Demographics of Finland
Population5,594,384
Growth rate0.24% (2022 est.)
Birth rate8.9 births/1,000 population (2021)
Death rate10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2021)
Life expectancy81.76 years
 • male78.86 years
 • female84.79 years (2022 est.)
Fertility rate1.32 children born/woman (2022)[1]
Infant mortality rate2.13 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate2.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years15.4% (2021)
15–64 years61.6% (2021)
65 and over23.1% (2021)
Sex ratio
Total0.97 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.05 male(s)/female
Under 151.05 male(s)/female
65 and over0.63 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityFinn
Major ethnicFinnish (90.9% background)
Language
OfficialFinnish, Swedish
SpokenFinnish, Swedish, Sámi

The demographics of Finland is monitored by the Statistics Finland (Finnish: Tilastokeskus, Swedish: Statistikcentralen). Finland has a population of almost 5.6 million people, ranking it 19th out of 27 within the European Union. The average population density in Finland is 19 inhabitants per square kilometre (49/sq mi), making it the third most sparsely populated country in Europe, after Iceland and Norway. Population distribution is extremely uneven, with the majority of the population concentrated in the southern and western regions of the country. The majority of the Finnish population - approximately 73% - lives in urban areas. Approximately 1.6 million, or almost 30%, reside solely in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Conversely, the Arctic Lapland region contains only two inhabitants per square kilometre (5.2/sq mi).[2]

Finland is a predominantly ethnically homogeneous country with a dominant ethnicity of Finnish descent. However, there are notable minority groups in the form of Finland-Swedes, Sámi, and Roma people, with important historical significance. The official languages are Finnish and Swedish, with the latter being the mother tongue of roughly 5.2% of the Finnish populace. Finland was a part of the Swedish kingdom for around 500 years.[3]

Due to recent immigration, significant populations of ethnic Estonians, Russians, Iraqis, Chinese and Somalis now reside in the country. Furthermore, by 2023, Ukrainians had become the second-largest ethnic group in the region, following closely behind the Estonian population.[4][5]

As of 2022, Statistics Finland publishes data on the foreign population using three distinct methodologies. The Finnish population includes persons of foreign origin and background, who make up 9.1% of the total population.[note 1] In additional calculations, the proportion of persons born outside Finland is 8.6%. Individuals who have a first language other than Finnish, Swedish or Sámi account for 8.9%.[3]

In the history of Finland, the first human settlement originated approximately 11,000 BC, following the end of the Ice Age.[7] The initial settlers of present-day Finland were presumably hunter-gatherers. They were later replaced by the Sámi, followed by Finnic populations from the east, south and west. The initial dependable population information dates back to 1749 when Swedish officials initially recorded population statistics. Finland was a part of the Swedish Kingdom until it became an autonomous state within the Russian Empire in 1809, and finally gained independence in 1917.

In the late 19th and 20th centuries, significant emigration, primarily from rural areas, occurred to Sweden and North America, while Finland's primary immigrant source was other European countries. Approximately 300,000 Finnish nationals reside abroad and, according to estimates, the number of individuals of Finnish ancestry worldwide ranges from 1.6 to 2 million. Currently, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, and Spain are the preferred destinations for most Finnish emigrants.[8]

One of the primary challenges facing society in the future is adapting to demographic changes, particularly the aging of the population. The proportion of the working-age population is decreasing, resulting in projected labour shortages.[9] However, immigration has significantly increased in recent years. If the current trend persists, the population of Finland will continue to increase and could even reach the milestone of 6 million people by 2040.[10]

Population

As of 2022, there are 5,563,970 people in Finland.[3]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[11]

Historical population

The first human settlement in Finland originated around 11,000 BC, following the end of the Ice Age. The initial inhabitants of modern-day Finland were presumably hunter-gatherers. There is no information about the language spoken by the first inhabitants. However, it is known that the Finnish and Sámi languages emerged thousands of years later.[7] Archaeological, linguistic, and genetic studies support the notion that the country was inhabited from south to north, with a population of a few thousand during prehistoric times. The Sámi people then succeeded the previous inhabitants, followed by the influx of Finnic people from the east, west, and south who eventually replaced them. Currently, the Sámi people number around 10,000 in Finland as a minority. Although they have lived north of the Arctic Circle for 7,000 years, they make up only 5% of the population of the province of Lapland.

The reliable population data is available from 1749, when Sweden first compiled population statistics. At that time, the population of Finland stood at 410,400 individuals. The threshold of one million inhabitants was surpassed subsequent to the Finnish War (1808-1809) in 1811, upon the annexation of the Old Finland region. The milestone of five million inhabitants was reached in 1991.[12]

Exceeding the million population milestones:[12]

  1. million in 1811
  2. million in 1879
  3. million in 1912
  4. million in 1950
  5. million in 1991

Until the beginning of the 20th century, annual population growth fluctuated between 1% and 2%. There were a few exceptional years of negative growth during times of war and destruction.[12] The significant demographic and economic transformations that took place in Finland post-World War II impacted the composition of Finnish families. Over time, family sizes reduced noticeably, declining from an average of 3.6 individuals in 1950 to an average of 2.7 in 1975. Despite this change, family structures remained relatively constant during the 25-year period, with 24.4% of families consisting of a man and a woman, 61.9% comprising a couple and children, 11.8% consisting of a woman with offspring, and 1.9% consisting of a man with offspring. There were no substantial differences in percentages compared to 1950.[13]

Nonetheless, fewer children were born per family; the average decreased from 2.24 in 1950 to 1.7 in the 1980s. Large families were infrequent, with only 2% having four or more children, while 51% had a single child; 38% had two children, and 9% had three children.[13] Population growth declined to below 0.5% in the 1970s, and to approximately 0.2% in the 1990s. In recent years, however, population growth has recovered partially, rising to approximately 0.5%, partly due to increased immigration.[12]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1750421,000—    
1760490,000+1.53%
1770560,000+1.34%
1780660,000+1.66%
1790706,000+0.68%
1800837,000+1.72%
1810863,000+0.31%
18201,177,500+3.16%
18301,372,100+1.54%
18401,445,600+0.52%
YearPop.±% p.a.
18501,636,900+1.25%
18601,746,700+0.65%
18701,768,800+0.13%
18802,060,800+1.54%
18902,380,100+1.45%
19002,655,900+1.10%
19102,943,400+1.03%
19203,147,600+0.67%
19303,462,700+0.96%
19403,695,610+0.65%
YearPop.±% p.a.
19504,029,800+0.87%
19604,496,220+1.10%
19704,598,330+0.22%
19804,787,770+0.40%
19904,998,480+0.43%
20005,181,000+0.36%
20105,375,300+0.37%
20205,536,146+0.30%
Population size prior to 1812 may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.
1990-2020 source: Statistics Finland[3]

