The population of Armenia includes various significant minority ethnic groups.

Demographic trends in modern history of Armenia

According to last census, ethnic minorities in Armenia consist of less than 2% of the population. Various sources suggest different numbers[citation needed], and even some of the representatives of the ethnic minorities are not informed about exact numbers. However, migration waves from Armenia always included representatives of various ethnic minorities, and as their leaders suggest, migration will continue from Armenia despite considerable improvements in the economic and political situation in Armenia.

Ethnic group 1989 Soviet census[1] 2001 Armenian census[2]
2011 Armenian census[3] 2022 Armenian census[4]
Yazidis 56,127 40,620 35,272 31,077
Russians 51,555 14,660 11,862 14,074
Assyrians 5,963 3,409 2,769 2,754
Ukrainians 8,341 1,633 1,176 1,005
Greeks 4,650 1,176 900 365
Jews 676 127 N/A
Persians 14 326[5] N/A 434
Georgians 1,364 974 223
Belorussians 1,061 214 N/A
Azerbaijanis 84,860 29[5] N/A N/A
Poles 124 N/A
Germans 33 N/A
Kurds 2,131 1,663
Other 1,658 4,889
Unspecified 100 550
Total 221,160 67,657 55,582 57,034

While Armenians formed a consistent majority, Azerbaijanis were the second largest population in the republic during Soviet rule (forming about 2.5% in 1989[6]). However, due to hostilities with neighboring Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh virtually all Azeris emigrated from Armenia. Conversely, Armenia received a large influx of Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan, thus giving Armenia a more homogeneous character. This forceful population exchange also affected the Christian Udi people of Azerbaijan, many of whom were perceived as Armenians due to close cultural ties between both peoples.[7] The number of Udis residing in Armenia has increased from 19 in 1989[6] to about 200 by 2006.[7]

Additionally since independence, several other ethnic groups have emigrated especially Russians (who decreased from 51,555 persons in 1989[6] to 14,660 in 2001[2]), Ukrainians (8,341 in 1989[6] to 1,633 in 2001[2]),Armeno-Tat[citation needed], Greeks (4,650 in 1989[6] to 1,176 in 2001[2]), and Belarusians (1,061 in 1989[6] to 160 in 2001[8]). The numbers of Kurds , Armeno-Tats and Assyrians have remained consistent for the most part (though approximately 2,000 Assyrians have left Armenia between 1989[6] and 2001[2]). Georgians have also historically been counted among the largest ethnic groups in modern Armenia, though it is likely that their numbers have dropped substantially since the 1989 Soviet census when they numbered 1,364 persons.[6]


Armenia is the only republic of the former Soviet Union that boasts a nearly-homogeneous population. It is also the second-most densely populated post-Soviet state after Moldova. Ethnic minorities include Russians, Assyrians, Ukrainians, Kurds, Greeks, Georgians, and Belarusians. Smaller communities of Vlachs, Mordvins, Ossetians, Udis and Armeno-Tats also exist. Minorites of Poles and Caucasus Germans are also present, though they are heavily Russified.[8]

Ethnic composition of the territory of modern-day Armenia
Ethnic group 1831[9][better source needed] 1873[9][better source needed] 1886[9][better source needed] 1897[9][better source needed] 1922[9][better source needed] 1926[9][a][better source needed] 1931[9][better source needed] 1939[10][better source needed] 1959[11][better source needed] 1970[12][better source needed] 1979[13][better source needed] 1989[6][better source needed] 2001[2][5][better source needed] 2011[14][better source needed] 2022[15]
Armenians 110,671 329,266 430,865 510,855 671,279 743,571 883,348 1,061,997 1,551,610 2,208,327 2,724,975 3,083,616 3,145,354 2,961,514 2,875,697
Azerbaijanis[b] 50,274 132,125 160,963 240,323 77,767 77,655 105,838 130,896 107,748 148,189 160,841 84,860 29 0
Kurds 34,749 44,005 33,006 60,064 61,447 20,481 25,627 37,486 50,822 56,127 1,519 2,131 1,663
Yazidis 802 46,675[c] 40,620 35,272 31,077
Russians 51,464 56,477 66,108 70,336 51,555 14,660 11,862 14,074
Ukrainians 5,496 5,593 8,390 8,900 8,341 1,633 1,176 1,005
Assyrians 3,280 4,326 5544 6,183 5,963 3,409 2,769 2,754
Greeks 4,181 4,976 5,690 5,653 4,650 1,176 900 365
Georgians 652 816 1,439 1,314 1,364 249 974 223
Others 3,891 5,875 10,700 8,235 8,300 4,362 2,256 5,873
TOTAL 161,747 496,140 635,833 797,853 782,052 881,290 1,050,633 1,282,338 1,763,048 2,491,873 3,037,259 3,304,776 3,213,011 3,018,854 2,932,731


