Antigonid Empire
306 BC–168 BC
Tetradrachm with the Eagle of Zeus and the inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΕΡΣΕΩΣ, "[coin] of King Perseus" of Antigonid Macedonia
Tetradrachm with the Eagle of Zeus and the inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΕΡΣΕΩΣ, "[coin] of King Perseus"
Antigonid Empire c. 200 BC
Antigonid Empire c. 200 BC
CapitalAntigonia (Antigonus I)
Demetrias (Demetrius I)
Pella (since Antigonus II)
Common languagesGreek
Ancient Greek / Hellenistic
GovernmentHellenistic monarchy
• 306 BC – 301 BC
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
• 179 BC – 168 BC
Perseus of Macedon
Historical eraHellenistic
• Established
306 BC
• Defeat by Rome
168 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Macedonian Empire
Achaemenid Empire
Roman Macedonia
Seleucid Empire

The Antigonid dynasty (/ænˈtɪɡnɪd/; Greek: Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a Macedonian Greek royal house which ruled the kingdom of Macedon during the Hellenistic period.[2] Founded by Antigonus I Monophthalmus, a general and successor of Alexander the Great, the dynasty first came to power after the Battle of Salamis in 306 BC and ruled much of Hellenistic Greece from 294 until their defeat at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC (Third Macedonian War), after which Macedon came under the control of the Roman Republic.

The wars of the Diadochi witnessed the fall of the Argead dynasty in Macedon resulting in a power vacuum, which the Antigonid and Antipatrid dynasties sought to occupy. The Antigonid family first rose to power when Demetrius I Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus I, ousted Cassander's governor of Athens in 306 BC giving his father control over a land spanning from the Aegean Sea to the Middle East. Despite the subsequent instability and loss of the Asian territory, the family managed to maintain its power in mainland Greece and the islands, with Antigonus II Gonatas ultimately solidifying Antigonid rule over Hellenistic Macedon –a territory also known as the Antigonid Empire. Antigonus III Doson further expanded Macedonian influence in southern Greece reestablishing the Hellenic Alliance with himself as the president. Under Philip V, Antigonid Macedon first came into conflict with Rome, which had become a decisive power in the eastern Mediterranean. In the second century BC, the last Antigonid king, Perseus, became known as the champion of Greek resistance against Rome, albeit Rome's control over Antigonid Greece began to steadily expand, culminating in the fall of the dynasty in 168.[3][4]


Further information: Argead dynasty, Antipatrid dynasty, History of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), and Government of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

The beginning of Hellenistic Greece was defined by the struggle between the Antipatrid dynasty, led first by Cassander (r. 305 – 297 BC), son of Antipater, and the Antigonid dynasty, led by Antigonus I Monophthalmus (r. 306 – 301 BC) and his son, the future king Demetrius I Poliorcetes (r. 294 – 288 BC). After the power crisis in Macedon, which culminated in Philip III's and Euridice's death, Cassander managed to seize control from Olympias and began to establish his authority in the kingdom; in 316 BC he buried Philip III and Euridice at Aegae and married Philip II's daughter, Thessalonica, thus becoming a member of the Argead dynasty.[5] In 310/309 BC, Cassander commanded Glaucias to secretly assassinate the 14-year-old Alexander IV, son of Alexander the Great, and his mother Roxane and the Macedonian Argead dynasty became extinct.

In 307 BC, Demetrius I successfully ousted Cassander's governor of Athens, Demerius of Phalerum, and after defeating Ptolemy I at the Battle of Salamis in 306 BC he conquered the island Cyprus. Following that victory, Demetrius' father, Antigonus I, assumed the title of Basileus ("King" of Alexander's Empire) by the assembled armies and gained control over the Aegean, the eastern Mediterranean, and most of the Middle East.[4] While Antigonus and Demetrius attempted to recreate Philip II's Hellenic league with themselves as dual hegemons, a revived coalition of Cassander, Ptolemy I Soter, Seleucus I Nicator, and Lysimachus decisively defeated the Antigonids at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, during which Antigonus I was killed.[6] Demetrius I survived the battle and in 294 BC –during the struggles between Casander's sons Alexander V and Antipater I– he managed to seize control of Athens and establish himself as king of Macedon. In 288 BC, he was driven out by Phyrrus and Lysimachus and eventually died as a prisoner of Seleucus I Nicator.[7][8] After a long period of instability, Demetrius' son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states by 276 BC.[9]

Map of the 2nd Macedonian War


The Antigonid was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Antipatrid dynasty. The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179 and 168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty.[10]


The ruling members of the Antigonid dynasty were:

Antigonid rulers
King Reign (BC) Consort(s) Comments
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Western Asian Antigonid kingdom) 306–301 BC Stratonice One of Alexander the Great's top generals; a major participant in the so-called "funeral games" following that king's death.

"Monophthalmus" is Greek for "One-eyed," a reference to a disfiguring battle scar.