Distribution and density

Population densities in Finland, inhabitants per square kilometre

As of 2022, the population density of Finland was 18.3 persons per square kilometre. The region of Uusimaa was the most densely populated region with around 190 persons per square kilometre, while Lapland was the least densely populated region with only around two persons per square kilometre.[2] The populace is heavily clustered in the west and south of Finland, where the largest urban centres are situated.[14] There are a total of nine cities in Finland with more than 100,000 residents.[9]

Population by region as of 2022[2]
Area Population Of total population (%)
Uusimaa 1,733,033 31 31
 
Southwest Finland 485,567 9 9
 
Satakunta 212,556 4 4
 
Kanta-Häme 169,537 3 3
 
Pirkanmaa 532,671 10 10
 
Päijät-Häme 204,528 4 4
 
Kymenlaakso 159,488 3 3
 
South Karelia 125,353 2 2
 
South Savo 130,451 2 2
 
North Savo 247,689 4 4
 
North Karelia 162,540 3 3
 
Central Finland 272,437 5 5
 
South Ostrobothnia 190,774 3 3
 
Ostrobothnia 176,323 3 3
 
Central Ostrobothnia 67,805 1 1
 
North Ostrobothnia 416,543 7 7
 
Kainuu 70,521 1 1
 
Lapland 175,795 3 3
 
Åland 30,359 1 1
 

The geographical center of population (Weber point) of the Finnish population is currently located in Hauho, in the village of Sappee, now part of the town of Hämeenlinna. The coordinates of this point are 61' 17" N, 25' 07" E.[15]


Urban-rural classification as of 2022[2]
Area Population Of total population (%)
URBAN AREAS 4,044,568 73 73
 
Inner urban area 2,104,164 38 38
 
Outer urban area 1,341,122 24 24
 
Peri-urban area 599,282 11 11
 
RURAL AREAS 1,450,534 26 26
 
Local centres in rural areas 302,264 5 5
 
Rural areas close to urban areas 385,211 7 7
 
Rural heartland areas 503,590 9 9
 
Sparsely populated rural areas 259,469 5 5
 
Unknown 68,868 1 1
 

Fertility

Population pyramid segmented by background. Finnish background in color, foreign background in grey.

As of 2022, the birth rate dropped to its lowest level on record since 1776 with a total fertility rate of 1.32. A total of 44,951 children were born, and 38,179 (85%) of them were delivered by women who speak Finnish, Swedish or Sámi, the country's national languages.[1] As of 2020, the average age of first-time mothers was 29.7 years old. The mean age of women who have given birth to a live child was 31.3 years.[16]

Total fertility rate and gross reproduction rate by region as of 2022[17]
Area Total fertility rate Gross reproduction rate
FINLAND 1.32 0.64
Uusimaa 1.26 0.61
Southwest Finland 1.27 0.62
Satakunta 1.40 0.68
Kanta-Häme 1.42 0.67
Pirkanmaa 1.23 0.61
Päijät-Häme 1.36 0.66
Kymenlaakso 1.23 0.58
South Karelia 1.28 0.61
South Savo 1.29 0.6
North Savo 1.30 0.65
North Karelia 1.19 0.57
Central Finland 1.28 0.64
South Ostrobothnia 1.57 0.78
Ostrobothnia 1.57 0.78
Central Ostrobothnia 1.73 0.83
North Ostrobothnia 1.58 0.78
Kainuu 1.37 0.67
Lapland 1.34 0.66
Åland 1.45 0.85

As of 2021, people with a foreign background in Finland had higher fertility rates than those with Finnish roots. Women of foreign descent, either born abroad (1.7) or in Finland (1.65), had the most substantial total fertility rates, averaging 1.45 for all women in Finland. Women of Finnish lineage had a slightly higher fertility rate of 1.4. For men, the total fertility rate was just above 1.3, with Finnish men slightly under the average. In contrast, men of foreign origin, whether born abroad or in Finland, exhibited a fertility rate of approximately 1.45 each. Since 2018, the most frequent countries of affiliation for women of foreign origin delivering infants have been former Soviet Union countries, Somalia, and Iraq.[18]

Historical fertility rates

In the 18th century, Finland recorded a fertility rate of 5-6 children per woman, but population growth was hindered by high infant mortality, with approximately 1 in 5 infants dying before their first birthday. Fertility remained relatively steady in the 19th century, with occasional variations. During times of conflict, such as the Finnish war, and periods of famine, birth rates declined, but eventually normalised. Presently, some developing countries have fertility rates similar to those of Finland in the 18th and 19th centuries.[19]

As the 19th century drew to a close, the traditional agrarian society began to crumble. Simultaneously, the industrial and service sectors witnessed a surge in job opportunities, and urban migration intensified. Manufacturing plants mushroomed in proximity to rivers. Fewer children being born played a role in the rising living standards. However, it is important to note that contraceptive methods were limited to the rhythm method and interrupted intercourse.[19]

Total fertility rate (TFR) in Finland from 1776 to 1899
Years[20]
1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793
5.42 5.51 5.82 5.91 5.71 5.17 5.74 5.42 5.79 5.39 5.6 5.46 4.86 4.51 4.88 4.66 5.43 5.71
1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811
5.41 5.18 5.05 5.2 5.08 5.09 4.92 5.07 5.23 4.78 5.24 5.21 4.84 4.97 4.16 3.69 5.1 4.66
1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829
4.95 4.6 4.72 4.84 4.82 4.84 4.78 4.51 4.55 5.34 4.59 5.21 4.84 4.83 4.89 4.77 5.12 4.98
1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847
4.85 4.58 4.47 3.96 4.75 4.57 4.17 4.17 4.32 4.47 4.59 4.56 4.96 4.77 4.64 4.76 4.39 4.46
1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865
4.84 4.92 4.78 5.17 4.79 4.8 5.02 4.82 4.86 4.48 4.87 4.74 4.84 5.2 5.03 4.85 5.28 4.79
1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883
4.46 4.47 3.4 4.52 4.86 4.95 4.87 4.97 5.12 4.95 4.97 5.19 4.81 5.14 5.01 4.79 4.99 4.96
1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899
5.04 4.79 4.98 5.17 5.07 4.89 4.83 5.04 4.65 4.43 4.59 4.87 4.8 4.77 5.07 4.96

