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Demographics of Sweden
PopulationIncrease 10,555,448 (1 Nov 2023)
Growth rate0.5% (2022 est.)
Birth rate10.83 births/1,000 population (2022)
Death rate9.46 deaths/1,000 population (2022)
Life expectancy82.7 years
 • male80.94 years (2022)
 • female84.58 years (2022 est.)
Fertility rate1.67 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate2.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate3.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years17.71%
15–64 years62.18%
65 and over20.12%
Sex ratio
Total1.01 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
65 and over0.69 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Swede(s) adjective: Swedish
Major ethnicSwedes
Language
OfficialSwedish
SpokenSwedish, others
Swedes celebrating Midsummer (Swedish: Midsommar)
Historical population of Sweden

The demography of Sweden is monitored by the Statistiska centralbyrån (Statistics Sweden). Sweden's population was 10,555,448 (1 Nov 2023), making it the 15th-most populous country in Europe after Czech Republic, the 10th-most populous member state of the European Union, and the 87th-most populous country in the world. The total fertility rate was rated at 1.66 in 2020,[1] which is far below the replacement rate of 2.1.

The population exceeded 10 million for the first time on Friday, 20 January 2017.[2][3] The three largest cities are Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Sweden's population has become much more ethnically, religiously and linguistically diverse over the past 70 years as a result of immigration. Every fourth (24.9%) resident in the country has a foreign background and every third (32.3%) has at least one parent born abroad. The most common foreign ancestry is Finnish.[4]

Statistics Sweden projects a Swedish population of 12.6 million in 2070.[5]

Population

Swedish population pyramid, 1860–2020

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[6]

Cities

Main article: List of cities in Sweden by population

Sweden has 17 cities with a population of over 100,000 people. Most of Sweden's population lives in Svealand and Götaland.

Fertility

TFR of Sweden overtime to 2016

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[7]

Years 1630 1632 1634 1636 1638 1640 1642 1644 1646 1648 1650 1652 1654 1656 1658[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.81 4.25 3.89 4.38 4.4 4.92 4.38 4.25 4.95 5.4 4.34 4.54 5.33 4.72 4.58
Years 1660 1662 1664 1666 1668 1670 1672 1674 1676 1678 1680 1682 1684 1686 1688[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.2 4.54 5.01 4.98 4.6 5.13 5.01 4.38 4.28 4.35 4.64 5.4 5.25 4.84 5.29
Years 1690 1692 1694 1696 1698 1700 1702 1704 1706 1708 1710 1712 1714 1716 1718[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.99 5.11 4.98 5.33 5.11 5.56 5.81 5.52 5.16 5.32 4.3 5.63 5.81 4.92 5.13
Years 1720 1722 1724 1726 1728 1730 1732 1734 1736 1738 1740 1742 1744 1746 1748[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.62 5.09 5.02 4.75 4.23 4.77 4.86 4.77 4.51 4.96 4.52 4.35 5.02 4.85 4.86
Years 1750 1752 1754 1756 1758 1760 1762 1764 1766 1768 1770 1772 1774 1776 1778[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 5.09 5.29 5.4 5.23 4.68 5.06 4.98 4.92 4.79 4.77 4.68 4.1 4.89 4.67 4.94
Years 1780 1782 1784 1786 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 5.06 4.54 4.47 4.67 4.81 4.33 5.19 4.79 4.92 4.79 4.07
Years 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.26 4.5 4.45 4.52 4.5 4.36 4.42 4.31 3.78 4.67
Years 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 5.01 4.76 4.22 4.42 4.93 5.01 4.74 4.8 4.68 4.68
Years 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 5.03 5.09 5.22 4.9 5.18 4.94 4.44 4.77 4.94 4.67
Years 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.32 4.38 4.84 4.78 4.63 4.52 4.37 4.17 4.18 4.46
Years 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.3 4.49 4.36 4.56 4.46 4.25 4.2 4.3 4.66 4.45
A Swedish family with their five children in 1898
Years 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.36 4.2 4.26 4.53 4.3 4.23 4.36 4.66 4.71 4.71
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.44 4.59 4.65 4.69 4.58 4.68 4.4 3.93 4.03 4.11
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.37 4.34 4.49 4.54 4.6 4.57 4.62 4.44 4.56 4.36
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.29 4.32 4.24 4.4 4.34 4.39 4.36 4.24 4.1 4.15
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[7]
Total fertility rate in Sweden 4.14 3.93 3.97 3.94 4.01 3.98 3.92 3.99 3.9 4

Life expectancy

Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations.

1751–1949

Years 1751 1754 1756 1768 1776 1781 1789 1795 1810 1818 1824 1837 1847 1855 1861[8]
Life expectancy in Sweden 38.4 37.4 36.2 35.0 41.5 37.8 31.2 36.5 31.9 40.0 44.9 39.6 40.1 43.0 47.1
Years 1868 1872 1878 1884 1890 1896 1905 1911 1913 1916 1922 1929 1935 1943 1949[8]
Life expectancy in Sweden 43.2 50.0 47.6 49.1 50.4 53.4 54.5 58.0 58.7 58.2 61.0 62.3 64.9 68.7 70.8

1950–2015

Life expectancy in Sweden since 1751
Life expectancy in Sweden since 1960 by gender
Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 71.9 1985–1990 77.2
1955–1960 72.9 1990–1995 78.2
1960–1965 73.5 1995–2000 79.3
1965–1970 74.1 2000–2005 80.1
1970–1975 74.8 2005–2010 81.1
1975–1980 75.4 2010–2015 81.9
1980–1985 76.4

