Viceroyalty of Carchemish / Kingdom of Carchemish
Karkamiša
c. 1321 BC–717 BC
Carchemish among the Neo-Hittite states
Carchemish among the Neo-Hittite states
CapitalCarchemish
Common languagesHittite, Hieroglyphic Luwian
Religion
Hittite-Luwian religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraBronze Age, Iron Age
• Established
c. 1321 BC
• Disestablished
717 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mitanni
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Today part ofTurkey
Syria

Carchemish (Turkish: Karkamış; /ˈkɑːrkəmɪʃ/ KAR-kəm-ish or /kɑːrˈkmɪʃ/ kar-KEE-mish),[1][2] also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: 𒋼𒀀𒅗𒈩 Kargamiš;[3] Hieroglyphic Luwian: 𔕢‎𔗧𔖻𔑺 Karkamisà, 𔗧𔖱𔗧𔖻𔑶 Karakamisà/Karikamisà;[4][5] Akkadian:

Assyrian cuneiform U120FB MesZL 859 or U1243C MesZL 860.svg
Assyrian cuneiform U120B5 MesZL 491.svg
Assyrian cuneiform U12229 MesZL 486 or U122C3 MesZL 485.svg
Gargamiš;[6] Egyptian: 𓈎𓄿𓂋𓏭𓈎𓄿𓐛𓏭𓂝𓆷𓄿𓌙𓈉 qꜣrjqꜣmjꜥšꜣ;[7][8] Hebrew: כַּרְכְּמִישׁ Karkəmīš) was an important ancient capital in the northern part of the region of Syria. At times during its history the city was independent, but it was also part of the Mitanni, Hittite and Neo-Assyrian Empires. Today it is on the frontier between Turkey and Syria.

It was the location of an important battle, about 605 BC, between the Babylonians and Egyptians, mentioned in the Bible (Jer. 46:2). Modern neighbouring cities are Karkamış in Turkey and Jarabulus in Syria (also Djerablus, Jerablus, Jarablos, Jarâblos);[9] the original form of the modern toponym seems to have been Djerabis or Jerabis, likely derived from Europos, the ancient name of the Hellenistic-Roman settlement.[10]

Geography of the site

Early Hittite artifact found by T. E. Lawrence and Leonard Woolley (right) in Carchemish.
Early Hittite artifact found by T. E. Lawrence and Leonard Woolley (right) in Carchemish.

Carchemish is now an extensive set of ruins (90 hectares, of which 55 lie in Turkey and 35 in Syria), located on the West bank of Euphrates River, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Gaziantep, Turkey, and 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Aleppo, Syria. The site is crossed by the Baghdad Railway that now forms the Turco-Syrian border. The site includes an acropolis along the river, an Inner Town encircled by earthen ramparts and an Outer Town (most of which lies in Syrian territory). A Turkish military base has been established at the site and access but only the acropolis is presently of restricted access.

History of research

T. E. Lawrence and Leonard Woolley (right) in Carchemish, Spring 1913
T. E. Lawrence and Leonard Woolley (right) in Carchemish, Spring 1913
N29 G1 D21
Z4
N29 G1 Aa15
Z4
D36
M8 G1 T14 N25
qꜣrjqꜣmjꜥšꜣ[7][8]
Era: New Kingdom
(1550–1069 BC)
Egyptian hieroglyphs

Carchemish has always been well known to scholars because of several references to it in the Bible (Jer. 46:2; 2 Chr. 35:20; Isa. 10:9) and in Egyptian and Assyrian texts. However, its location was identified only in 1876 by George Smith. Carchemish had been previously identified, incorrectly, with the Classical city of Circesium, at the confluence of the Khabur River and the Euphrates;[11] while some early scholars thought that Jarabulus could be Hierapolis Bambyce, that site is actually located at Manbij in Syria.

