Lom
Bosha
Bosha.jpg

Bosha gypsies, 19th century
Regions with significant populations
 Georgia2,000[1]
 Turkey~1,000[2]
Languages
Lomavren, Armenian, Georgian, Turkish
Religion
Islam (In Turkey)

The Lom people or Turkish: Lomlar, also known in Turkish: Poşa as (Bosha or Posha) by non-Loms (Armenian: Բոշա, Georgian: ბოშა, romanized: bosha; Russian: Боша) or Romani[3] (Russian: армянские цыгане; Armenian: հայ գնչուներ) or Caucasian Romani[3] (Russian: кавказские цыгане), are an ethnic group originating from India.[4] Their Lomavren language is a mixed language, combining an Indo-Aryan substrate with Armenian.

Number

Lom/Bosha in Soviet Transcaucasia
Year Armenia Georgia Azerbaijan
1926[5]
2
333
333
1939[6]
7
727
400
1959[7]
18
1,024
577
1970[8]
12
1,224
843
1979[9]
59
1,223
121
1989[10]
48
1,744
145

The exact number of existing Bosha is difficult to determine, due to the dispersed and often mostly-assimilated nature of the group. Estimates suggest only a few thousand of the people can be found across Armenia and Georgia, while the Armenian Government's census reports only 50 living in the former.[11]

Distribution

Concentrations of Bosha can be found in Yerevan and Gyumri in Armenia. Some of the Bosha in Armenia have adopted the Armenian language and assimilated with the larger Armenian population.[12] In Georgia they live in such cities as Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe.[4] They are noted for such occupations as sievemakers.

In Turkey the Lomlar adopted Islam at the 19th century and assimilated Turkish culture. They mostly live in Artvin, Rize, Ardahan and Kars and identify themselves as Meshketian Turks, hiding their Lom origins, while taking Armenian words from their contact with the Hemshin.

References

  1. ^ "The Gypsies". www.researchgate.net. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  2. ^ "Tarihten günümüze Lomlar veya Poşalar". Agos (in Turkish).
  3. ^ a b Journal / Gypsy Lore Society, Volume 1. Gypsy Lore Society. 1908 – via University of California.
  4. ^ a b "Info on Bosha – Armenian Roma". RomNews Network Community. 2007-10-28. Archived from the original on 2007-10-28. Retrieved 2018-08-10.
  5. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011.
  6. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011.
  7. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011.
  8. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  9. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  10. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on January 4, 2012.
  11. ^ "POPULATION AND PEOPLE – People – Armenia Travel, History, Archeology & Ecology – TourArmenia – Travel Guide to Armenia". Tacentral.com. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  12. ^ Wixman. The Peoples of the USSR. p. 30