Source: UN World Population Prospects

 
Largest cities or towns in Sweden
"Kommungruppsindelning 2017". Retrieved 16 September 2017. & "SCB befolkningsstatistik". Retrieved 11 July 2018.
Rank Name County Pop. Metro. Rank Name County Pop. Metro.
Stockholm
Stockholm
Gothenburg
Gothenburg
1 Stockholm Stockholm 952,058 2,205,105 11 Umeå Västerbotten 125,434 137,800 Malmö
Malmö
Uppsala
Uppsala
2 Gothenburg Västra Götaland 565,496 1,015,974 12 Lund Skåne 121,893 197,300
3 Malmö Skåne 351,749 689,206 13 Borås Västra Götaland 111,354 151,300
4 Uppsala Uppsala 221,141 257,200 14 Huddinge Stockholm 110,335 136,000
5 Linköping Östergötland 158,953 189,800 15 Eskilstuna Södermanland 105,014 110,900
6 Örebro Örebro 150,949 196,700 16 Nacka Stockholm 101,697 114,800
7 Västerås Västmanland 150,564 169,200 17 Gävle Gävleborg 100,825 107,500
8 Helsingborg Skåne 143,671 321,500 18 Halmstad Halland 99,932 119,300
9 Norrköping Östergötland 140,991 149,600 19 Sundsvall Västernorrland 98,837 115,300
10 Jönköping Jönköping 137,863 156,700 20 Södertälje Stockholm 96,254 158,300

Statistics

Estimated birth rate (blue) and death rate in Sweden for the period of 1735 to 2000. The graph indicates strong population growth for the period of 1800 to 1970, and a beginning population decline from the 1980s.
The birth and death rates in Sweden 1950–2008.

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[9]

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

[fn 1]

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

Population change

Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km²
  0–9.9
  10–24.9
  25–49.9
  50–99.9
  100–199.9
  200+

The demography of Sweden is monitored by Statistics Sweden (SCB).

The 2005 Swedish census showed an increase of 1,488,322 compared to the 1990 census, an average increase of 88,680 annually. During the 1930s, birth rate increased by more than 88128.5 children per year while death rates fell and immigration surged. In the early 2000s, birth rate declined as immigration increased further, with the context of unrest in the Middle East, upholding steady population growth.[10][11]

Population projections

In 1950 Sweden had fewer people aged 10–20 with more people ages 20–30 and 0–10. In 2017 the ratio of male to female remains steady at about 50–50. As a whole, the graph broadens with people appearing to live longer. In 2050 it is predicted that all ages will increase from below 300,000 males and females to above 300,000 males and females. With about 50,000 people living to the ages of 90–100. In 2100 the graph is shaped as a rectangle with people of all ages and genders remaining steady. It narrows slightly at the top of the graph with about 250,000/300,000 males and females living to be 90–100 years old.[12] Statistics Sweden projects the following population development in Sweden:[13]

Year Projection
2016 9,995,000
2020 10,431,000
2026 11,046,000
2030 11,344,000
2040 11,898,000
2050 12,395,000
2060 12,858,000

Eurostat projects a population in Sweden reaching 11,994,364 people in 2040 and 14,388,478 in 2080.[14]

Urbanisation and population density

The population density is just over 25 people per km2 (65 per square mile), with 1,437 persons per km2 in localities (continuous settlement with at least 200 inhabitants).[15],[16] 87% of the population live in urban areas, which cover 1.5% of the entire land area.[17] 63% of Swedes are in large urban areas.[17] The population density is substantially higher in the south than in the north. The capital city Stockholm has a municipal population of about 950,000 (with 1.5 million in the urban area and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area). The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö. Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the Öresund. The Öresund Region, the Danish-Swedish cross-border region around the Öresund that Malmö is part of, has a population of 4 million. Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.

Norrland, which covers approximately 60% of the Swedish territory, has a very low population density (below 5 people per square kilometer). The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Low population density exists also in large parts of western Svealand, as well as southern and central Småland. An area known as Finnveden, which is located in the south-west of Småland, and mainly below the 57th parallel, can also be considered as almost empty of people.

Origin

Percentage born to foreign born mothers

The majority of the population are ethnic Swedes, or people who can trace most of their ethnicity to Sweden going back at least 12 generations. The Sweden Finns are a large ethnic minority comprising approximately 50,000 along the Swedish-Finnish border, and 450,000 first and second-generation immigrated ethnic Finns, mainly living in the Mälaren Valley region. Meänkieli Finnish has official status in parts of northern Sweden near the Finnish border. In addition, Sweden's indigenous population groups include the Sámi people, who have a history of practicing hunting and gathering and gradually adopting a largely semi-nomadic reindeer herding lifestyle. While the Sámi have lived in Fennoscandia from at earliest 3,500 years[18] to at latest around 2,650 years,[19] Sámi settlement of Scandinavia does not predate Norse/Scandinavian settlement of Scandinavia, as sometimes popularly assumed. The migration of Germanic-speaking peoples to Southern Scandinavia happened independently and separate from the later Sámi migrations into the northern regions.[20] Today, the Sámi language holds the status of official minority language in the Norrbotten, Västerbotten and Jämtland counties.