The site was excavated by the British Museum, between 1878 and 1881 through Consul Patrick Henderson and between 1911 and 1914 under the direction of D. G. Hogarth. In 1911 on the field there were D. G. Hogarth himself, R. C. Thompson, and T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), from 1912 to 1914 C. L. Woolley and T. E. Lawrence, while a last campaign took place in 1920 with C. L. Woolley and Philip Langstaffe Ord Guy.[12][13][14][15] Excavations were interrupted in 1914 by World War I and then ended in 1920 with the Turkish War of Independence.[16] These expeditions uncovered substantial remains of the Assyrian and Neo-Hittite periods, including defensive structures, temples, palaces, and numerous basalt statues and reliefs with Luwian hieroglyphic inscriptions.[17] Between 1956 and 1998, the whole site had been mined by the Turkish Land Forces.

With the completion in February 2011 of mine clearing operations on the Turkish portion of the site, archaeological work was resumed in September 2011.[18] Excavations in the Inner and Outer Towns were carried out by a joint Turco-Italian team from the Universities of Bologna, Gaziantep, and University of Istanbul under the direction of Prof. Dr. Nicolò Marchetti.[19]

The second season, from August to November 2012, brought several new art findings and archaeological discoveries, the most remarkable of which is Katuwa's Palace (c. 900 BC) to the east of the Processional Entry.

The third season, from May to October 2013, extended the exposure of Katuwa's palace, retrieving a cuneiform tablet with an exorcism in the name of the god Marduk, as well as the ruins of Lawrence's excavation house in the Inner Town, from which literally hundreds of fragments of sculptures and hieroglyphic inscriptions have been retrieved.

The fourth season started in May 2014 and continued through October 2014: in Katuwa's palace several orthostats exquisitely carved with a procession of gazelle-bearers have been found, some of them in situ, next to a courtyard paved with squared slabs. In the Neo Assyrian period that courtyard was covered by a mosaic floor made of river pebbles forming squares alternating in black and white color. Lawrence's excavation house was completely excavated.

During the fifth season, April to October 2015, more significant discoveries have been made in the palace area, both for Late Hittite sculptures, and Neo Assyrian refurbishments, with tens of items—including two fragments of clay prismatical cylinders inscribed with a unique cuneiform text by Sargon, intended for display, telling how he captured and reorganized the city of Karkemish—retrieved in a 14-m-deep well, sealed in 605 BC at the time of the Late Babylonian takeover.

The sixth season, May to July 2016, saw a number of excavation areas opened also near the border, due to the added security represented by the construction of the wall (see below). Thus, in 2016 a complete stratigraphic record was obtained also for peripheral areas, greatly adding to our understanding of urban development between LB II and the Achaemenid period.

In the seventh season, from 7 May to 18 July 2017, the major breakthroughs were the beginning of the excavations on the north-western end of the acropolis and the discovery in the eastern Lower Palace area of a monumental building dating from the LB II. Among the finds, in addition to new sculpted complete artworks from the Iron Age, fragments of Imperial Hittite clay cuneiform tablets and c. 250 inscribed bullae should be mentioned.

The eighth season lasted from 4 May to 20 July 2019 and revealed a massive palace on the top of the acropolis dating from Late Bronze II, exposed more architecture and finds from the LB II administrative building in area C East (which seems to be the Hittite E2.KIŠIB) and more of the Iron I storage facility in area S.

Conservation and presentation works have now been completed and the archaeological park at the site is finally open since 13 July 2019, thanks to the support also of Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality and Gaziantep Governorate: the site may be visited between 9 am and one hour before sunset through guided tours every two hours for security reasons. Financial support has been received by the three Universities mentioned above, by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs,[20] and the Sanko Holding,[21] with the technical support also of Şahinbey Municipality[22] and Inta A.Ş.

Archaeological investigations on the Syrian side have been conducted as part of the Land of Carchemish project:[23] investigations of the Outer Town of Carchemish were undertaken in conjunction with the DGAM in Damascus and with the funding and sponsorship of the Council for British Research in the Levant and of the British Academy, under the direction of the late Professors T. J. Wilkinson and E. Peltenburg.[24]

The Outer Town area lying in Syria has been designated, already before the Syrian Civil War, an endangered cultural heritage site and labelled "at risk" by the Global Heritage Fund,[25] due to the agricultural expansion and, especially, the urban encroachment. The field assessment of the Syrian part of the Outer Town documented that parts of the modern border town of Jerablus encroached upon the Outer Town.[26] In July 2019, a scientific visit to the outer town in Syria by the Turco-Italian Archaeological Expedition at Karkemish, entailed the protection of the area from further encroachment by the sprawling town of Jerablus and by the facilities for trucks which were being built to the South of the border: the City Council of Jerablus declared all the area enclosed by the Iron Age city walls a "first degree protected site", meaning the complete ban of any activity on it.