Main article: Azerbaijanis in Armenia

Comparison table of Armenian, Azerbaijani and Kurdish population of Armenia

The Azerbaijanis community in Armenia in the 20th century, represented a large number but have been virtually non-existent since 1988–1991. Most Azerbaijanis fled the country as a result of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War and the ongoing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. UNHCR estimates the current population of Azerbaijanis in Armenia to be somewhere between 30 and a few hundred persons,[16] with majority of them living in rural areas and being members of mixed couples (mostly mixed marriages), as well as elderly and sick. Most of them are also reported to have changed their names and maintain a low profile to avoid discrimination.[17][18]


Main article: Yazidis in Armenia

Yazids constitute largest ethnic minority in Armenia.[19] The Yazidis, are sometimes regarded as ethnic Kurds who live in the west of Armenia and are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism.


Main article: Kurds in Armenia

The Kurds in Armenia are an ethnic and religious minority in the country. While Yazidis, sometimes also referred as Kurds,[20] constitute largest minority there are also a small percentage of non-Yazidi Kurds in Armenia.


Main article: Russians in Armenia

Ethnic Russians are the second largest ethnic community in Armenia after the Yazidis, with their number at 14,600. Even in the days of the Soviet Union, the days of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, the country had the smallest percentage of Russians compared to the other 14 republics. Although some ethnic Russians left the country after independence, because of economic hardship and better opportunities, there is some flux of new ethnic Russians arriving for commercial considerations and also due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

There are a number of Russian-language publications in the Republic, including the dailies "Golos Armenii", "Novoye Vremia" and "Respublika Armenia" and the weekly "Delovoi Expres".

The educational system also uses Russian in many domains.


Main article: Assyrians in Armenia

Assyrians are a historic presence in Armenia from very ancient times. Assyrians are the third biggest minority in Armenia after the Yazidis and Russians. Their number is estimated at 5,000. There has been a higher rate of intermarriage between the Assyrians and the Armenians.

According to the 2001 census, there are 3,409 Assyrians living in Armenia, and Armenia is home to some of the last surviving Assyrian communities outside the middle east. There were 6,000 Assyrians in Armenia before the breakup of USSR, but because of Armenia's struggling economy, the population has been cut by half, as many have emigrated to Russian areas.[citation needed]

Assyrians are a Christian Semitic people, Aramaic speakers who are descendants of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians


The Molokans (Russian: Молока́не) are a religious sect, among Russian peasants (serfs), who broke away from the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1550s. They reject the Trinity as outlined by the Nicene Creed, the Orthodox fasts, military service, adhering to the Old Testament kosher dietary laws and do not eat pork, shellfish, or other unclean foods. They also refuse many accepted Christian practices, including water baptism. They claim to be the direct descendants of the ancient Armenian "Paulicians". They became known as the "Bogomils" of Thrace, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Serbia.

Molokan means "milk drinkers" in Russian, as they drank milk instead of fasting from it on Orthodox Fasts. There are around 5,000 Molokans in Armenia. They encourage endogamy.


Main article: Greeks in Armenia

The Greeks of Armenia are mainly descendants of Pontic Greeks, who originally lived along the shores of the Black Sea. Armenians and Greeks have co-existed for centuries.


Main article: Armeno-Tats in Armenia

Christian Tats (Armenian:hay-tater) are a distinct group of Tat-speaking Armenians that historically populated eastern parts of the South Caucasus.


Main article: Ukrainians in Armenia

The origin of the Ukrainians in Armenia goes back to the mid 19th century after the migration to Transcaucasia “the Cossacks from Minor Russia” to seal the Empire’s Southern borders. The migrants worked mostly in agriculture.


Main article: Jews in Armenia

Jews in Armenia are ethnic / religious Jews living in Armenia. There are about 300–500[21] Jews presently living in Armenia, mainly in the capital Yerevan. Although the contemporary relations between Israel and Armenia are normally good. The Jews have their religious leaders in Armenia headed by a Chief Rabbi and sociopolitical matters are run by the Jewish Council of Armenia.


Main article: Poles in Armenia

Poles in Armenia are Armenian citizens who have Polish ancestry or Polish immigrants to Armenia. They make up the same population as Russians, Caucasus Germans, Italians, and Scandinavians. Some of them are born to one parent from Poland and one parent from Armenia and some of them have grandparents from Poland. They live in Amrakits, Gyumri, Vanadzor, and Yerevan. 33 of them live there. They have a school called European School in Armenia. They speak Armenian and some Polish.


The Udis (the self-name Udi, Uti) – are one of the most ancient native peoples of Caucasus as they are considered to be the descendants of the people of Caucasian Albania.

Udis reside in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine and Armenia. In Armenia, they number around 200.

The Udi language belongs to the Nakho-Dagestanian group of the Caucasian languages. There are two primary dialects named Nij and Vartashen. Azeri, Russian, Georgian languages are also spoken.