In addition to the Sámi, Tornedalers, and Sweden Finns, Jewish and Roma people have national minority status in Sweden.[21]

There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around two million (19.6%) inhabitants in Sweden are born in another country. Of those, more than half are Swedish citizens.[22] The most common countries of origin were Syria (1.82%), Finland (1.45%), Iraq (1.41%), Poland (0.91%), Iran (0.76%) and Somalia (0.67%).[23] The average age in Sweden is 41.1 years.[24]

There are at least two studies that forecast future demographic changes in Sweden largely due to immigration and low birth rates. A 2006 study states that "[based upon current data, extrapolated with relevant assumptions] Sweden and the Netherlands would have majority foreign-origin populations by the end of the [21st] century."[25] A 2018 study concluded that in Sweden by "2065, the share of the native population is [set] to decrease to 49%, the Western population is projected to fall to 63%, and the Muslim population increase to 25%."[26] Thomas Lindh, at the time head researcher for the Swedish Institute for Futures Studies, claimed in an interview that by the year "2050, more than half of Sweden's population will be immigrants or second-generation immigrants."[27]

Origin statistics in Sweden back to 1900
Background Groups Year
1900[28] 1930[28] 1950[28] 1960[28] 1970[28] 1980[28] 1990[28] 2002[29] 2005[29] 2010[29] 2015[29] 2020[30] 2022[31] 2023[32]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Swedes with two Swedish parents 7,028,802 78.61% 6,997,684 77.34% 6,965,033 73.97% 6,939,156 70.44% 6,900,476 66.5% 6,878,225 65.4% 6,859,385 65.0%
Swedes with one Swedish parent and one foreign born 553,772 6.19% 586,710 6.48% 652,648 6.93% 724,841 7.35% 792,779 7.6% 816,209 7.8% 825,646 7.8%
Total: Swedes 7,561,000 91% 7,613,600 88.6% 7,582,574 84.8% 7,584,394 83.82% 7,617,681 80.90% 7,663,997 77.79% 7,693,255 74.1% 7,694,434 73.1% 7,685,031 72.8%
Born in Sweden to two foreign-born parents 130,000 1.5% 187,000 2.2% 304,751 3.40% 337,568 3.73% 412,960 4.38% 510,756 5.18% 639,309 6.2% 681,448 6.5% 696,049 6.6%
Born outside Sweden 36,000 0.7% 62,000 1% 198,000 2.8% 300,000 4% 538,000 6.7% 627,000 7.5% 790,000 9.2% 1,053,463 11.78% 1,125,790 12.44% 1,384,929 14.70% 1,676,264 17.01% 2,046,731 19.7% 2,145,674 20.4% 2,170,627 20.6%
Total: Foreign background 757,000 9% 977,000 11.4% 1,358,214 15.19% 1,463,358 16.17% 1,797,889 19.09% 2,187,020 22.20% 2,686,040 25.9% 2,827,122 26.9% 2,866,676 27.2%
Overall Total 5,136,441 100% 6,142,191 100% 7,041,829 100% 7,497,967 100% 8,081,229 100% 8,317,937 100% 8,590,630 100% 8,940,788 100% 9,047,752 100% 9,415,570 100% 9,851,017 100% 10,379,295 100% 10,521,556 100% 10,551,707 100%
Foreign born within Stockholm county by municipality in 2021

Vital statistics

Births and deaths over time in Sweden

Data according to Statistics Sweden, which collects the official statistics for Sweden.[33]

