languages of the U.S. state, see Georgia (U.S. state) § Languages.

The most widespread language group is the Kartvelian family, which includes Georgian, Svan, Mingrelian and Laz.[46][47][48][49][50][51] The official languages of Georgia are Georgian, with Abkhaz having official status within the autonomous region of Abkhazia. Georgian is the primary language of 87.7 percent of the population, followed by 6.2 percent speaking Azerbaijani, 3.9 percent Armenian, 1.2 percent Russian, and 1 percent other languages.[52]

Languages of Georgia in 2014

  Georgian (87.64%)
  Azerbaijani (6.23%)
  Armenian (3.90%)
  Russian (1.24%)
  Ossetian (0.15%)
  Other (0.84%)
Population of Georgia by native language
Language 2002 census[53] 2014 census[54]
Number % Number %
Georgian 3,677,995 84.14 3,254,852 87.64
Azerbaijani 283,632 6.49 231,436 6.23
Armenian 235,653 5.39 144,812 3.90
Russian 83,007 1.90 45,920 1.24
Ossetian 31,381 0.72 5,698 0.15
Other 59,867 1.36 31,014 0.84
Not stated 72 0.00
Total 4,371,535 3,713,804

Religion

Religion (2014 Georgian census)

  Georgian Orthodox Church (83.41%)
  Armenian Apostolic Church (2.94%)
  Catholic Church (0.52%)
  Jehovah's Witnesses (0.33%)
  Protestantism (0.07%)
  Islam (10.73%)
  Yazidism (0.23%)
  Judaism (0.04%)
  Other, irreligious or unspecified (1.73%)


Religion 2002[55] 2014[56]
Number % Number %
Christianity 3,872,099 88.58 3,240,724 87.27
Georgian Orthodox Church 3,679,233 83.87 3,097,573 83.41
Armenian Apostolic Church 171,139 3.92 109,041 2.94
Catholic Church 34,727 0.79 19,195 0.52
Jehovah's Witnesses 12,395 0.33
Protestantism 2,520 0.07
Islam 433,784 9.92 398,677 10.73
Yazidism 8,591 0.23
Judaism 3,541 0.08 1,417 0.04
Other religions 62,111 1.42 1,429 0.04
No religion 19,080 0.51
Refusal 9,635 0.26
Religion not stated 34,251 0.92
Total population 4,371,535 100.0 3,713,804 100.0

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Does not including data of the Russian occupied territories of Georgia
  2. ^ Official only in Abkhazia.

