|12th century BC [a]–8th century BC|
|Largest city||Zua, Shashilu, Utu|
|Common languages||Armenian language|
• Approx. BC 1120 - BC 1100
• Approx. BC 850 - BC 825
• Approx. BC 810 - BC 770
|12th century BC [a]|
|8th century BC|
|8th century BC|
|Today part of||Georgia|
|History of Armenia|
|Timeline • Origins • Etymology|
|History of Georgia|
|History of Georgia|
Diauehi (Georgian დიაოხი, Urartian Diauehi, Greek Taochoi, Armenian Tayk, possibly Assyrian Daiaeni,) was a tribal union located in northeastern Anatolia, that was recorded in Assyrian and Urartian sources during the Iron Age. It is usually (though not always) identified with the earlier Daiaeni (Dayaeni), attested in the Yonjalu inscription of the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser I's third year (1118 BC) and in later records by Shalmaneser III (845 BC). While it is unknown what language(s) they spoke,: 205 they may have been speakers of a Kartvelian, Armenian, or Hurrian language.
Although the exact geographic extent of Diauehi is still unclear, many scholars place it in the Pasinler Plain in today's northeastern Turkey, while others locate it in the Armenian–Georgian marchlands as it follows the Kura River. Most probably, the core of the Diauehi lands may have extended from the headwaters of the Euphrates into the river valleys of Çoruh to Oltu. The Urartian sources speak of Diauehi's three key cities—Zua, Utu and Sasilu; Zua is frequently identified with Zivin Kale and Utu is probably modern Oltu, while Sasilu is sometimes linked to the early medieval Georgian toponym Sasire, near Tortomi (present-day Tortum, Turkey). The Diaeuhian city Šešetina may have corresponded to Şavşat, Turkey (Shavsheti in Georgian).
The region of Diauehi seems to have roughly corresponded to, or bordered, the previous Hayasa-Azzi territory.
In the early 8th century, Diauehi became the target of the newly emerged regional power of Urartu. Menua (810–785 BC) conquered part of Diaeuhi, annexing its most important cities: Zua, Utu, and Shashilu, and forcing the king of Diauehi, Utupursi(ni), to pay a tribute of gold and silver.
Menua's son, Argishti I (785–763 BC), campaigned against the Diauehi kingdom in 783. Argishti I defeated King Utupursi, annexing his possessions․ In exchange for his life, Utupursi was forced to pay a tribute including a variety of metals and livestock. Toward the end of his reign, Argishti I led yet another campaign against Utuspursi, who led a rebellion against the Urartians.
Diauehi is considered by some as a locus of Proto-Kartvelian; it has been described as an "important tribal formation of possible proto-Georgians" by Ronald Grigor Suny (1994).
According to Robert H. Hewsen, they may have been speakers of a language unrelated to any other in the Caucasus region.
However, they are mentioned by Diodorus Siculus as Xaoi, which Hewsen etymologizes as a Greek form of the Armenian endonym, Hayk'.
Massimo Forlanini proposed a connection between the name of the Diaeuhi tribe, Baltu, and the Hayasan deity, Baltaik. He also compared these to the name of the Hayasan mercenary, Waltahi.
Some scholars have linked the Diaeuhi to the Bronze Age Daiaeni (Dayaeni) tribe, mentioned in 12th century BC Assyrian sources as being part of the Nairi confederation. This connection is mainly due to the phonetic similarities of the names Daiaeni and Diaeuhi.
The Daiaeni were powerful enough to counter the Assyrian forays, although in 1112 BC their king, Sien, was defeated by Tiglath-Pileser I. Sien was captured and later released on terms of vassalage.
Daiaeni appeared again in Assyrian texts nearly three centuries later when King Asia of Daiaeni (850–825 BC) was forced to submit to the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III in 845 BC, after the latter had overrun Urartu and made a foray into Daiaeni.
As the Daiaeni of Assyrian records seem to have been located further south than the Diaeuhi of Urartian records, Robert H. Hewsen and Nicholas Adontz proposed that the Diaieni originally inhabited a region between Palu and either Mush Province or Lake Van.: 207 They then moved north to Kars Province, where they battled the Urartians and later encountered Greek mercenaries, including Xenophon. They subsequently moved further northwest.: 207
Archibald Sayce suggested that Daiaeni was named after an eponymous founder, Diaus, and thus meant "people of the land/tribe of Diau(s)".
Diau(s) (possible founder/patriarch suggested by Archibald Sayce)
"At all events, the Classical Iberian kingdom, unified by a common, Georgian tongue, came to include a number of important and ancient ethnic groups, including the remains of the Diauehi (Taokhoi), the Moskhoi (Meskhians) "...
"Proto - Georgians formed the tribal confederation of the Diauehi about the twelfth century B.C."
"The tribal union of Diauehi was recorded in the 12th century bc"
"About this time, in southwestern Georgia formed the first political unities of Georgian tribes: Diauhi (Daièna)"
"they [Colchis] absorbed part of Diaokh (c.750 BCE)"
"mainly divided between Urartu and Colchis"
233. «...К примеру, Г. Тиранян считал, что племена саспейров или эсперитов, фасианов и халдайев (халдеев) или халибов имели, вероятно, картвельское или грузинское происхождение, а таохи — хурритское происхождение.»
246. «Подытоживая вышесказанное, мы приходим к выводу, что бассейн реки Чорох в VII—VII веках до н.э. был населён скифскими племенами, подчинившими местное армянское население, а в районе устья реки Чорох — грузинские племена. Во второй половине I тысячелетия до н.э. они, в основном, оказались в водовороте формирования армянского народа и были арменезированы.»
31. «Среди специалистов существует мнение, что диаухи-таохи являлись хурритским племенем.»
«Западное протогрузинское объединение Колхида существовало самостоятельно давно; уже в VIII в. до х.э. оно предположительно унаследовало северные земли уничтоженного урартами хурритского государства таохов, расположенные в долине р. Чорох.»
«Этническая принадлежность Дайаэни не вполне ясна; Г. А. Меликишвили считает их хурритским племенем, и это весьма вероятно. Но Дайаэни просуществовало до VIII в. до н.э., а следовательно, грузиноязычные халды-халибы, засвидетельствованные западнее, возможно, уже с IX в., должны были бы пройти здесь, скорее всего, раньше его образования, — по всей вероятности, в начале XII в. до н.э...»