Average
population (31 december)
Live births Deaths Natural
change
Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Crude migration change (per 1000) Total
fertility
rates
[fn 2]
1900 5,136,441 [34] 138,139 86,146 51,993 27.0 16.8 10.2 4.02
1901 5,175,228 139,370 82,772 56,598 27.0 16.1 10.9 -3.3 4.04
1902 5,198,752 137,364 79,722 57,642 26.5 15.4 11.1 -6.6 3.95
1903 5,221,291 133,896 78,610 55,286 25.7 15.1 10.6 -6.3 3.82
1904 5,260,811 134,952 80,152 54,800 25.7 15.3 10.4 -2.8 3.83
1905 5,294,885 135,409 82,443 52,966 25.7 15.6 10.1 -3.6 3.83
1906 5,337,055 136,620 76,366 60,254 25.7 14.4 11.3 -3.3 3.81
1907 5,377,713 136,793 78,149 58,644 25.5 14.6 10.9 -3.3 3.77
1908 5,429,600 138,874 80,568 58,306 25.7 14.9 10.8 -1.2 3.79
1909 5,476,441 139,505 74,538 64,967 25.6 13.7| 11.9 -3.3 3.71
1910 5,522,403 135,625 77,212 58,413 24.7 14.0 10.7 -2.3 3.60
1911 5,561,799 132,977 76,462 56,515 24.0 13.8 10.2 -3.1 3.49
1912 5,604,192 132,868 79,241 53,627 23.8 14.2 9.6 -2.0 3.44
1913 5,638,583 130,200 76,724 53,476 23.2 13.6 9.6 -3.5 3.32
1914 5,679,607 129,458 78,311 51,147 22.9 13.8 9.1 -1.8 3.29
1915 5,712,740 122,997 83,587 39,410 21.6 14.7 6.9 -1.1 3.06
1916 5,757,566 121,679 77,771 43,908 21.2 13.6 7.6 0.2 2.99
1917 5,800,847 120,855 77,385 43,470 20.9 13.4 7.5 0.0 2.93
1918 5,813,850 117,955 104,594 13,361 20.3 18.0 2.3 -0.1 2.83
1919 5,847,037 115,193 84,289 30,904 19.8 14.5 5.3 0.4 2.72
1920 5,904,489 138,753 78,128 60,625 23.6 13.3 10.3 -0.5 3.22
1921 5,954,316 127,723 73,536 54,187 21.5 12.4 9.1 -0,7 2.93
1922 5,987,520 116,946 76,343 40,603 19.6 12.8 6.8 -1.2 2.66
1923 6,005,759 113,435 68,424 45,011 18.9 11.4 7.5 -4.5 2.55
1924 6,036,118 109,055 72,001 37,054 18.1 12.0 6.1 -1.0 2.43
1925 6,053,562 106,292 70,918 35,374 17.6 11.7 5.9 -3.0 2.34
1926 6,074,368 102,007 71,344 30,663 16.8 11.8 5.0 -1.6 2.22
1927 6,087,923 97,994 77,219 20,775 16.1 12.7 3.4 -1.2 2.11
1928 6,105,190 97,868 73,267 24,601 16.1 12.0 4.1 -1.3 2.08
1929 6,120,080 92,861 74,538 18,323 15.2 12.2 3.0 -0.6 1.95
1930 6,142,191 94,220 71,790 22,430 15.4 11.7 3.7 -0.1 1.96
1931 6,162,446 91,074 77,121 13,953 14.8 12.5 2.3 1.0 1.88
1932 6,190,364 89,779 71,459 18,320 14.5 11.6 2.9 1.6 1.83
1933 6,211,566 85,020 69,607 15,413 13.7 11.2 2.5 0.9 1.72
1934 6,233,090 85,092 69,921 15,171 13.7 11.2 2.5 1.0 1.67
1935 6,250,506 85,906 72,813 13,093 13.8 11.7 2.1 0.7 1.70
1936 6,266,888 88,938 74,836 14,102 14.2 12.0 2.2 0.4 1.75
1937 6,284,722 90,373 75,392 14,981 14.4 12.0 2.4 0.4 1.77
1938 6,310,214 93,946 72,693 21,253 14.9 11.5 3.4 0.7 1.84
1939 6,341,303 97,380 72,876 24,504 15.4 11.5 3.9 1.0 1.90
1940 6,371,432 95,778 72,748 23,030 15.1 11.4 3.7 1.1 1.86
1941 6,406,474 99,727 71,910 27,817 15.6 11.3 4.3 1.2 1.92
1942 6,458,200 113,961 63,741 50,220 17.7 9.9 7.8 0.3 2.19
1943 6,522,827 125,392 66,105 59,287 19.3 10.2 9.1 0.9 2.41
1944 6,597,348 134,991 72,284 62,707 20.6 11.0 10.6 0.8 2.61
1945 6,673,749 135,373 71,901 63,472 20.4 10.8 10.4 1.2 2.63
1946 6,763,685 132,597 70,635 61,962 19.7 10.5 9.2 4.3 2.57
1947 6,842,046 128,779 73,579 55,200 18.9 10.8 8.1 3.5 2.50
1948 6,924,888 126,683 67,693 58,990 18.4 9.8 8.6 3.5 2.47
1949 6,986,181 121,272 69,537 51,735 17.4 10.0 7.4 1.5 2.39
1950 7,041,829 115,414 70,296 45,118 16.5 10.0 6.5 1.5 2.28
1951 7,098,740 110,168 69,799 40,369 15.6 9.9 5.7 2.4 2.20
1952 7,150,606 110,192 68,270 41,922 15.5 9.6 5.9 1.4 2.22
1953 7,192,316 110,144 69,553 40,591 15.4 9.7 5.7 0.1 2.25
1954 7,234,667 105,096 69,030 36,066 14.6 9.6 5.0 0.9 2.18
1955 7,290,112 107,305 68,634 38,671 14.8 9.5 5.3 2.4 2.25
1956 7,338,991 107,960 70,205 37,755 14.8 9.6 5.2 1.5 2.29
1957 7,388,611 107,168 73,132 34,036 14.6 9.9 4.7 2.1 2.29
1958 7,429,675 105,502 71,065 34,437 14.2 9.6 4.6 1.0 2.26
1959 7,462,823 104,743 70,889 33,854 14.1 9.5 4.5 0.0 2.29