The decline in fertility experienced a noteworthy acceleration in the early 20th century. In 1900, the fertility rate stood at 4.8, which plummeted to 2.3 by 1933. In the late 1930s, fertility rates experienced an uptick, but it later plummeted due to the war, particularly in 1940 as a result of the Winter War. Although the ceasefire caused a spike in births, the resumption of hostilities stalled family planning efforts. Post-war in autumn 1944, there was a resurgence in births, leading to a total fertility rate of 3.1 in 1945, reaching a peak of 3.5 in 1947-1948, a record that remains unbroken. However, fertility rates began a steady decline, dipping below the generational renewal threshold of 2.1 by 1969. Finnish fertility rates have not recovered to this level since.[19]

The decline persisted until 1973, when it hit a historic low of 1.5 children per woman. In recent years, there have been fluctuations, with fertility rates fluctuating between 1.7 and 1.9.[19] As of the 2020s, Finland's overall fertility rate has fallen below 1.4.[17]

Total fertility rate (TFR) in Finland from 1900 to 2022
Years[17]
1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917
4.83 4.92 4.79 4.62 4.85 4.67 4.81 4.76 4.65 4.72 4.60 4.46 4.45 4.15 4.13 3.89 3.69 3.71
1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935
3.60 2.87 3.76 3.58 3.43 3.44 3.22 3.17 3.02 2.92 2.92 2.83 2.75 2.59 2.46 2.27 2.33 2.37
1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953
2.31 2.52 2.52 2.56 2.15 2.90 2.00 2.46 2.56 3.07 3.41 3.47 3.47 3.33 3.16 3.01 3.06 2.96
1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
2.93 2.93 2.91 2.86 2.68 2.75 2.71 2.65 2.66 2.66 2.58 2.46 2.41 2.32 2.15 1.94 1.83 1.70
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
1.59 1.50 1.62 1.69 1.72 1.69 1.65 1.64 1.63 1.65 1.72 1.74 1.70 1.64 1.60 1.59 1.70 1.71
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
1.78 1.79 1.85 1.81 1.85 1.81 1.76 1.75 1.70 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.72 1.76 1.80 1.80 1.84 1.83
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
1.85 1.86 1.87 1.83 1.80 1.75 1.71 1.65 1.57 1.49 1.41 1.35 1.37 1.46 1.32

The fertility rate in Finland exceeded that of neighbouring countries for the duration of the 20th century. However, since 2010, there has been a significant decline, whereas other Nordic countries have not experienced such a trend until more recently. It is a recent development that Sweden and Finland have similar social policies and incomes, however, Finland is the only country experiencing natural population decrease (excluding immigration).[21]

Age

Life expectancy in Finland since 1755
Life expectancy in Finland since 1960 by gender
Live births and deaths over time
Crude birth rate and death rate over time

The Finnish population is ageing. Life expectancy has also increased in recent decades. Population growth has mainly been driven by immigration. Furthermore, the population is increasingly concentrated in urban areas in southern and western Finland.

Age structure as of 2022[22]
Age Population Of total population (%)
Under 4 238,282 4.3 4.3
 
5 - 9 285,852 5.1 5.1
 
10 - 14 316,194 5.7 5.7
 
15 - 19 307,960 5.5 5.5
 
20 - 24 304,385 5.5 5.5
 
25 - 29 344,950 6.2 6.2
 
30 - 34 372,101 6.7 6.7
 
35 - 39 363,619 6.5 6.5
 
40 - 44 356,657 6.4 6.4
 
45 - 49 334,702 6.0 6
 
50 - 54 326,045 5.9 5.9
 
55 - 59 364009 6.5 6.5
 
60 - 64 354,703 6.4 6.4
 
65 - 69 349,928 6.3 6.3
 
70 - 74 343,733 6.2 6.2
 
75 - 79 273,662 4.9 4.9
 
80 - 84 168,074 3.0 3
 
Over 85 159,114 2.9 2.9
 

Life extectancy and mortality

In the mid-18th century, when population statistics were initially recorded, Finland recorded an annual death rate of over 10,000, with yearly fluctuations. The overall mortality rate was at 26 and men had a life expectancy of 36.1 years during the 1750s, while women had an expectancy of 38.4 years. The gender gap in life expectancy was a few years at that time.[25]

The rapid spread of various infectious diseases such as cholera caused mortality up until the 1870s. The war years significantly increased mortality rates in the civilian population. During this time, the highest mortality rates were recorded during the Finnish War of 1808-09 and the cholera outbreak of 1832-33, which caused the deaths of a significant portion of the population. The years 1867-68 were marked as years of high death rates, with the latter year seeing a peak of 137,700 deaths.[25]

Life expectancy in Finland from 1755 to 1899
Years[26]
1755 1765 1775 1785 1795 1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882
37.3 34.9 39.4 33.8 37.1 31.8 35.8 38.4 34.7 40.5 35.1 32.1 41.6 39.2 44.9 39.6 37.6 40.4
1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899
42.7 42.8 41.3 40.8 45.5 45.1 44.9 44.6 42.5 39.7 43.3 45.2 47.6 46.5 48.1 48.0 44.3

Before the turn of the 20th century, mortality rates were notably high, but they gradually decreased thereafter. During that time period, the life expectancy of a newborn saw a significant increase to 42.8 years for men and 45.7 years for women. The gender gap in life expectancy already stood at three years. Starting from the beginning of the 20th century, improvements in hygiene, prevention of communicable diseases, and advancements in vaccinations and medicines played crucial roles in accelerating the decline in mortality rates, as compared to previous decades. On the eve of World War II, life expectancy for males stood at 53.4 years and for females, 59.0 years, constituting a five-year gap between them.[25] The life expectancy took almost two centuries to increase by 20 years since the 18th century. In contrast, the succeeding two decades only required 40 years to attain the same growth by the mid-20th century.[25]

Life expectancy in Finland from 1900 to 1950
Years[26]
1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917
41.7 42.8 46.2 46.6 47.2 46.0 47.0 46.7 46.1 48.6 48.5 48.7 49.1 49.0 49.7 49.5 48.0 46.5
1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935
32.8 43.1 47.5 52.4 51.9 52.5 50.2 53.4 53.8 51.8 53.7 51.3 54.5 54.9 55.8 55.4 56.0 54.4
1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950
56.2 57.1 57.2 54.6 46.6 46.5 54.0 56.3 48.0 57.2 60.2 60.5 62.0 61.9 64.2
Life expectancy in Finland from 1971 to 2022
Years[24]
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
70,1 70,8 71,3 71,2 71,7 72,0 72,5 73,3 73,3 73,6 73,9 74,5 74,4 74,7 74,4 74,7 74,8 74,8
1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
75,0 75,0 75,4 75,6 75,9 76,6 76,6 76,9 77,1 77,3 77,5 77,7 78,1 78,3 78,5 78,8 79,0 79,4
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022*
79,4 79,7 79,8 80,0 80,4 80,5 80,9 81,1 81,4 81,3 81,5 81,6 81,9 81,8 81,8 81,2