In February 2016, a prefabricated security wall (thus with no foundations that could have damaged the ancient site) was completed by the Turkish Army to the south of the railway, stretching between the Euphrates bridge and the train station of Karkamış.

Occupation history

Coordinates: 36°49′47″N 38°00′54″E / 36.82972°N 38.01500°E / 36.82972; 38.01500

Basalt lion head from the monument to King Katuwa at Carchemish, now in the British Museum[27][28]
Basalt lion head from the monument to King Katuwa at Carchemish, now in the British Museum[27][28]
Map of Syria in the second millennium BC, showing the location of Carchemish, or "Karkemish."
Map of Syria in the second millennium BC, showing the location of Carchemish, or "Karkemish."

The site has been occupied since the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods[29] (pot burials), with cist tombs from ca. 2400 BC (Early Bronze Age). The city is mentioned in documents found in the Ebla archives of the 3rd millennium BC. According to documents from the archives of Mari and Alalakh, dated from c. 1800 BC, Carchemish was then ruled by a king named Aplahanda and was an important center of timber trade. It had treaty relationships with Ugarit and Mitanni (Hanilgalbat). In ancient times, the city commanded the main ford in the region across the Euphrates, a situation which must have contributed greatly to its historical and strategic importance.

After about 1745 BC, and the reign of Yahdul-Lim, not much is further known about Carchemish until the 1620s, when the city is mentioned in connection with the siege of Urshu (Ursha) by the Hittite king Hattusili I.[30] At that time, Carchemish was allied with the kingdom of Yamhad, centered in Aleppo, in supporting Urshu, but their efforts were unsuccessful, and the city fell, along with many other Syrian cities. Hattusili campaigned several years against Yamhad.

Egyptian influence

Pharaoh Thutmose I of the Eighteenth Dynasty erected a stele near Carchemish to celebrate his conquest of Syria and other lands beyond the Euphrates. Around the end of the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten, Carchemish was captured by king Šuppiluliuma I of the Hittites (c. 14th century BC), who made it into a kingdom ruled by his son Piyassili.

Piyassili was followed by his son Shakhurunuwa (fr:Sahurunuwa), about whom relatively little is known. He participated in the Battle of Kadesh (1274 BC). Another son of Piyassili, x-Sarruma, probably ruled before him.

End of the Hittite empire

The city became one of the most important centres in the Hittite Empire, during the Late Bronze Age, and reached its apogee around the 13th century BC. While the Hittite empire fell to the Sea Peoples during the Bronze Age collapse, Carchemish survived the Sea Peoples' attacks to continue to be the capital of an important Neo-Hittite kingdom in the Iron Age, and a trading center.[31]

Although Ramesses III states in an inscription dating to his 8th Year from his Medinet Habu mortuary temple that Carchemish was destroyed by the Sea Peoples, the city evidently survived the onslaught.[32]

Kuzi-Teshub I

King Kuzi-Teshub (Kuzi-Tesup) is attested in power here and was the son of Talmi-Teshub who was a contemporary of the last Hittite king, Šuppiluliuma II.[33] He and his successors ruled a "mini-empire" stretching from Southeast Asia Minor to Northern Syria and the West bend of the Euphrates[34] under the title "Great King". This suggests that Kuzi-Tesub saw himself as the true heir of the line of the great Šuppiluliuma I and that the central dynasty at Hattusa was now defunct.[35] This powerful polity lasted from c.1175 to 975 BC when it began losing control of its farther possessions and became gradually a more local city state centered around Carchemish.[36][37]

After Kuzi-Teshub, some of the kings of Carchemish, such as Tuthaliya I, Sapaziti, and Ura-Tarhunza, continued to use the title ‘Great King’ in order to advance their power interests.[38]

House of Suhi

Main article: House of Suhi

Suhi I was the first known ruler of the dynasty of Carchemish that followed. He ruled in early 10th century BC, and was followed by Astuwalamanza.