1960 7,497,967 102,219 75,093 27,126 13.7 10.0 3.7 1.0 2.17
1961 7,542,028 104,501 73,555 30,946 13.9 9.8 4.1 1.8 2.21
1962 7,581,148 107,284 76,791 30,493 14.2 10.2 5.6 -0.4 2.25
1963 7,627,507 112,903 76,460 36,443 14.8 10.1 4.7 1.4 2.33
1964 7,695,200 122,664 76,661 46,003 16.0 10.0 6.0 2.9 2.47
1965 7,772,506 122,806 78,194 44,612 15.9 10.1 5.8 4.2 2.39
1966 7,843,088 123,354 78,440 44,914 15.8 10.0 5.8 3.3 2.37
1967 7,892,774 121,360 79,783 41,577 15.4 10.1 5.3 1.0 2.28
1968 7,931,193 113,087 82,476 30,611 14.3 10.4 3.9 1.0 2.07
1969 8,004,270 107,622 83,352 24,270 13.5 10.5 3.0 6.2 1.94
1970 8,081,142 110,150 80,026 30,124 13.7 9.9 3.8 5.8 1.94
1971 8,115,165 114,484 82,717 31,767 14.1 10.2 3.9 0.3 1.98
1972 8,129,129 112,273 84,051 28,222 13.8 10.3 3.5 -1.8 1.93
1973 8,144,428 109,663 85,640 24,023 13.5 10.5 3.0 -1.1 1.88
1974 8,176,691 109,874 86,316 23,558 13.5 10.6 2.9 1.1 1.91
1975 8,208,442 103,632 88,208 15,424 12.6 10.8 1.8 2.1 1.78
1976 8,236,179 98,345 90,677 7,668 12.0 11.0 1.0 2.4 1.70
1977 8,267,116 96,057 88,202 7,855 11.6 10.7 0.9 2.9 1.64
1978 8,284,437 93,248 89,681 3,567 11.3 10.8 0.5 1.6 1.61
1979 8,303,010 96,255 91,074 5,181 11.6 11.0 0.6 1.6 1.66
1980 8,317,937 97,064 91,800 5,264 11.7 11.0 0.7 1.1 1.69
1981 8,323,033 94,065 92,034 2,031 11.3 11.1 0.2 0.4 1.63
1982 8,327,484 92,748 90,671 2,077 11.1 10.9 0.2 0.3 1.60
1983 8,330,573 91,780 90,791 989 11.0 10.9 0.1 0.3 1.61
1984 8,342,621 93,889 90,483 3,406 11.3 10.9 0.4 1.0 1.66
1985 8,358,139 98,463 94,032 4,431 11.8 11.3 0.5 1.4 1.74
1986 8,381,515 101,950 93,295 8,655 12.2 11.1 1.1 1.7 1.79
1987 8,414,083 104,699 93,307 11,392 12.5 11.1 1.4 2.5 1.84
1988 8,458,888 112,080 96,743 15,337 13.3 11.5 1.8 3.5 1.96
1989 8,527,036 116,023 92,110 23,913 13.7 10.8 2.9 5.2 2.02
1990 8,590,630 123,938 95,161 28,777 14.5 11.1 3.4 4.1 2.14
1991 8,644,119 123,737 95,202 28,535 14.4 11.0 3.4 2.8 2.12
1992 8,692,013 122,848 94,710 28,138 14.2 10.9 3.3 2.2 2.09
1993 8,745,109 117,998 97,008 20,990 13.5 11.1 2.4 3.7 2.00
1994 8,816,381 112,257 91,844 20,413 12.8 10.5 2.3 5.8 1.90
1995 8,837,496 103,326 96,910 6,416 11.7 11.0 0.7 1.7 1.74
1996 8,844,499 95,297 94,133 1,164 10.8 10.6 0.2 0.6 1.61
1997 8,847,625 89,171 92,674 -3,503 10.1 10.5 -0.4 0.8 1.52
1998 8,854,322 88,384 92,891 -4,507 10.0 10.5 -0.5 1.3 1.51
1999 8,861,426 88,173 94,726 -6,553 10.0 10.7 -0.7 1.5 1.50
2000 8,882,792 90,441 93,285 -2,844 10.2 10.5 -0.3 2.7 1.54
2001 8,909,128 91,466 93,752 -2,286 10.3 10.5 -0.2 3.2 1.57
2002 8,940,788 95,815 95,009 806 10.7 10.6 0.1 3.5 1.65
2003 8,975,670 99,157 92,961 6,196 11.1 10.4 0.7 3.2 1.71
2004 9,011,392 100,928 90,532 10,396 11.2 10.1 1.1 2.9 1.75
2005 9,047,752 101,346 91,710 9,636 11.2 10.2 1.0 3.0 1.77
2006 9,113,257 105,913 91,177 14,736 11.7 10.0 1.7 5.5 1.85
2007 9,182,927 107,421 91,729 15,692 11.7 10.0 1.7 5.9 1.88
2008 9,256,347 109,301 91,449 17,852 11.9 9.9 2.0 6.0 1.91
2009 9,340,682 111,801 90,080 21,721 12.0 9.7 2.3 6.8 1.93
2010 9,415,570 115,641 90,487 25,154 12.3 9.6 2.7 5.3 1.98
2011 9,482,885 111,770 89,938 21,832 11.8 9.5 2.3 4.8 1.90
2012 9,555,893 113,177 91,938 21,239 11.9 9.7 2.2 5.5 1.90
2013 9,644,000 113,593 90,402 23,191 11.8 9.4 2.4 6.8 1.89
2014 9,747,000 114,907 88,976 25,931 11.9 9.2 2.7 8.0 1.88
2015 9,851,000 114,870 90,907 23,963 11.7 9.3 2.4 8.3 1.85
2016 9,995,000 117,425 90,982 26,443 11.8 9.2 2.6 12.0 1.85
2017 10,120,000 115,416 91,972 23,444 11.4 9.1 2.3 10.2 1.78
2018 10,230,000 115,832 92,185 23,647 11.3 9.0 2.3 8.6 1.75
2019 10,327,000 114,523 88,766 25,757 11.1 8.6 2.5 7.0 1.70
2020 10,379,000 113,077 98,124 14,953 10.9 9.5 1.4 3.6 1.66
2021 10,452,326 114,263 91,958 22,305 10.9 8.8 2.1 4.9 1.67
2022 10,521,556 104,734 94,737 9,997 10.0 9.0 1.0 5.6 1.52
2023 10,551,700 100,051 94,385 5,666 9.5 9.0 0.5 2.3 1.45