Vital statistics

Data from Statistics Finland, which is the official agency for the collection of statistics in Finland.[27]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Crude migration change (per 1000) Total fertility rate[fn 1][20]
1900 2,646,000 86,339 57,915 28,424 32.6 21.9 10.7 4.83
1901 2,667,000 88,637 56,225 32,412 33.2 21.1 12.2 -4.3 4.92
1902 2,686,000 87,082 50,999 36,083 32.4 19.0 13.4 -6.3 4.79
1903 2,706,000 85,120 49,992 35,128 31.5 18.5 13.0 -5.6 4.62
1904 2,735,000 90,253 50,227 40,026 33.0 18.4 14.7 -4.0 4.85
1905 2,762,000 87,841 52,773 35,068 31.8 19.1 12.7 -2.8 4.67
1906 2,788,000 91,401 50,857 40,544 32.8 18.2 14.5 -5.1 4.81
1907 2,821,000 92,457 53,028 39,429 32.8 18.8 14.0 -2.2 4.76
1908 2,861,000 92,146 55,305 36,841 32.2 19.3 12.9 1.3 4.65
1909 2,899,000 95,005 50,577 44,428 32.8 17.4 15.3 -2.0 4.72
1910 2,929,000 92,984 51,007 41,977 31.7 17.4 14.3 -4.0 4.60
1911 2,962,000 91,238 51,648 39,590 30.8 17.4 13.4 -2.1 4.46
1912 2,998,000 92,275 51,645 40,630 30.8 17.2 13.5 -1.3 4.45
1913 3,026,000 87,250 51,876 35,374 28.8 17.1 11.7 -2.3 4.15
1914 3,053,000 87,577 50,690 36,887 28.7 16.6 12.1 -3.2 4.13
1915 3,083,000 83,306 52,205 31,101 27.0 16.9 10.1 -0.3 3.89
1916 3,105,000 79,653 54,577 25,076 25.7 17.6 8.1 -1.0 3.69
1917 3,124,000 81,046 58,863 22,183 25.9 18.8 7.1 -1.0 3.71
1918 3,125,000 79,494 95,102 -15,608 25.4 30.4 -5.0 5.3 3.60
1919 3,117,000 63,896 62,932 964 20.5 20.2 0.3 -2.9 2.87
1920 3,133,000 84,714 53,304 31,410 27.0 17.0 10.0 -4.9 3.76
1921 3,170,000 82,165 47,361 34,804 25.9 14.9 11.0 0.8 3.58
1922 3,211,000 80,140 49,180 30,960 25.0 15.3 9.6 3.3 3.43
1923 3,243,000 81,961 47,556 34,405 25.3 14.7 10.6 -0.6 3.44
1924 3,272,000 78,057 53,442 24,615 23.9 16.3 7.5 1.4 3.22
1925 3,304,000 78,260 47,493 30,767 23.7 14.4 9.3 0.5 3.17
1926 3,339,000 76,875 47,526 29,349 23.0 14.2 8.8 1.8 3.02
1927 3,368,000 75,611 51,727 23,884 22.5 15.4 7.1 1.6 2.92
1928 3,396,000 77,523 48,713 28,810 22.8 14.3 8.5 -0.2 2.92
1929 3,424,000 76,011 54,489 21,522 22.2 15.9 6.3 1.9 2.83
1930 3,449,000 75,236 48,240 26,996 21.8 14.0 7.8 -0.5 2.75
1931 3,476,000 71,866 48,968 22,898 20.7 14.1 6.6 1.2 2.59
1932 3,503,000 69,352 46,700 22,652 19.8 13.3 6.5 1.3 2.46
1933 3,526,000 65,047 47,960 17,087 18.4 13.6 4.8 1.8 2.27
1934 3,549,000 67,713 46,318 21,395 19.1 13.1 6.0 0.5 2.33
1935 3,576,000 69,942 45,370 24,572 19.6 12.7 6.9 1.5 2.37
1936 3,601,000 68,895 49,124 19,771 19.1 13.6 5.5 0.7 2.31
1937 3,626,000 72,319 46,466 25,853 19.9 12.8 7.1 -0.2 2.52
1938 3,656,000 76,695 46,930 29,765 21.0 12.8 8.1 0.2 2.52
1939 3,686,000 78,164 52,614 25,550 21.2 14.3 6.9 1x.9 2.56
1940 3,698,000 65,849 71,846 -5,997[28] 17.8 19.4 -1.6 4.9 2.15
1941 3,702,000 89,565 73,334 16,231 24.2 19.8 4.4 -3.3 2.90
1942 3,708,000 61,672 56,141 5,531 16.6 15.1 1.5 0.1 2.00
1943 3,721,000 76,112 49,634 26,478 20.5 13.3 -3.6 7.1 2.46
1944 3,735,000 79,446 70,570 8,876 21.3 18.9 2.4 1.4 2.56
1945 3,758,000 95,758 49,046 46,712 25.5 13.1 12.4 -6.2 3.07
1946 3,806,000 106,075 44,748 61,327 27.9 11.8 16.1 -3.3 3.41
1947 3,859,000 108,168 46,053 62,115 28.0 11.9 16.1 -2.2 3.47
1948 3,912,000 107,759 43,668 64,091 27.5 11.2 16.4 -2.7 3.47
1949 3,963,000 103,515 44,501 59,014 26.1 11.2 14.9 -1.9 3.33
1950 4,009,000 98,065 40,681 57,384 24.5 10.1 14.3 -2.7 3.16
1951 4,047,000 93,063 40,386 52,677 23.0 10.0 13.0 -3.5 3.01
1952 4,090,000 94,314 39,024 55,290 23.1 9.5 13.5 -2.9 3.06
1953 4,139,000 90,866 39,925 50,941 22.0 9.6 12.3 -0.3 2.96
1954 4,187,000 89,845 37,988 51,857 21.5 9.1 12.4 -0.8 2.93
1955 4,235,000 89,740 39,573 50,167 21.2 9.3 11.8 -0.3 2.93
1956 4,282,000 88,896 38,713 50,183 20.8 9.0 11.7 -0.6 2.91
1957 4,324,000 86,985 40,741 46,244 20.1 9.4 10.7 -0.9 2.86