Most Udis belong to the Orthodox Church. Centuries of life in the sphere of Perso-Islamic culture made a relevant impact on the Udi culture and mentality. This trace is noticeable in Udi folk traditions and the material culture.

Most Udis speak Udi language that is a member of the Northeast Caucasian language family. Udi is related to Lezgian and Tabasaran.

It is believed this was the main language of Caucasian Albania, which stretched from south Dagestan to current day Azerbaijan. The language is spoken by about 5,000 people including in the villages of Debedavan, Bagratashen, Ptghavan, and Haghtanak in the Tavush province of Armenia and in the village of Zinobiani (Oktomberi) in the Kvareli district of the Kakheti province in Georgia.

Versions of Udi were written in Armenian alphabet and the Georgian alphabet.


Main article: Lom people

Organizations of ethnic minorities

List of organizations of the ethnic minorities of Armenia.[22]

Union of ethnic minorities NGOs
Number Name Ethnic minority
1 youth center "Ashur" Assyrians
2 "Pontos" organization Greeks
3 "Rosia" Russians
4 "Slavonakan tun" ("Slavic home") Belarusians
5 "Association of Ukrainians" Ukrainians
6 "National Union of Yezidis of RA" Yezidi
7 "Menora" cultural center Jews
8 "organization Mordechai Navi" Jews
Union of ethnic minorities NGOs
1 "Atur" union Assyrians
2 "Polonia" union Poles
3 "Harmonia" cultural center Russians
4 "Oda" Russians
5 "Oda luch" Russians
6 "Belarus" Belarusians
7 "Jewish Community of Armenia" Jews
8 "Iveria" benevolent community Georgians
9 Ukrainian Federation "Ukraina" Ukrainians
10 National Union of Yezidis Yezidi
11 "Kurdistan" committee Kurds
12 "Birlik" Association of Armenia Qazaqstani[clarification needed]

See also


  1. ^ Slightly differs from the results of the 1926 Soviet census in the Armenian SSR due to minor territorial adjustments within the Transcaucasian SFSR.
  2. ^ Includes "Muslims" in 1831 and 1897; Classified as "Tatars" before 1918; Classified as "Turks" or "Turko-Tatars" after 1918; Known as Azerbaijanis after 1936.
  3. ^ Included 25,874 respondents of an Orthodox faith—Mainly Russians, Ukrainians, Greeks, and Georgians.


  1. ^ (in Russian) Demoscope Weekly Archived January 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d e f Information from the 2001 Armenian National Census
  3. ^ [ Brief information about ethnic minorities of Armenia][dead link]
  4. ^ "The Main Results of RA Census 2022 / Statistical Committee of the Republic of Armenia". Retrieved 2024-02-28.
  5. ^ a b c (in Armenian) - Ազգային փոքրամասնություններ. ազգային խճանկար
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i (in Russian) The All-Union Population Census of 1989 Archived January 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ a b "Muslim Kurds and Christian Udis". Hetq Online. 2006-11-13. Archived from the original on 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2006-11-13.
  8. ^ a b Garnik Asatryan and Victoria Arakelova, The Ethnic Minorities of Armenia Archived January 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Routledge, part of the OSCE, 2002
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Korkotyan, Zaven (1932). Խորհրդային Հայաստանի բնակչությունը վերջին հարյուրամյակում (1831-1931) [The population of Soviet Armenia in the last century (1831–1931)] (PDF) (in Armenian). Yerevan: Pethrat. pp. 164–167. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2022.
  10. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года". Retrieved 2022-02-12.
  11. ^ (in Russian) The All-Union Population Census of 1959 Archived September 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ (in Russian) The All-Union Population Census of 1970.
  13. ^ (in Russian) The All-Union Population Census of 1979 Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ "2011 Census" (PDF).
  15. ^ "The Main Results of RA Census 2022 / Statistical Committee of the Republic of Armenia". Retrieved 2024-02-28.
  16. ^ Second Report Submitted by Armenia Pursuant to Article 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Received on 24 November 2004
  17. ^ International Protection Considerations Regarding Armenian Asylum-Seekers and Refugees Archived 2014-04-16 at the Wayback Machine. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Geneva: September 2003
  18. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2003: Armenia U.S. Department of State. Released 25 February 2004
  19. ^ "The Ethnic Minorities of Armenia" (PDF). Yerevan. 2002.
  20. ^ "The Ethnic Minorities of Armenia" (PDF). Yerevan. 2002.
  21. ^ Vandals deface Holocaust memorial in Armenia. Michael Freund, The Jerusalem Post, December 23, 2007
  22. ^ "ՀՀ Մշակույթի Նախարարություն - Ազգային փոքրամասնությունների կազմակերպությունների ցանկ". Archived from the original on 2011-10-09. Retrieved 2012-01-08.