In 2021 80,465 (70.4%) babies were born to Swedish-born mothers while 33,798 (29.6%) were born to foreign-born mothers. The total fertility rate for Swedish-born women was 1.62, for foreign-born ones 1.86. [35] In 2022 73,294 (70.0%) babies were born to Swedish-born mothers while 31,440 (30.0%) were born to foreign-born mothers. The total fertility rate for Swedish-born women was 1.47, for foreign-born ones 1.69.[36]

Current vital statistics

[37]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January - April 2023 33,320 32,641 +679
January - April 2024 33,175 31,473 +1,702
Difference Decrease -145 (−0.44%) Positive decrease -1,168 (-3.6%) Increase +1,023

Structure of the population

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.I.2021) (Population statistics are compiled from registers. Data refer to registered resident population.): [38]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 5 222 847 5 156 448 10 379 295 100
0–4 305 880 289 196 595 076 5.73
5–9 319 463 300 892 620 355 5.98
10–14 320 338 302 029 622 367 6.00
15–19 298 045 278 531 576 576 5.56
20–24 307 498 271 966 579 464 5.58
25–29 369 377 348 382 717 759 6.92
30–34 378 916 361 033 739 949 7.13
35–39 338 542 320 188 658 730 6.35
40–44 323 615 310 620 634 235 6.11
45–49 338 455 328 772 667 227 6.43
50–54 339 035 329 537 668 572 6.44
55–59 324 658 317 015 641 673 6.18
60–64 285 462 283 764 569 226 5.48
65-69 265 210 271 524 536 734 5.17
70-74 268 233 282 384 550 617 5.30
75-79 219 254 237 761 457 015 4.40
80-84 125 935 155 095 281 030 2.71
85-89 64 699 98 675 163 374 1.57
90-94 24 686 51 690 76 376 0.74
95-99 5 132 15 359 20 491 0.20
100+ 414 2 035 2 449 0.02
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 945 681 892 117 1 837 798 17.71
15–64 3 303 603 3 149 808 6 453 411 62.18
65+ 973 563 1 114 523 2 088 086 20.12

Migration

Population pyramid segmented by background. Swedish background in color, foreign background in gray

Prior to World War II, emigrants generally outnumbered immigrants. Since then, net migration has been positive with many immigrants coming to Sweden from the 1970s through today.

Emigration

Between 1820 and 1930, approximately 1.3 million Swedes, a third of the country's population at the time, emigrated to North America, and most of them to the United States. There are more than 4.4 million Swedish Americans according to a 2006 US Census Bureau estimate.[39] In Canada, the community of Swedish ancestry is 330,000 strong.[40]

Immigration

Main article: Immigration to Sweden

Increases (1984–2014) of asylum in Sweden by origin
  Serbia and Montenegro: 118 669
  Iraq: 98 211
  Syria: 65 616
  Bosnia-Herzegovina: 58 166
  Somalia: 55 123
  Iran: 50 571
  Other countries: 134 479
  Unknown: 43 350
Data source (Swedish government).

The demographic profile of Sweden has altered considerably due to immigration patterns since the 1970s. As of 2020, Statistics Sweden reported that around 2,686,040 or 25.9% of the inhabitants of Sweden were from a foreign background: that is, each such person either had been born abroad or had been born in Sweden to two parents who themselves had both been born abroad.[41] Also taking into account people with only one parent born abroad, this number increases to one third (33.5%).[42]

Additionally, the birth rate among immigrant women after arriving in Sweden is somewhat higher than among ethnic Swedes.[43] Taking into account the fact that immigrant women have on average fewer[citation needed] children than Swedish women of comparable age, however, the difference in total birth rate is only 0.1 children more if the woman is foreign born – with the disclaimer that some women may have children not immigrating to and not reported in Sweden, who are thus not included in the statistics.[44]

Historical immigration

World War II

Immigration increased markedly with World War II. Historically, the most numerous of foreign born nationalities are ethnic Germans from Germany and other Scandinavians from Denmark and Norway.[citation needed] In short order, 70,000 war children were evacuated from Finland, of which 15,000 remained in Sweden. Also, many of Denmark's nearly 7,000 Jews who were evacuated to Sweden decided to remain there.[citation needed]

A sizeable community from the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) arrived during the Second World War.[45]

1945 to 1967

During the 1950s and 1960s, the recruitment of immigrant labour was an important factor of immigration. The Nordic countries signed a trade agreement in 1952, establishing a common labour market and free movement across borders. This migration within the Nordic countries, especially from Finland, was essential to create the tax-base required for the expansion of the strong public sector now characteristic of Scandinavia.[citation needed] but the influx gave rise to an anti-Finnish sentiment within Sweden and Norway. This continued until 1967, when the labour market became saturated, and Sweden introduced new immigration controls.

On a smaller scale, Sweden took in political refugees from Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia after their countries were invaded by the Soviet Union in 1956 and 1968, respectively.

Contemporary immigration

Swedish and foreign born population pyramid in 2022

Since the early 1970s, immigration to Sweden has been mostly due to refugee migration and family reunification from countries in the Middle East and Latin America.[46] According to Eurostat, in 2010, there were 1.33 million foreign-born residents in Sweden, corresponding to 14.3% of the total population. Of these, 859,000 (64.3%) were born outside the EU and 477,000 (35.7%) were born in another EU Member State.[47][48] By comparison, the Swedish civil registry reports, for 2018, that nearly 1.96 million residents are foreign-born, a 47% increase from 2010. There are 8.27 million Swedish-born residents, giving a total population of 10.23 million, and a 19.1% foreign-born population.[49]

The first group of Assyrians/Syriacs moved to Sweden from Lebanon in 1967. Many of them live in Södertälje (Stockholm).[50][51] There are also around 40,000 Roma in Sweden.[52] Some Roma people have long historical roots in Sweden, while others are more recent migrants from elsewhere in Europe.

