Georgia had a total primary energy supply (TPES) of 4.793 Mtoe in 2016.[1] Electricity consumption was 11.5 TWh in 2016. Electricity production was 11.6 TWh, of which 81% from hydroelectricity and 19% from natural gas.[2]

Georgia
Georgia

Georgia works in close collaboration with the European Union to implement sustainable biomass management practices by 2030.[3] The country will continue to increase the renewable energy created as well as producing less greenhouse gasses that can be harmful to the environment.

Wind power

Wind is converted into power that can be used as electricity. The wind is harvested through wind turbines, sails, windmills, and windpumps.[4] When the wind turbines rotate around the motor, it consistently collects kinetic energy from the wind. The energy collected then gets stored in a generator. On average a single wind turbine can produce 21.6 kWh. However, most of the wind turbines are grouped together at a wind farm to produce as much energy as possible.

Wind power in Georgia consists of one wind farm, completed in 2013 with 20 MW of capacity. [5] Currently the only available wind farm is located in Qarali. The country is in the planning process of creating a new offshore wind farm near Tbilisi. In the next following years the government has created a plan to increase the number of available wind farms to maximize wind power by 20%. The wind farms will be located in Zestaponi, Nigoza and Ruisi.[6] An offshore wind farm typically has turbines located in bodies of water such as the sea. High wind speeds from storms at sea allow the wind farms to generate larger quantities of energy per year than compared to that of inland wind farms. In the case of Georgia the wind farm would be located near the Black Sea.

Wind Turbine
Wind Turbine

Approximately 1% of energy supply in Georgia comes from wind and solar farms. As of 2019 Georgia has produced 20.7 MW of renewable energy from wind power. It has the potential of producing 4.16 terawatt hours per year in electricity and heat. According to a report from the International Renewable Energy Agency, in 2019 73% of renewable energy was used for electricity and 26% was used for bioenergy.

As of 2021 the capacity has increased to 21 MW.[7]

Solar power

Solar energy is the process of converting electromagnetic radiation into electrical energy. Solar energy can be used to power homes, businesses, and new electric vehicles through the use of solar panels. One drawback of solar energy is that on cloudy days, where not as much sunlight can get through, there is not as much energy generated. Even though the panels may not get enough sunlight on these days, they are still able to collect energy to power homes and businesses. The energy stored is put into lithium ion batteries. Then most of the lithium ion batteries are used to power electronics such as cell phones, laptops, toothbrushes, and now electric vehicles. These batteries are optimal for use because they can be recharged and reused. Additionally solar powered products have become a new wave of renewable energy. Everyday products such as chargers, fans, flashlights, and calculators can be found with solar powered options.

Solar energy in Georgia is widely available,[8] due to high average insolation.

In 2021, Georgia contracted Abu Dhabi's Masdar to develop a 100-megawatt solar power project in a move to diversify the country's energy mix.[9] The government is on a mission to reduce greenhouse gasses by this new implementation of alternative energy. It is expected that by 2030 greenhouse gasses will be reduced by 29.25 Mt CO2eq, which may be a result of the renewable energy options.[10]

Hydro power & Natural Gas

In the colder months of the year the average temperature in Georgia can get down to around 50°F. Since the temperatures are very cold, it is hard for the government to rely on hydropower. In place of hydropower, the main source of power in the winter is natural gas. The two sources of energy use a mutualistic relationship to optimize energy potential. In 2019 the country consumed 84,756 million cubic feet of natural gas.[11] The natural gas is imported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, and Turkey.

In 2019 Georgia produced 8.93 terawatt hours per year from hydropower. The Georgian National Energy and Water Supply Regulatory Commission controls the use of hydropower. As of 2020, Georgia produced 3818 MW from hydropower. Although hydropower is not used much in the winter due to the temperature, in the summer it is one of the highest energy producers. However, an issue that may occur with rising temperature will affect evaporation. High hydropower use creates a chain link reaction that increases evaporation, which then increases precipitation, and leads to an increase in river flow.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Georgia, Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) by source". www.iea.org. International Energy Agency (IEA). Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  2. ^ "Georgia, Electricity generation by fuel". www.iea.org. International Energy Agency (IEA). Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  3. ^ "Sustainable Bioenergy for Georgia: A Roadmap – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  4. ^ "Wind Power".
  5. ^ Georgian Energy and Natural Resources Minister inspects construction site of country's first wind power plant
  6. ^ Gerden, Eugene. "Georgia plans 200MW wind build-out". www.windpowermonthly.com. Retrieved 2022-12-08.
  7. ^ "Renewable Capacity Statistics 2021" (PDF).
  8. ^ "RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS ON CONSTRUCTION, LICENSING AND FEASIBILITY STAGES" (PDF). Energy Week Georgia. 2020.
  9. ^ Bhat, Divsha (2021-12-30). "Abu Dhabi's Masdar to develop Georgia's largest solar power plant". Gulf Business. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  10. ^ "Factsheet: Renewable Energy in Georgia" (PDF).
  11. ^ "Georgia Natural Gas".