Katuwa, son of Suhi II, is the best known ruler of this dynasty as known in the Hieroglyphic Luwian sources. He reigned around 880 BC.

In the 9th century BC, King Sangara (870-848 BC), the last member of the dynasty, paid tribute to Kings Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III of Assyria.[39] The Assyrians turned the site into an important provincial capital.

In 2015, for the first time, the name of Sangara has been documented in a hieroglyphic Luwian inscription originally erected in Carchemish, itself.[38] The six extant pieces of the basalt stele of Kubaba (goddess) from Karkemish, currently housed in three different museums, have finally been all discovered and assembled together. This stele was made by king Kamani of Karkemish around 790 BC.[38] The top part of this stele was drawn in 1876 by George Smith and transported in 1881 to the British Museum.

In 1876, this was the longest hieroglyphic Luwian inscription known until then. Based on it, Smith was the first to link the site with the Hittites as mentioned in the Bible, and also to identify it as Carchemish.[38]

The Suhi-Katuwa Dynasty are known for their extensive building program. They have left a prominent set of monuments, with sculptures and inscriptions.[40] Among the monuments they left, there are portal lions, inscriptions, relief orthostats and freestanding statues.

House of Astiruwa

Main article: House of Astiruwa

The House of Astiruwa was the last known dynasty of rulers of Carchemish, and king Astiruwa (ca 848-790 BC) was the founder of this dynasty. Then came kings Yariri, Kamani, and Sastura.

King Yariri started to reign after 790 BC.[41] He was a great scholar, and left extensive records of his time.[42]

Carchemish was conquered by Sargon II in 717 BC in the reign of King Pisiri, the last ruler of the House of Astiruwa.

Battle of Carchemish

In the summer of 605 BC, the Battle of Carchemish was fought there by the Babylonian army of Nebuchadnezzar II and that of Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt and the remnants of the Assyrian army (Jer. 46:2). The aim of Necho's campaign was to contain the Westward advance of the Babylonian Empire and cut off its trade route across the Euphrates. However, the Egyptians were defeated by the unexpected attack of the Babylonians and were eventually expelled from Syria.

After a brief Neo-Babylonian occupation, the Turco-Italian excavations found evidence for three phases of Achaemenid occupation, a significant reconstruction in Hellenistic times, a monumental phase from the Late Roman period, an Early Byzantine and three Abbasid phases before the final abandonment of the site until the early 1900s.[43]

Kings of Carchemish

[44]

Yariri (r.) and Kamani (l.), resp. regent and future-ruler of Carchemish
Yariri (r.) and Kamani (l.), resp. regent and future-ruler of Carchemish
Ruler Proposed reign (BC) Notes
Adni-anda (?) c. ? to 1786
Aplah-anda I c. 1786 to 1764 son of Adni-anda
Yatar-Ami c. 1764 to 1763 son of Aplah-anda I
Yahdun-Lim, or possibly Yahdul-Lim c. 1763 to 1745? son of Bin-Ami
Aplah-anda II c. 1745? to ? son of Yahdun-Lim?
Piyassili or Sharri-Kushukh c. 1315 son of the Hittite king Šuppiluliuma I
[ ... ]sharruma son of Piyassilis
Shakhurunuwa son of Piyassilis
Ini-Teshub I c. 1230s
Talmi-Teshub c. 1200
Kuzi-Teshub c. 1170 claimed the title of "Great King" after the fall of Hatti
Ini-Teshub II c. 1100
Tudhaliya c. 1100 either before or after Ini-Teshub II
Sapaziti c. 1025
Uratarhunda c. 1000
Suhi I c. 975
Astuwalamanza c. 950
Suhi II c. 925
Katuwa c. 900
Suhi III c. 890
Sangara c. 870–848
Isarwilamuwa c. 840
Kuwalanamuwa c. 835
Astiru c. 830
Yariri (regent) c. 815
Kamani c. 790
Sastura c. 760
Astiru II (?)
Pisiri c. 730s the last king, defeated in 717 by Sargon II

Goddess Kubaba

Main article: Kubaba (goddess)

Old Syrian seal, dedicated to goddess Kubaba by Matrunna, daughter of Aplahanda, early 18th century BCE.
Old Syrian seal, dedicated to goddess Kubaba by Matrunna, daughter of Aplahanda, early 18th century BCE.