Immigrants from Western Asia have been a rapidly growing share of Sweden's population. According to the government agency Statistics Sweden, the number of immigrants born in all of Asia (including the Middle East) rose from just 1,000 in 1950 to 295,000 in 2003.[53] Most of those immigrants came from Iraq, Iran, Lebanon and Syria, according to Statistics Sweden.[53]

Immigration of Iraqis increased dramatically during the Iraq War, beginning in 2003. A total of 8,951 Iraqis came to Sweden in 2006, accounting for 45% of the entire Iraqi migration to Europe. By 2007, the community of Iraqis in Sweden numbered above 70,000. In 2008, Sweden introduced tighter rules on asylum seekers.[54]

A significant number of Syrian Christians have also settled in Sweden. There have also been immigrants from South-Central Asia such as Afghanistan and India. Since the European migrant crisis, Syrians became the second-largest group of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in 2017 with 158,443 people (after former Yugoslavia).

Note that the table below lists the citizenship the person had when arriving in Sweden, and therefore there are no registered Eritreans, Russians or Bosnians from 1990, they were recorded as Ethiopians, Soviets and Yugoslavs. The nationality of Yugoslavs below is therefore people who came to Sweden from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia before 1991 and people who came from today's Montenegro and Serbia before 2003, then called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Counting all people who came from Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, there were 176,033 people from there in 2018.

The 49 countries with over 10,000 foreign-born persons in 2023.[55]
Country 1900 1930 1960 1990 2000 2010 2020 2021 2022 2023
Syria Syria 6 5,874 14,162 20,758 193,594 196,077 197,799 197,201
Iraq Iraq 16 9,818 49,372 121,761 146,440 146,769 146,831 145,586
Finland European Union Finland 6,644 9,746 101,307 217,636 195,447 169,521 140,337 136,607 133,083 129,406
Poland European Union Poland 1,065 6,347 35,631 40,123 70,253 93,762 95,076 98,387 100,706
Iran Iran 2 8 115 40,084 51,101 62,120 81,301 83,122 85,488 86,838
Somalia Somalia 1,441 13,082 37,846 70,184 70,087 69,477 68,290
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia former Yugoslavia 19 1,532 43,346 71,972 70,819 63,419 62,444 61,554 60,636
Afghanistan Afghanistan 17 534 4,287 14,420 60,858 62,803 65,662 67,738
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 51,526 56,183 60,161 60,194 60,265 60,003
Turkey Turkey 15 22 202 25,528 31,894 42,527 52,628 54,004 55,954 56,871
Germany European Union Germany 5,107 8,566 37,580 37,558 38,155 48,158 51,434 52,960 55,642 56,969
Eritrea Eritrea 3,054 10,301 47,156 48,278 49,213 49,639
Thailand Thailand 20 4,934 10,353 31,378 44,339 45,109 45,631 45,940
India India 45 135 361 9,054 11,110 17,863 42,790 47,369 53,973 58,094
Norway Norway 7,978 14,731 37,253 52,744 42,464 43,480 41,062 40,625 40,277 39,951
Denmark European Union Denmark 6,872 8,726 35,112 43,931 38,190 45,548 38,929 38,474 38,070 37,655
China China (not including Hong Kong) 34 201 520 3,896 8,150 23,998 36,023 37,172 38,461 38,253
Romania European Union Romania 3 34 719 8,785 11,776 19,741 32,741 33,695 35,565 36,738
United Kingdom United Kingdom 779 1,270 2,738 11,378 14,602 20,839 31,035 31,993 32,575 32,916
Lebanon Lebanon 15 15,986 20,038 24,116 28,885 29,313 29,770 29,876
Chile Chile 6 28 69 27,635 26,842 28,387 27,918 27,894 27,869 27,756
United States United States 5,130 8,852 10,874 13,001 14,413 17,179 23,290 24,173 24,970 25,739
Russia Russia 1,506 6,523 15,511 22,774 23,455 24,775 25,568
Ethiopia Ethiopia 5 59 10,027 11,907 13,822 22,125 22,672 23,141 23,363
Pakistan Pakistan 11 2,291 3,100 10,265 21,172 24,183 27,292 28,614
Vietnam Vietnam 1 6,265 10,898 14,584 21,126 21,528 21,874 21,983
Greece European Union Greece 5 22 266 13,171 10,851 11,381 19,737 19,931 20,672 21,237
Hungary European Union Hungary 50 108 8,544 15,045 14,127 15,339 16,480 16,381 16,568 16,900
Lithuania European Union Lithuania 149 233 785 6,735 15,917 16,434 17,396 17,944
Serbia Serbia 5,324 15,874 16,719 17,567 17,927
Philippines Philippines 5 2,613 5,460 9,826 15,640 16,219 16,790 17,311
Italy European Union Italy 200 367 4,904 5,989 6,337 7,804 14,155 14,786 15,665 16,397
Colombia Colombia 73 4,650 7,317 10,531 13,060 13,411 13,782 14,055
Spain European Union Spain 30 64 867 4,917 5,079 6,763 12,930 13,409 14,060 14,534
Netherlands European Union Netherlands 50 208 2,105 3,543 4,532 8,700 12,769 13,523 14,774 15,772
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1,571 2,937 6,289 12,279 12,965 13,904 13,987
Croatia European Union Croatia 5,229 6,277 12,207 12,559 13,016 13,204
Ukraine Ukraine 1,459 4,741 11,899 12,891 13,937 14,297
Morocco Morocco 22 2,720 4,492 7,391 11,898 12,207 12,573 12,823
France European Union France 255 599 1,750 3,844 5,602 7,944 11,854 12,618 13,445 14,006
South Korea South Korea 47 8,205 9,170 10,398 11,719 11,795 11,945 11,985
Egypt Egypt 10,268 10,768 10,866
North Macedonia North Macedonia 10,653 11,131
Bulgaria European Union Bulgaria 10,052 10,427 10,741
Latvia European Union Latvia 10,323 11,154
Kosovo Kosovo 2,288 11,164 11,920 12,605 12,913
Brazil Brazil 41 92 175 2,118 3,496 6,005 10,725 11,680 12,832 13,305
Albania Albania 10,453
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 10,420
Total 35,627 61,657 299,879 790,445 1,003,798 1,384,929 2,046,731