1958 4,360,000 81,148 38,833 42,315 18.6 8.9 9.7 -1.4 2.68
1959 4,395,000 83,253 38,827 44,426 18.9 8.8 10.1 -2.1 2.75
1960 4,430,000 82,129 39,797 42,332 18.5 9.0 9.6 -1.6 2.71
1961 4,461,000 81,996 40,616 41,380 18.4 9.1 9.3 -2.3 2.65
1962 4,491,000 81,454 42,889 38,565 18.1 9.5 8.6 -1.9 2.66
1963 4,523,000 82,251 42,010 40,241 18.2 9.3 8.9 -1.8 2.66
1964 4,549,000 80,428 42,512 37,916 17.7 9.3 8.3 -2.6 2.58
1965 4,564,000 77,885 44,473 33,412 17.1 9.7 7.3 -4.0 2.46
1966 4,581,000 77,697 43,548 34,149 17.0 9.5 7.5 -3.8 2.41
1967 4,606,000 77,289 43,790 33,499 16.8 9.5 7.3 -1.8 2.32
1968 4,626,000 73,654 45,013 28,641 15.9 9.7 6.2 -1.9 2.15
1969 4,624,000 67,450 45,966 21,484 14.6 9.9 4.6 -5.0 1.94
1970 4,606,000 64,559 44,119 20,440 14.0 9.6 4.4 -8.3 1.83
1971 4,612,000 61,067 45,876 15,191 13.2 9.9 3.3 -2.0 1.70
1972 4,640,000 58,864 43,958 14,906 12.7 9.5 3.2 2.9 1.59
1973 4,666,000 56,787 43,410 13,377 12.2 9.3 2.9 2.7 1.50
1974 4,691,000 62,472 44,676 17,796 13.3 9.5 3.8 1.6 1.62
1975 4,711,000 65,719 43,828 21,891 14.0 9.3 4.6 -0.3 1.69
1976 4,726,000 66,846 44,786 22,060 14.1 9.5 4.7 -1.5 1.72
1977 4,739,000 65,659 44,065 21,594 13.9 9.3 4.6 -1.8 1.69
1978 4,753,000 63,983 43,692 20,291 13.5 9.2 4.3 -1.3 1.65
1979 4,765,000 63,428 43,738 19,690 13.3 9.2 4.1 -1.6 1.64
1980 4,780,000 63,064 44,398 18,666 13.2 9.3 3.9 -0.8 1.63
1981 4,800,000 63,469 44,404 19,065 13.2 9.3 4.0 0.2 1.65
1982 4,827,000 66,106 43,408 22,698 13.7 9.0 4.7 0.9 1.72
1983 4,856,000 66,892 45,388 21,504 13.8 9.3 4.4 1.6 1.74
1984 4,882,000 65,076 45,098 19,978 13.3 9.2 4.1 1.3 1.70
1985 4,902,000 62,796 48,198 14,598 12.8 9.8 3.0 1.1 1.64
1986 4,918,000 60,632 47,135 13,497 12.3 9.6 2.7 0.6 1.60
1987 4,932,000 59,827 47,949 11,878 12.1 9.7 2.4 0.4 1.59
1988 4,946,000 63,316 49,063 14,253 12.8 9.9 2.9 -0.1 1.70
1989 4,964,000 63,348 49,110 14,238 12.8 9.9 2.9 0.7 1.71
1990 4,998,000 65,549 50,028 15,521 13.1 10.0 3.1 3.7 1.78
1991 5,029,000 65,395 49,294 16,101 13.1 9.8 3.3 2.9 1.79
1992 5,055,000 66,731 49,844 16,887 13.3 9.8 3.4 1.8 1.85
1993 5,078,000 64,826 50,988 13,838 12.8 10.1 2.7 1.8 1.81
1994 5,099,000 65,231 48,000 17,231 12.8 9.4 3.4 0.7 1.85
1995 5,117,000 63,067 49,280 13,787 12.3 9.6 2.7 0.8 1.81
1996 5,132,000 60,723 49,167 11,556 11.8 9.6 2.3 0.6 1.76
1997 5,147,000 59,329 49,108 10,221 11.5 9.6 2.0 0.9 1.75
1998 5,160,000 57,108 49,262 7,846 11.1 9.6 1.5 1.0 1.70
1999 5,171,000 57,574 49,345 8,229 11.1 9.6 1.6 0.5 1.73
2000 5,181,000 56,742 49,339 7,403 11.0 9.5 1.4 0.5 1.73
2001 5,195,000 56,189 48,550 7,639 10.8 9.4 1.5 1.2 1.73
2002 5,206,000 55,555 49,418 6,137 10.7 9.5 1.2 0.9 1.72
2003 5,220,000 56,630 48,996 7,634 10.9 9.4 1.5 1.2 1.76
2004 5,237,000 57,758 47,600 10,158 11.0 9.1 1.9 1.4 1.80
2005 5,256,000 57,745 47,928 9,817 11.0 9.1 1.9 1.7 1.80
2006 5,277,000 58,840 48,065 10,775 11.2 9.1 2.0 2.0 1.84
2007 5,300,000 58,729 49,077 9,652 11.1 9.3 1.8 2.6 1.83
2008 5,326,000 59,530 49,094 10,436 11.2 9.2 2.0 2.9 1.85
2009 5,351,000 60,430 49,883 10,547 11.3 9.3 2.0 2.7 1.86
2010 5,375,000 60,980 50,887 10,193 11.4 9.5 1.9 2.6 1.87
2011 5,401,000 59,961 50,585 9,376 11.1 9.4 1.7 3.1 1.83
2012 5,427,000 59,493 51,707 7,786 11.0 9.6 1.4 3.4 1.80
2013 5,451,000 58,134 51,472 6,662 10.7 9.5 1.2 3.2 1.75
2014 5,472,000 57,232 52,186 5,046 10.5 9.6 0.9 3.0 1.71
2015 5,487,000 55,472 52,492 2,980 10.1 9.6 0.5 2.2 1.65
2016 5,503,000 52,814 53,923 -1,109 9.6 9.8 -0.2 3.1 1.57
2017 5,513,000 50,321 53,722 -3,401 9.1 9.8 -0.7 2.5 1.49
2018 5,517,918 47,577 54,527 -6,950 8.6 9.9 -1.3 2.2 1.41
2019 5,525,292 45,613 53,949 -8,336 8.3 9.8 -1.5 2.8 1.35
2020 5,533,793 46,463 55,488 -9,025 8.4 10.0 -1.6 3.1 1.37
2021 5,548,241 49,594 57,659 -8,065 8.9 10.4 -1.5 4.1 1.46
2022 5,563,970 44,951 63,219 -18,268 8.1 11.3 -3.2 6.0 1.32