The patron goddess of Carchemish was Kubaba, a deity of apparently Hurrian origins.[45] She was represented as a dignified woman wearing a long robe, standing or seated, and holding a mirror. The main male deity of the town was Karhuha, akin to the Hittite stag-god Kurunta.

Kubaba was also the goddess of Alalakh, located in the coastal Amik Valley.

In 2015, a basalt stele of Kubaba, originally from Karkemish, was assembled back together from six separate broken pieces currently housed in three different museums around the world. This stele was originally made by king Kamani of Karkemish around 790 BC. The Luwian hieroglyphic inscription on this stele can now be read more fully, and it carries some important information about Karkemish history.[38]

Kubaba appears to be one of the three main deities worshipped in Carchemish during the Middle Bronze Age. The other two were Nergal and Nubandag. The chief god was the Mesopotamian-influenced Nergal, who was the city-god of Carchemish. He was also called Il-Karkamis, “God of Karkemish”, as is evidenced on an Old Babylonian hematite cylinder seal in the British Museum collections (BM 89172).[46]

The warrior god Nubandag has Hurrian roots. According to the Mari texts, he was worshipped at Carchemish in the Old Babylonian period along with Nergal.[47]

Later, beginning in the mid-14th century BC, the city-god of Carchemish became the warrior god Karhuha, similar to Kurunta (god). He was seen as a Stag-god, and his cult was probably introduced to Carchemish under the Mitannian influence.[48]

These deities clearly reflect the geographical position of Carchemish at the crossing of important trade routes; because of this, the city became a mixed cultural and religious centre.