Migration data of Sweden, 2000-present

Year Total Immigration Total Emigration Immigration (Swedes) Emigration (Swedes) Net Migration (Swedes) Total Net Migration
2000 58,659 34,091 13,482 18,256 -4,774 24,568
2001 60,795 32,141 13,797 16,677 -2,880 28,654
2002 64,087 33,009 13,266 15,810 -2,544 31,078
2003 63,795 35,023 12,588 16,317 -3,729 28,772
2004 62,028 36,586 11,467 16,634 -5,167 25,442
2005 65,229 38,118 11,066 17,866 -6,800 27,111
2006 95,750 44,908 12,821 19,971 -7,150 50,842
2007 99,485 45,418 12,340 19,769 -7,429 54,067
2008 101,171 45,294 13,388 20,648 -7,260 55,877
2009 102,280 39,240 13,985 16,732 -2,747 63,040
2010 98,801 48,853 14,870 21,173 -6,303 49,948
2011 96,467 51,179 15,582 22,205 -6,623 45,288
2012 103,059 51,747 15,341 19,819 -4,478 51,312
2013 115,845 50,715 15,332 20,237 -4,905 65,130
2014 126,966 51,237 15,194 19,161 -3,967 75,729
2015 134,240 55,830 14,580 18,452 -3,872 78,410
2016 163,005 45,878 15,318 16,818 -1,500 117,127
2017 144,489 45,620 14,428 16,760 -2,332 98,869
2018 132,602 46,981 12,805 16,655 -3,850 85,621
2019 115,805 47,718 11,955 16,028 -4,073 68,087
2020 82,518 48,937 11,660 15,538 -3,878 33,581
2021 90,631 48,284 10,480 16,975 -6,495 42,347
2022 102,436 50,592 9,869 18,951 -9,082 51,844
2023 94,514 73,434 10,593 23,742 -13,149 21,080

Language

Main articles: Swedish language and Languages of Sweden

The Swedish language is by far the dominating language in Sweden, and is used by the government administration. English is also widely spoken and is taught in public schools.

Since 1999, Sweden has five officially recognised minority languages: Sámi, Meänkieli, Standard Finnish, Romani and Yiddish.

The Sámi language, spoken by about 7,000 people in Sweden, may be used in government agencies, courts, preschools and nursing homes in the municipalities of Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Kiruna and its immediate neighbourhood.[clarify]

Similarly, Finnish and Meänkieli can be used in the municipalities of Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala and Övertorneå and its immediate neighbourhood. Finnish is also official language, along with Swedish, in the city of Eskilstuna.[citation needed]

During the mid to late 20th century, immigrant communities brought other languages, among others being Persian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic and Neo-Aramaic.[56]

Religion

Main article: Religion in Sweden

The majority (52.1%) of the population belongs to the Church of Sweden,[57] the Lutheran church that was disestablished as a state church in 2000. Until 1996, those who had family members in the church automatically became members at birth.[58] Other Christian denominations in Sweden include the Roman Catholic Church (see Catholic Church in Sweden), several Orthodox churches in diaspora, Baptist, Pentecostal, Neo-pietistic (nyevangeliska) and other evangelical Christian churches (frikyrkor = 'free churches'). Shamanism persisted among the Sámi people up until the 18th century, but no longer exists in its traditional form as most Sámi today belong to the Lutheran church.

Jews were permitted to practice their religion in five Swedish cities in 1782, and have enjoyed full rights as citizens since 1870. The new Freedom of Religion Bill was passed in 1951, and former obstacles against Non-Lutherans working in schools and hospitals were removed. Further, that bill made it legal to leave any religious denomination, without entering another. There are also many Muslims, as well as a number of Buddhists and Baháʼís in Sweden, mainly as a result of 20th and 21st century immigration. There is also a small Zoroastrian community in Sweden.[59]

Homelessness

A homeless person's bed in Göteborg, Sweden, 2013.

Homelessness in Sweden affects some 34,000 people.[60][61]

The Swedish government's response to homelessness has included commissioning national surveys on homelessness during the last decade that allow for direct comparison between Sweden, Denmark and Norway.[62] The three countries have very similar definitions of homelessness, with minor variations.[63]

Some researchers maintain that measures to counteract homelessness in Sweden are largely dependent on a general premise equating homelessness with addiction, mental illness and deviance.[64] On the other hand, youth homelessness is considered a child protection problem.[65]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Crude migration change (per 1,000) is a trend analysis, an extrapolation based average population change (current year minus previous) minus natural change of the current year (see table vital statistics). As average population is an estimate of the population in the middle of the year and not end of the year.
  2. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above represents a stable or increasing population and have been marked blue, while 2.0 and below leads to an aging and, ultimately, declining population.

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