Current vital statistics

[29][30]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January – November 2022 41,578 57,024 -15,446
January – November 2023 39,938 54,958 -15,020
Difference Decrease -1,640 (-3.94%) Positive decrease -2,066 (-3.62%) Increase +426

Languages

Main article: Languages of Finland

Official and national languages

Languages of Finnish municipalities as of 2016.
  unilingually Finnish
  bilingual with Finnish as majority language, Swedish as minority language
  bilingual with Swedish as majority language, Finnish as minority language
  unilingually Swedish
  bilingual with Finnish as majority language, Sami as minority language

Finland has two official languages (national languages): Finnish and Swedish. In addition, there are other languages that are officially recognised by the authorities, but are not national languages. The Sámi languages are those of Finland's indigenous people. Indigenous languages with a long history in Finland include Finnish Romani (Kalo), Finnish Sign Language, Finnish-Swedish Sign Language and Karelian. Finnish, which belongs to the Uralic languages, is spoken by approximately 4.9 million people in Finland as a first language and by more than 0.5 million as a second language. It's also spoken in Sweden, Norway, Eastern Karelia, Ingria (Russia), the USA and Australia, with various dialects. Written Finnish dates back 500 years.[31]

Swedish, an Indo-European language within the North Germanic branch, is spoken by approximately 9 million people worldwide, including 296,000 speakers in Finland. Finland Swedish is a regional variety that aims to remain similar to the Swedish spoken in Sweden. The Sámi languages, which are indigenous to Europe and closely related to the Finnic languages, have approximately 60,000-100,000 speakers, of whom 10,000 live in Finland. There are three Sámi languages in Finland: Inari Sámi, Skolt Sámi and Northern Sámi, each with its own written form. Since 1992 they have had official status in certain areas of Lapland.[31]

Karelian, spoken in Finland and Russia, is the closest linguistic relative of Finnish. There are fewer than 100,000 speakers of Karelian, with approximately 5,000 in Finland. Romani, an Indo-European language, belongs to the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-Iranian branch. Finnish Romani is one of the Northern Romani dialects and has been spoken in Finland for approximately 450 years. Efforts to preserve it as a literary language began in the 1970s. Finnish Sign Language serves as the primary language for 4,000-5,000 deaf Finns and is used as a first or second language by 6,000-9,000 hearing Finns. Finnish-Swedish Sign Language, on the other hand, is endangered, with only 90 users left.[31]

All mainland municipalities are monolingual in Finnish or bilingual in Finnish and Swedish. None is monolingual Swedish. However, Swedish is the only official language on the autonomous island of Åland.[32]

First languages of the foreign population

Population by mother tongue (2022)[3]

  Finnish (85.9%)
  Swedish (5.2%)
  Russian (1.7%)
  Estonian (0.9%)
  Arabic (0.7%)
  English (0.5%)
  Somali (0.4%)
  Other (4.7%)

As of 2022, 495,992 people, or 8.9%, live in Finland with a first language other than Finnish, Swedish or Sámi.[3] More than 150 foreign languages are spoken in Finland.[31] However, most of them have only few speakers. Historically, Finland has been a bilingual country where only Finnish or Swedish was spoken. This is slowly changing as the rate of immigration has increased in last three decades.[33] The majority of the Finnish population is able to communicate in English. However, the foreign population is expected to study and speak Finnish or Swedish if they want to integrate into Finnish society.[34]

As of 2022, the most common foreign languages are Russian (1.7%), Estonian (0.9%), Arabic (0.7%) and English (0.5%).[3] Approximately 70% of the country's foreign speakers live in Finland's six largest cities.[35]

Population of Finland according to mother tongue (excluding Åland) 1990–2020
Mother
language
Year[36][37][38][39][40]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2015 2020
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Finnish 4,675,223 93.5% 4,754,787 92.9% 4,788,497 92.4% 4,819,819 91.7% 4,865,628 88.7% 4,811,067 86.9%
Swedish 296,738 5.9% 294,664 5.8% 291,657 5.6% 289,675 5.5% 290,161 5.3% 287,871 5.2%
Russian 3,884 0.1% 15,872 0.3% 28,205 0.5% 39,653 0.8% 72,436 1.3% 84,190 1.5%
Estonian 1,394 0% 8,710 0.2% 10,176 0.2% 15,336 0.3% 48,087 0.9% 49,551 0.9%
Arabic 1,138 0% 2,901 0.1% 4,892 0.1% 7,117 0.1% 16,713 0.3% 34,282 0.6%
English 3,569 0.1% 5,324 0.1% 6,919 0.1% 8,928 0.2% 17,784 0.3% 23,433 0.4%
Somali 0 0% 4,057 0.1% 6,454 0.1% 8,593 0.2% 17,871 0.3% 22,794 0.4%
Kurdish 179 0% 1,381 0% 3,115 0.1% 5,123 0.1% 11,271 0.2% 15,368 0.3%
Persian 291 0% 803 0% 1,205 0% 3,165 0.1% 8,745 0.2% 15,105 0.3%
Chinese 790 0% 2,190 0% 2,907 0.1% 4,613 0.1% 10,722 0.2% 13,778 0.2%
Albanian 0 0% 2,019 0% 3,293 0.1% 5,076 0.1% 9,233 0.2% 12,664 0.2%
Vietnamese 1,643 0% 2,785 0.1% 3,588 0.1% 4,202 0.1% 8,273 0.2% 11,562 0.2%
Thai 244 0% 813 0% 1,458 0% 3,033 0.1% 8,582 0.2% 10,553 0.2%
Turkish 848 0% 1,809 0% 2,435 0% 3,595 0.1% 7,082 0.1% 9,492 0.2%
Spanish 894 0% 1,394 0% 1,946 0% 2,937 0.1% 7,025 0.1% 9,151 0.2%
German 2,427 0% 2,719 0.1% 3,298 0.1% 4,114 0.1% 6,168 0.1% 6,841 0.1%
Polish 901 0% 1,129 0% 1,157 0% 1,445 0% 0% 5,695 0.1%
French 670 0% 1,062 0% 1,585 0% 2,071 0% 0% 4,966 0.1%
Romanian 94 0% 368 0% 617 0% 909 0% 0% 5,680 0%
Hungarian 573 0% 732 0% 1,089 0% 1,206 0% 0% 0%
Tagalog 118 0% 375 0% 568 0% 764 0% 0% 0%
Bengali 93 0% 373 0% 524 0% 920 0% 0% 0%
Ukrainian 11 0% 113 0% 337 0% 611 0% 0% 0%
Italian 403 0% 574 0% 833 0% 1,177 0% 0% 0%
Portuguese 171 0% 297 0% 433 0% 865 0% 0% 0%
Urdu 79 0% 179 0% 309 0% 594 0% 0% 0%
Bulgarian 230 0% 400 0% 486 0% 629 0% 0% 0%
Bosnian 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1,186 0% 0% 0%
Sami 1,734 0% 1.726 0% 1,734 0% 1,752 0% 0% 0%
Hindi 147 0% 239 0% 428 0% 779 0% 0% 0%
Dutch 277 0% 408 0% 650 0% 960 0% 0% 0%
Latvian 20 0% 76 0% 169 0% 391 0% 0% 0%
Japanese 274 0% 386 0% 561 0% 798 0% 0% 0%
Lithuanian 30 0% 94 0% 166 0% 375 0% 0% 0%
Norwegian 402 0% 436 0% 471 0% 540 0% 0% 0%
Danish 290 0% 305 0% 397 0% 456 0% 0% 0%
Hebrew 165 0% 232 0% 263 0% 348 0% 0% 0%
Other 2,534 0.1% 5,084 0.1% 8,293 0.2% 11,825 0.2% 79,570 1.5% 0%