References

  1. ^ "Population and Demography – National Statistics Office of Georgia". Archived from the original on 2023-03-26. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  2. ^ "Migration". National Statistics Office of Georgia. 2017. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Population by age and sex for the beginning of the year". National Statistics Office of Georgia. 2018. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  4. ^ ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Population Dynamics in Georgia – An Overview Based on the 2014 General Population Census Data" (PDF). UNFPA, National Statistics Office of Georgia (Geostat). 2017-11-29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-11-05. Retrieved 2022-02-02.
  6. ^ a b c "Retro-projection of main demographic indicators for the period 1994–2014". National Statistics Office of Georgia (Geostat). 2018-05-18. Archived from the original on 2021-11-04. Retrieved 2022-02-02.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Population as of 1 January by regions and self-governed units". Statistics Database Geostat. Retrieved 2022-02-03.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp. 48
  9. ^ a b ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp. 72
  10. ^ a b ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp. 87–88
  11. ^ ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp. 92
  12. ^ a b ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp. 95
  13. ^ Pipes, Richard (1959). "Demographic and Ethnographic Changes in Transcaucasia, 1897-1956". Middle East Journal. 13 (1). Middle East Institute: 48. JSTOR 4323084. Archived from the original on 2022-04-19. Retrieved 2022-04-09 – via JSTOR.
  14. ^ Nana Bolashvili, Andreas Dittmann, Lorenz King, Vazha Neidze (eds.): National Atlas of Georgia, 138 pages, Steiner Verlag, 2018, ISBN 978-3-515-12057-9
  15. ^ Richard H. Rowland, "National and regional liana miles is so beautiful in Georgia, 1989–2002: Results from the 2002 census," Eurasian Geography and Economics, 47(2): 221–242, 2006 (excluding Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region).
  16. ^ a b Jones, Stephen (2013). Georgia: A Political History Since Independence. I.B. Tauris, distributed by Palgrave Macmillan. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-84511-338-4.
  17. ^ Statistical yearbooks of Georgian SSR, State Committee of Statistics, Tbilisi, various years (in Russian).
  18. ^ Page 14, Population Dynamics in Georgia (UNFPA)[5]
  19. ^ Ethnic minorities in Georgia Archived 1 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Federation Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'Homme.
  20. ^ a b Page 1–4, Population Dynamics in Georgia (UNFPA)[5]
  21. ^ Page 3, footnote 4, Population Dynamics in Georgia (UNFPA)[5]
  22. ^ "WB Report: Georgia Among Largest Emigration Countries". Civil Georgia. 2007-01-16. Archived from the original on 2020-11-11. Retrieved 2020-12-22.
  23. ^ "International migrant stock 2019, 'by destination and origin'". United Nations. 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-09-17. Retrieved 2022-02-02.
  24. ^ Georgia: Ethnic Russians Say, "There's No Place Like Home" Archived 16 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine. EurasiaNet.org. 30 April 2009.
  25. ^ "Ethnic Composition of Georgia 2014". Population Statistics Eastern Europe and former USSR. Archived from the original on 2022-03-21. Retrieved 2022-02-02.
  26. ^ "Results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census". Russian Census (in Russian). 2014-06-18. Archived from the original on 2019-01-07. Retrieved 2022-02-02.
  27. ^ a b "15 new independent states. Population at the beginning of the year, 1950–2019". Demoscope Weekly. 2019-11-25. Archived from the original on 2022-02-03. Retrieved 2022-02-03.
  28. ^ Demoscope, 1950–1988[27]
  29. ^ a b "Statistical Yearbook 2016" (PDF). Geostat. 2016-12-28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-01-20. Retrieved 2022-02-03.
  30. ^ Geostat, 1989–2016, Statistical Yearbook 2016, Table 2.1, Page 18[29]
  31. ^ Geostat, post 2016, Public Access Database[7]
  32. ^ Table 1.1, Page 2, Population Dynamics in Georgia (UNFPA)[5]
  33. ^ Geostat Public Access Database[7]
  34. ^ Geostat Statistical Yearbook 2016, Table 2.1, Page 18, Footnote 1[29]
  35. ^ "Demographic Yearbook". United Nations Statistics Division. Archived from the original on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2011-03-05.[not specific enough to verify]
  36. ^ Demoscope, 1950–1993 total population at beginning of year[27]
  37. ^ "GeoStat.Ge". www.geostat.ge. Archived from the original on 2011-05-19.
  38. ^ a b "Births, deaths and summary vital statistics". National Statistics Office of Georgia (Geostat). Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  39. ^ Summary of Vital Statistics in Georgia 2022 Archived 2023-03-30 at the Wayback Machine [bare URL PDF]
  40. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  41. ^ "Population – National Statistics Office of Georgia". www.geostat.ge. Archived from the original on January 21, 2022. Retrieved Dec 22, 2020.
  42. ^ a b ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp.79.
  43. ^ a b c ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp.112.
  44. ^ Including 56,110 Meskhetian Turks
  45. ^ Including 87,987 Meskhetian Turks
  46. ^ Boeder (2002), p. 3
  47. ^ Boeder (2005), p. 6
  48. ^ Gamkrelidze (1966), p. 69
  49. ^ Fähnrich & Sardzhveladze (2000)
  50. ^ Kajaia (2001)
  51. ^ Klimov (1998b), p. 14
  52. ^ "Population by region, by native languages and fluently speak Georgian language". Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  53. ^ "Georgian census 2002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-23.
  54. ^ "Population by region, by native languages and fluently speak Georgian language". census.ge. Archived from the original on 2020-02-14. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  55. ^ "2002 General Population Census — Population by Religious Beliefs" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-03-27. Retrieved Dec 22, 2020.
  56. ^ "2014 General Population Census — Population by Regions and Religion". Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved Dec 22, 2020.