Demetrius I Poliorcetes (Macedon, Cicilia) 294–287 BC Phila
?Unnamed Illyrian woman
Son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. Demetrius' wife Phila was a daughter of Antipater, and ancestor of all subsequent Antigonid kings of Macedon, except Antigonus III Doson, through her son Antigonus II Gonatas. Antigonus III Doson was descended from the marriage of Demetrius and Ptolemais, who was a daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and mother of Doson's father, Demetrius the Fair, the ephemeral King of Cyrene. Deïdameia was a daughter of Aeacides of Epirus and sister of Pyrrhus, she had one son, Alexander, by Demetrius. Demetrius had a further two sons, Demetrius the Thin and Corrhagus, the former by an unnamed Illyrian woman, the latter by a woman named Eurydice. Demetrius I Poliorcetes was the first Antigonid king of Macedon.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Macedon) 276–239 BC Phila Son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila, grandson of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. His wife, Phila, was the daughter of his sister, Stratonice. Only one known legitimate child, Demetrius II Aetolicus.
Demetrius the Fair (Cyrene) c. 250 BC Olympias of Larissa
Berenice II
Son of Demetrius I Poliorcetes and Ptolemaïs. Father of Antigonus III Doson and, apparently, Echecrates by Olympias.
Demetrius II Aetolicus (Macedon) 239–229 BC Stratonice of Macedon
Phthia of Epirus
Nicaea of Corinth
Son of Antigonus II and Phila. Stratonice of Macedon was a daughter of Antiochus I Soter and Stratonice. Phthia of Epirus was a daughter of Alexander II of Epirus and Olympias II of Epirus. Nicaea of Corinth was the widow of Demetrius' cousin, Alexander of Corinth. Chryseis was a former captive of Demetrius.[11] Only known son, Philip by Chryseis, also had a daughter by Stratonice of Macedon, Apama III.
Antigonus III Doson (Macedon) 229–221 BC Chryseis Son of Demetrius the Fair and Olympias of Larissa. Children unknown.

Philip V (Macedon)
221–179 BC Polycratia of Argos Son of Demetrius II and Chryseis.[11] At least four children: Perseus of Macedon, Apame, Demetrius and Philippus.

Perseus (Macedon)
179–168 BC
(died 166 BC)
Laodice V The last ruler of Macedon. Laodice V was a daughter of the Seleucid king, Seleucus IV Philopator. At least two sons, Philip and Alexander.

The Greek rebel against Rome and last King of Macedonia, Andriscus, claimed to be the son of Perseus.

Family tree of Antigonids

Derdas II
Derdas III
archon of Elimiotis
Machatas of Elimeia
Phila of ElimeiaPhilip II
king of Macedonia
359-336 BC
satrap of India
wifePeriandros of Pella
daughter of Corrhaeus
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
king of Macedonia
306-301 BC
daughter of Antipater
2.Eurydice of Athens
3.Deidamia I of Epirus
daughter of Aeacides of Epirus
Demetrius I Poliorketes
king of Macedon
294-288 BC
daughter of Agathocles of Syracuse
daughter of Ptolemy I of Egypt
(1) Stratonice of Syria
∞ 1.Seleucus I Nicator
2.Antiochus I Soter
(1) Antigonus II Gonatas
king of Macedon
277-274, 272-239 BC
daughter of
Seleucus I Nicator
(5) Demetrius the Fair
king of Cyrene
250-249 BC
1.Olympias of Larissa
2.Berenice II
daughter of Magas
king of Cyrene
(2) 1.Stratonice of MacedonDemetrius II Aetolicus
king of Macedonia
239-229 BC
2.Nicaea of Corinth
daughter of
Alexander II of Epirus
(1) Antigonus III Doson
king of Macedon
229-221 BC
Prusias I of Bithynia(1) Apama III(4) Philip V
king of Macedon
221-179 BC
Polycratia of ArgosAntigonos
Prusias II of Bithynia
king of Bithynia
Apame IV(illeg.) Perseus
king of Macedon
179-168 BC
Laodice V
daughter of
Seleucus IV Philopator

Coin gallery

Antigonid dynasty coins

See also


  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  2. ^ Grant, Michael (1988). The Rise of the Greeks. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 978-0-684-18536-1. It was the descendants of these Dorians [...] who formed the upper class among the Macedonians of subsequent epochs.
  3. ^ Nicholson, Emma (2023-01-20). Philip V of Macedon in Polybius' Histories: Politics, History, and Fiction. Oxford University Press. pp. 2–4. ISBN 978-0-19-269212-2.
  4. ^ a b "Antigonid dynasty | Britannica". Retrieved 2023-12-08.
  5. ^ Adams, Winthrop Lindsay (2010). "Alexander's Successors to 221 BC". In Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (eds.). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Oxford, Chichester, & Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 214–215. ISBN 978-1-4051-7936-2.
  6. ^ Adams, Winthrop Lindsay (2010). "Alexander's Successors to 221 BC". In Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (eds.). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Oxford, Chichester, & Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-4051-7936-2.
  7. ^ Adams, Winthrop Lindsay (2010). "Alexander's Successors to 221 BC". In Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (eds.). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Oxford, Chichester, & Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 218–219. ISBN 978-1-4051-7936-2.
  8. ^ "Demetrius I Poliorcetes | Britannica". Retrieved 2023-12-08.
  9. ^ J. Spielvogel, Jackson (2005). Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715. Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-534-64603-4.
  10. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Antigonid dynasty, 2008, O.Ed. "But Perseus' failure to deploy his full resources brought about his defeat (168) at Pydna in Macedonia and signaled the end of the dynasty."
  11. ^ a b Eusebius, Chronicle 1.237-8; Syncellus Chronicle 535.19

Further reading