Material Culture

Among the many artefacts recovered at Karkemish, typical of this territory are the Handmade Syrian Horses and Riders and the Syrian Pillar Figurines. These are clay figurines dating from mid-8th-7th centuries BCE that have been found in several hundreds in the town. These terracottas were manufactured during the Neo-Assyrian phase of Karkemish and it is currently believed they might have represented male and female characters performing distinguished public roles.[49]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ""Carchemish" in Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  2. ^ ""Carchemish"". Collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Kargamiš." Hawkins J.D., 1980.
  4. ^ Hawkins, John D (2000). Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions. Vol. 1: Inscriptions of the Iron Age. Part 1: Text, Introduction, Karatepe, Karkamis, Tell Ahmar, Maras, Malatya, Commagene. Walter de Gruyter. p. 74. ISBN 978-3-110-80420-1.
  5. ^ Hawkins, John D (2000). Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions. Vol. 1: Inscriptions of the Iron Age. Part 3: Plates. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 80, 83. ISBN 978-3-110-10864-4.
  6. ^ Parpola, Simo (1970). Neo-Assyrian Toponyms. Kevaeler: Butzon & Bercker. pp. 364–365.
  7. ^ a b Gauthier, Henri (1928). Dictionnaire des Noms Géographiques Contenus dans les Textes Hiéroglyphiques. Vol. 5. pp. 157–158.
  8. ^ a b Wallis Budge, E. A. (1920). An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary: with an index of English words, king list and geological list with indexes, list of hieroglyphic characters, coptic and semitic alphabets, etc. Vol II. John Murray. p. 1042.
  9. ^ "Lawrence of Arabia . Locations . Syria". Pbs.org.
  10. ^ Di Cristina S. et al, 2017, pp. 129-150.
  11. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Circesium". Newadvent.org.
  12. ^ H. Frowde (1911). David George Hogarth, Hittite problems and the excavation of Carchemish (PDF). Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1-171-63699-1.
  13. ^ Hogarth D.G. 1914, repr. 1969.
  14. ^ Woolley C.L., 1921, repr. 1969.
  15. ^ "C.L. Woolley C.L. & Barnett R.D., 1952, repr. 1978" (PDF). Archive.org.
  16. ^ Güterbock H.G., 1954, pp. 102–114.
  17. ^ Wright, William (1886). The Empire of the Hittites: with Decipherment of Hittite inscriptions (PDF). Nisbet.
  18. ^ Ancient city to rise in SE Turkey area cleared of mines. Daily News & Economic Review 31.03.2011
  19. ^ Nicolò Marchetti (2012). "Karkemish on the Euphrates: Excavating a City's History". Near Eastern Archaeology. 75 (3): 132–147.
  20. ^ "Italian archaeological, anthropological and ethnological missions abroad". Esteri.it.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "Land of Carchemish (Syria) Project". Durham University. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  24. ^ Edgar Peltenburg, Euphrates River Valley Settlement: The Carchemish Sector in the Third Millennium BC, Oxbow Books, 2007, ISBN 1-84217-272-7
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ T.J. Wilkinson; E. Peltenberg (November 2010). ""Carchemish in Context: Surveys in the Hinterland of a Major Iron Age City."". Bulletin of the Council for British Research in the Levant. 5 (1): 11–20(10).
  27. ^ "figure | British Museum". Britishmuseum.org. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  28. ^ "Hittite Monuments - Karkamış". Hittitemonuments.com.
  29. ^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.
  30. ^ Seton Lloyd (21 August 2007). Hittite Warrior. p. 44. ISBN 9781846030819.
  31. ^ Federico Giusfredi, Sources for a Socio-Economic History of the Neo-Hittite States, Winter Verlag, 2010, pp. 35-51.
  32. ^ Gary Beckman, "Hittite Chronology", Akkadica, pp.119–120 (2000), p.23
  33. ^ K.A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, William B. Eerdsman Publishing Co, pp.99 & 140
  34. ^ Kitchen, op. cit., p.99
  35. ^ Trevor R. Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford University Press, p.384
  36. ^ Kitchen, op. cit., p.100
  37. ^ Giusfredi, op.cit., pp. 37-44
  38. ^ a b c d e Marchetti, Nicolò; Peker, Hasan (16 July 2018). "The Stele of Kubaba by Kamani and the Kings of Karkemish in the 9th Century BC". Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie. Walter de Gruyter GmbH. 108 (1): 81–99. doi:10.1515/za-2018-0006. ISSN 0084-5299.
  39. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 302.
  40. ^ Sanna Pauliina Aro-Valjus (1 January 2013). "Carchemish Before and After 1200 BC". Luwian Identities. BRILL. pp. 233–276. doi:10.1163/9789004253414_013. ISBN 9789004253414. at academia.edu
  41. ^ Gilibert, Alessandra (2011). Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. De Gruyter. p. 135
  42. ^ Zsolt Simon (2012), Where is the Land of Sura of the Hieroglyphic Luwian inscription KARKAMIŠ A4b and Why Were Cappadocians Called Syrians by Greeks? Altoriental. Forsch., Akademie Verlag 39
  43. ^ Zaina F. (ed.) 2019.
  44. ^ H. Peker, Texts from Karkemish I. Luwian Hieroglyphic Inscriptions from the 2011-2015 Excavations (OrientLab Series Maior 1), Disci-Ante Quem, Bologna, 2016, pp. 47-49
  45. ^ Hutter M. 2003, pp. 211-280.
  46. ^ Marchesi, Gianni; Marchetti, Nicolò (2019). "The Deities of Karkemish in the Middle Bronze Age according to Glyptic and Textual Evidence". Pearls of the past: studies on Near Eastern art and archaeology in honour of Frances Pinnock. Münster: Zaphon. ISBN 3-96327-058-6. OCLC 1099837791.
  47. ^ Marchesi, Gianni; Marchetti, Nicolò (2019). "The Deities of Karkemish in the Middle Bronze Age according to Glyptic and Textual Evidence". Pearls of the past: studies on Near Eastern art and archaeology in honour of Frances Pinnock. Münster: Zaphon. ISBN 3-96327-058-6. OCLC 1099837791.
  48. ^ Marchesi, Gianni; Marchetti, Nicolò (2019). "The Deities of Karkemish in the Middle Bronze Age according to Glyptic and Textual Evidence". Pearls of the past: studies on Near Eastern art and archaeology in honour of Frances Pinnock. Münster: Zaphon. ISBN 3-96327-058-6. OCLC 1099837791.
  49. ^ Bolognani B. 2017, pp.172, 220, 246-247; 2020a; 2020b.

References

BRITISH MUSEUM EXPEDITION

TURCO-ITALIAN EXPEDITION

OTHER REFERENCES