Romani people in Germany
Total population
170,000[1]-300,000[1]
Languages
Sinte Romani, Romani language, Balkan Romani language, Turkish language, German
Religion
Christianity, Islam
Gypsy Family in Prison, 1864 painting by Carl d´Unker, a Swedish painter living and working in Düsseldorf. An actual imprisoned family served as the models. The reason for their imprisonment remains unknown
Gypsy Family in Prison, 1864 painting by Carl d´Unker, a Swedish painter living and working in Düsseldorf. An actual imprisoned family served as the models. The reason for their imprisonment remains unknown

Romani people in Germany are estimated to around 170,000[1]-300,000,[1] constituting around 0.2-0.4% of the population. One-third of Germany Romani belong to the Sinti group.[2] Most speak German or Sinte Romani.

History

Origin

The Romani people originate from the Northern India,[3][4][5][6][7][8] presumably from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan[7][8] and Punjab.[7]

The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that roots of Romani language lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a big part of the basic lexicon, for example, body parts or daily routines.[9]

More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi. It shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali.[10]

Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India and migrated as a group.[4][5][11] According to a genetic study in 2012, the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste populations of northern India, traditionally referred to collectively as the Ḍoma, are the likely ancestral populations of modern European Roma.[12]

In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora.[13]

Migration to Germany

They are different Groups of Romani people in Germany. The first record in Hildesheim from 1407. This are the Sinti, the next oldest are the Sastike Roma (Saxonian Romani people). They are different Christian Roma groups like the Lalleri, Kalderash, Čurara, Boyash, Wallachian Roma, Gitanos, and Muslim Roma/Xoraxane like Arlije, Gurbeti, Romanlar in Turkey. Some People of Roma Background came as Gastarbeiter to Germany, from Countrys like Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Greece, Spain and Italy. Especially Turkish speaking Xoraxane-Roma from Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey, declaread themself as Turks only and are looked as Turks by the Host population. At the Kosovo War in 1998-1999, Romani people in Kosovo, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians came to Germany[14]

Map of Europe showing Romani demographics
Map of Europe showing Romani demographics
Romani civilians in Asperg, Germany are rounded up for deportation by Nazi authorities on 22 May 1940. Colorized.
Romani civilians in Asperg, Germany are rounded up for deportation by Nazi authorities on 22 May 1940. Colorized.

Notable individuals

Further information: Category:German people of Romani descent

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Roma/Gypsies/Sinti - Minority Rights Group".
  2. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Austria : Roma/Gypsies". United Nations Human Rights Council. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  3. ^ Hancock, Ian F. (2005) [2002]. We are the Romani People. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-902806-19-8: ‘While a nine century removal from India has diluted Indian biological connection to the extent that for some Romani groups, it may be hardly representative today, Sarren (1976:72) concluded that we still remain together, genetically, Asian rather than European’((cite book)): CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  4. ^ a b Mendizabal, Isabel (6 December 2012). "Reconstructing the Population History of European Romani from Genome-wide Data". Current Biology. 22 (24): 2342–2349. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.10.039. PMID 23219723.
  5. ^ a b Sindya N. Bhanoo (11 December 2012). "Genomic Study Traces Roma to Northern India". New York Times.
  6. ^ Current Biology.
  7. ^ a b c Meira Goldberg, K.; Bennahum, Ninotchka Devorah; Hayes, Michelle Heffner (2015-09-28). Flamenco on the Global Stage: Historical, Critical and Theoretical Perspectives - K. Meira Goldberg, Ninotchka Devorah Bennahum, Michelle Heffner Hayes - Google Books. ISBN 9780786494705. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  8. ^ a b Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (1999). World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides. p. 147. ISBN 9781858286358. Retrieved 2016-05-21. Roma Rajastan Penjab.
  9. ^ Šebková, Hana; Žlnayová, Edita (1998), Nástin mluvnice slovenské romštiny (pro pedagogické účely) (PDF), Ústí nad Labem: Pedagogická fakulta Univerzity J. E. Purkyně v Ústí nad Labem, p. 4, ISBN 80-7044-205-0, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04
  10. ^ Hübschmannová, Milena (1995). "Romaňi čhib – romština: Několik základních informací o romském jazyku". Bulletin Muzea Romské Kultury. Brno: Muzeum romské kultury (4/1995). Zatímco romská lexika je bližší hindštině, marvárštině, pandžábštině atd., v gramatické sféře nacházíme mnoho shod s východoindickým jazykem, s bengálštinou.
  11. ^ "5 Intriguing Facts About the Roma". Live Science.
  12. ^ Rai, N; Chaubey, G; Tamang, R; Pathak, AK; Singh, VK (2012), "The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations", PLOS ONE, 7 (11): e48477, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048477, PMC 3509117, PMID 23209554
  13. ^ "Can Romas be part of Indian diaspora?". khaleejtimes.com. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  14. ^ "Köln Sehri ve Cevresinde Yagayan Gingeneler: Gene Bir Degerlendirme" (PDF) (in Turkish).