Immigration

Main articles: Immigration to Finland and Ethnic groups in Finland

Statistics of foreign population

As of 2022, Statistics Finland produces statistics on foreign nationals in three different ways:[3]

  1. Origin and background country: 507,173 people or 9.1%, have a foreign background.
  2. Country of birth: 476,857 people, or 8.6 %, were born in a foreign country.
  3. Language: 495,992 people, or 8.9%, have a first language other than Finnish, Swedish or Sámi.

No official statistics exist on ethnicities. Nonetheless, the Finnish population statistics are available according to the birth countries of the residents' parents (foreign background/origin statistics). International census recommendations define an ethnic group by the perception of its members of historical, regional, or national origin. Therefore, data on ethnic status should always be sourced from a person's own statement. Due to the fact that Finland's census is registry-based, official statistics regarding ethnic groups cannot be provided.[41]

Origin and background country

Origin and background country - the definition used by Statistics Finland includes all individuals with at least one parent born in Finland as being of Finnish background. Individuals with both parents or only one known parent born abroad are classified as having foreign heritage. If both parents of an individual were born abroad, the mother's country of birth is primarily considered as the background country. For all individuals of Finnish heritage, the background country is Finland.[42][note 2]

Origin and background country of population in Finland by continent 1990–2020
Country or continent Year[44]
1990 2000 2010 2020
Population % Population % Population % Population %
Europe 5,032,796 99.6% 5,149,522 99.1% 5,295,964 98.1% 5,318,746 95.9%
Finland 4,960,860 99.2% 5,067,870 97.8% 5,138,210 95.6% 5,089,762 92.0%
EU (excluding Finnish origin) 5,003 0.1% 9,200 0.2% 43,295 0.8% 38,753 0.7%
Other Europe 17,114 0.3% 62,269 1.2% 97,249 1.8% 191,099 3.5%
AFRICA 1,720 0.0% 11,802 0.2% 29,041 0.5% 57,496 1.0%
AMERICA 3,156 0.1% 4,457 0.1% 7,649 0.1% 13,169 0.2%
ASIA 5,250 0.1% 20,212 0.4% 54,547 1.0% 132,903 2.4%
OCEANIA 136 0.0% 359 0.0% 678 0.0% 1,042 0.0%
UNKNOWN 5,239 0.1% 4,946 0.1% 4,607 0.1% 9,569 0.2%
Total: Foreign countries 37,618 0.8% 113,245 2.2% 237,066 4.4% 444,031 8.0%
Total 4,998,478 100% 5,181,115 100% 5,375,276 100% 5,533,793 100%

Country of birth

Population pyramid of Finland by origin groups in 2021
Finnish and foreign born population pyramid in 2021
Finnish background
Foreign born
Foreign born descendants

The definition used by Statistics Finland for country of birth is based on the mother's country of permanent residence at the time of birth. Consequently, Estonian immigrants born before Estonian independence are recorded as being born in the Soviet Union, and those born in territories ceded by Finland are listed as being born in Finland, regardless of subsequent territorial changes. This information reflects the government in power at the time of birth and is devoid of subjective evaluations.[45]

Country of birth (2022)[3] Population %
 Finland 5,087,113 91.4%
 Soviet Union 63,885 1.1%
 Estonia 47,198 0.8%
 Sweden 33,902 0.6%
 Iraq 21,725 0.4%
 Russia 20,499 0.4%
 China 14,493 0.3%
 Somalia 13,171 0.2%
 Thailand 12,452 0.2%
 India 11,634 0.2%
 Vietnam 10,873 0.2%
 Turkey 10,117 0.2%
 Iran 9,800 0.2%
 Philippines 9,269 0.2%
 Afghanistan 9,269 0.2%
 Yugoslavia 9,164 0.2%
 Syria 8,271 0.1%
 Germany 7,728 0.1%
 United Kingdom 7,455 0.1%
 United States 6,535 0.1%
 Poland 5,465 0.1%
 Ukraine 5,367 0.1%
 Romania 5,039 0.1%
   Nepal 4,994 0.1%
 Bangladesh 4,761 0.1%
 Pakistan 4,726 0.1%
 Nigeria 3,826 0.1%
 Latvia 3,279 0.1%
 Spain 3,540 0.1%
 Italy 3,495 0.1%
 France 3,208 0.1%
 Morocco 3,134 0.1%
 Bulgaria 2,891 0.1%

Emigration

Main article: Finnish diaspora

Map of the Finnish diaspora in the world (includes people with Finnish ancestry or citizenship).
  Finland
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

Historically, Finnish emigration began in the 16th century, when Finns worked in Swedish mines, and continued until the 1970s. About 100,000 Finns emigrated to Russia during the Tsarist period, mainly to St Petersburg. Large-scale emigration began in the late 19th century, with about 400,000 Finns moving to the United States and Canada by 1980. After the Second World War, many Finns emigrated to Sweden, reaching a peak in 1970 when 41,000 settled there. An estimated 250,000 to 300,000 Finns became permanent residents of Sweden after the war. However, migration slowed in the 1980s, with more Finns returning than leaving.[13]

The impact of emigration on the Finnish labour force and birth rate has been significant. Finland has experienced two major waves of emigration: one at the beginning of the 20th century, when more than 300,000 Finns went to North America, and another from the 1950s to the 1970s, when 400,000 Finns moved to Sweden, forming large expatriate communities.[46]

Apart from these major flows, there have been smaller migrations around the world and some Finns live in different countries. In the 21st century about 14,000 people, mostly of Finnish origin, emigrate every year. Many are well-educated and may return to Finland after a few years. About 300,000 Finnish citizens live abroad and it's estimated that about 1.5 million people of Finnish origin live overseas.[46]

Internal migration

Evacuation on the Karelian Isthmus in the early days of the Winter War.

Migration has played an important role in shaping Finnish society throughout its history. Notable instances are the Forest Finns' migration to Sweden during the 15th century and the relocation of Ingrians to the present-day St Petersburg region during the 17th century. Changes in borders resulted in the formation of Finnish settlements outside its territory. Wars and political conflicts led to massive population movements, such as the Karelian evacuation during World War II, which exiled roughly 420,000 individuals within Finland's borders.[47]

Until the 1960s, Finland was predominantly an agricultural society. However, waves of urbanization and political transitions have contributed to migration movements. Currently, urbanization continues to be a significant internal migration pattern, with growth centers and sparsely populated regions. Approximately 250,000 people, mainly young adults, make annual municipal moves, which have notable implications for regional development in the 21st century.[47]

Religion

Main article: Religion in Finland

Religions in Finland (2022)[48]

  Other Christian (0.94%)
  Other Religions (0.84%)
  Unaffiliated (32.02%)

Before Christianisation, Finnish paganism prevailed, venerating deities such as Ukko, the god of thunder and sky. Currently, most of the Finnish population consider themselves nominal Christians, though the proportion of non-religious individuals has increased since the 1980s. As of 2022, 65.2% of the population were affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1.0% with the Orthodox Church and 1.8% were members of another religious group. A total of 32.0% have no religious affiliation.[22] The Evangelical Lutheran Church and the Orthodox Church are both entitled to collect church tax. There are around 140 registered religious communities, including Islam, Catholicism, and Jehovah's Witnesses.[49]

In Finland, there are also revival movements, which began as spiritual reform movements and are now organized and active within the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. The historic Finnish revivalist movements emerged in the late 1700s and 1800s and consisted of the Prayer Movement, the Awakened Movement, the Lutheran Evangelical Movement, and the Laestadian Movement. These movements laid out an important religious and social influence on Finnish society during this period.[50]

Religious freedom is highly valued in Finland and all residents have the right to choose and practice their faith.[49] Religious education is mandatory in Finnish schools, customized to a student's registered denomination if there are a minimum of three pupils who profess that religion.[51]

Education

Main article: Education in Finland

The Finnish educational framework encompasses several developmental phases, from early childhood through pre-primary, primary, and lower secondary (basic education), to gymnasium (lukio), vocational, higher, and adult education. Compulsory education is mandatory for 6 to 18-year-olds, covering pre-primary to upper secondary levels.[52]

Upon completion of the nine-year basic education, students may opt between gymnasium, culminating in a matriculation exam, or vocational upper secondary, culminating in a vocational qualification. Higher education in Finland consists of universities and universities of applied sciences, which place emphasis on education and research. While universities are authorized to grant doctorates, universities of applied sciences offer vocational education and practical research.[52]

In 2012 OECD survey, adults aged 16 to 65 in Finland exhibit exceptional literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving skills in technology compared to other countries surveyed. Young adults aged 16-24 have above-average literacy, whereas those aged 55-65 perform at an average level, resulting in a massive 37-point age-related gap. In contrast, foreign-language immigrants in Finland demonstrate lower literacy proficiency than native Finns, consistent with the international average.[53]

Low literacy is correlated with poor health, with individuals reporting low literacy being twice as likely to experience health problems. Furthermore, in Finland, individuals with advanced skill sets have a significantly higher likelihood of being employed when compared to those with lower skill sets, with a difference of almost double.[53]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Statistics Finland classifies a person as having a "foreign background" if both parents or the only known parent were born abroad.[6]
  2. ^ In 2012, Statistics Finland implemented a classification system for determining origin and background comparable to that employed by other Nordic countries. This system utilizes data on parental birthplaces to differentiate between Finnish natives and foreign-born individuals. It is important to note that data regarding individuals who passed before 1964 is unavailable in the Population Information System. Approximately 900,000 Finnish-born residents, whose parental birthplaces are unknown due to the pre-system death of their parents, are categorized as Finnish given that their native language is either Finnish, Swedish, or Sámi. Individuals with at least one parent born in Finland are classified as having a Finnish background. For those with foreign-born parents or missing parental data, a foreign background is assigned, regardless of whether they were born in Finland or abroad. In cases where both parents were born abroad, the mother's birthplace takes precedence in determining the background. If only the father's birthplace is known, it is used to determine the background. If the parental data and foreign background of a person born in Finland are unknown, their birthplace is considered their background. However, if someone is born in Finland with unknown parental information and foreign background deduction, their background remains unknown. In the case of internationally adopted children by Finnish-born parents, they are treated as having a Finnish background, with Finland as their birth country.[43]
  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.

References

  1. ^ a b "Total fertility rate lowest in measuring history in 2022". Statistics Finland. 21 April 2023. Retrieved 17 September 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d "Population structure 2000-2022, urban-rural classification". Statistics Finland. 26 May 2023. Retrieved 29 September 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Number of foreign-language speakers grew by nearly 38,000 persons". Statistics Finland. 31 May 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  4. ^ "Population 31.12. by Region, Background country, Sex, Age, Origin, Year and Information". PxWeb. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  5. ^ "Population 31.12. by Region, Background country, Sex, Age, Origin, Year and Information". PxWeb. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  6. ^ "Persons with foreign background". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  7. ^ a b "Ensimmäisillä suomalaisilla oli käytössään aikakautensa kehittynyttä teknologiaa: näin Suomi asutettiin jääkauden jälkeen" (in Finnish). Helsingin Sanomat. 17 May 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  8. ^ "Expatriate Finns are united by their Finnish identity". Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 29 September 2023.
  9. ^ a b "Eurydice: 1. Political, social and economic background and trends: 1.3 Population: demographic situation, languages and religions". European Commission. 16 June 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
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