This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Romani society and culture" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
1552 woodcut of a Romani family

The Romani people are a distinct ethnic and cultural group of peoples living all across the globe, who share a family of languages and sometimes a traditional nomadic mode of life.[1] Though their exact origins are unclear, central India is a notable point of origin.[2] Their language shares a common origin with, and is similar to, modern-day Gujarati and Rajasthani, borrowing loan words from other languages as they migrated from India. In Europe, even though their culture has been victimized by other cultures, they have still found a way to maintain their heritage and society.[3][4] Indian elements in Romani culture are almost non-existent, with the exception of their language.[5] Romani culture focuses heavily on family. The Roma traditionally live according to relatively strict moral codes.[6] The ethnic culture of the Romani people who live in central, eastern and southeastern European countries developed through a long, complex process of continuous active interaction with the culture of their surrounding European population.[7]


Further information: Origins of the Romani people

Linguistic and phonological research has traced the Roma people's origin to places in the Indian subcontinent. Many report in extracts from popular literature that Romani emerged from the North-west regions of India, rather than from Central India.[8] Features of phonological developments which emerged during the early transition stage from Old to Middle Indic prove that the history of Romani began in Central India.[9] The Romani language shares many features with the Central Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi and Rajasthani; it also shares connections with Northern Indo-Aryan languages like Kashmiri, and the language itself contains a cluster of Persian and Arabic words. Linguists use these phonological similarities as well as features of phonological developments which emerged during the early transition stage from Old Sanskrit to Middle Indic Prakrit to conclude that the history of Romani began in Central India.[10]

Another legend described the Persian king Bahram V, who took musicians from India to Iran at A.D. 420–438, then wandered over the Silk Road to Europe. Some believe the Roma are their descendants.[11]


The Romani people are today found across the world. Typically, Roma adopt given names that are common in the country of their residence. Seldom do modern Roma use the traditional name from their own language, such as Čingaren. Romanes is the only Indo-Aryan language that has been spoken exclusively around Europe since the Middle Ages.[12] Speakers use many terms for their language. They generally refer to their language as Čingari čhib or řomani čhib translated as 'the Romani language', or rromanes, 'in a Rom way'. The English term, Romani, has been used by scholars since the 19th century, where previously they had used the term 'Gypsy language'.

Family and life stages

Traditionally, Roma place a high value on the extended family.[13]

Marriage and controversies

Roma wedding in Sofia, 1936

Marriage in Romani society underscores the importance of family and demonstrates ties between different groups, often transnationally. Traditionally an arranged marriage is highly desirable.[14] It is custom for the parents of the groom to pay the family of the daughter. Parents of the potential bridal couple help identify an ideal partner for their child. Parents may pressure a particular spouse on their child, because it is an established norm to be married by your mid-twenties.[14] School, church, Mosques, circumcision ceremonies, fiancée and weddings, and other events are also popular environments for finding a prospective spouse. Potential couples are expected to be supervised or chaperoned by an adult. With the emergence of both social media such as Facebook and mobile phones, and the advancing education of women, many traditional mores and conservative views have become less rigid. In some Romani groups, for example the Finnish Roma, the idea of a legally registered marriage is ignored altogether.[15]

The Romani practice of child marriage has generated substantial controversy across the world. In 2003, one of the many self-styled Romani "kings", Ilie Tortică, prohibited marriage before the parties were of legal age in their country of residence. A Romani patriarch, Florin Cioabă, ran afoul of Romanian authorities in late 2003 when he married off his youngest daughter, Ana-Maria, at the age of twelve, well below the legal marriageable age.[16]

Bride kidnapping (not to be confused with the Romanian bride kidnapping tradition) is believed to be a traditional part of Romani practice. Girls as young as twelve years old may be kidnapped for marriage to teenage boys. This practice has been reported in Ireland, England, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Slovakia.[17][18][19] Bride kidnapping is thought to be a way to avoid a bride price or a means for a girl to marry a boy she wants but that her parents do not want.[19] The tradition's normalisation of kidnapping puts young women at higher risk of becoming victims of human trafficking.[17][18]

The practices of bride kidnapping and child marriage are not universally accepted throughout Romani culture. Some Romani women and men seek to eliminate such customs.[20]

The Muslim Roma adopted the Islamic marital practices[21]

Romani mothers breastfeed their children for optimal health and increased immunity. They also view this as a gift from God, and a help to building healthy relationships between mothers and children.[22]


The blood revenge, blood feud or vendetta is an old form of private vengeance, which is usually intended to restore Romani family honor by killing an opponent. It only occurs after serious damage to honor, such as the killing itself, which no other damage compensation within the feud can do justice to.[23][24]

Purity and death

See also: Marime

Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are washed in a different place.[25]

Childbirth is considered "impure" and must occur outside the dwelling place; the mother is considered "impure" for 40 days.[26]

The Muslim Roma (Horahane) in the Balkans adopted the Islamic culture during the Ottoman Empire period, and so did the Ritual purity in Islam.[27]


Christian Romani people incorporate their values into how they raise their children. There is an element of impurity placed upon both the mother and father after the mother gives birth. This impurity is lessened if the child is a male and the family is considered "lucky". Traditionally, the couple will live with the father of the groom until their first child is born. Romani people place high value on extended family so godparents, along with this other family, are active in the child's life to ensure its well-being.[28]

Moral values

The culture and tradition of Dasikane (Christian) Roma and Horahane (Muslim) Roma is very different. There is no single roma culture or tradition, it differs from country, subgroups and religion.


Romanipen (also romanypen, romanipe, romanype, romanimos, romaimos, romaniya) is a concept of Romani philosophy encompassing totality of the Romani spirit, culture, law, being a Rom, a set of Romani strains.[29]

An ethnic Rom is considered to be a Gadjikane Roma in Romani society if the person has no Romanipen. Sometimes a Gadjo, usually an adopted child, may be considered to be a Rom if the person has Romanipen. As a concept, Romanipen has been the subject of interest to numerous academic observers. It has been hypothesized that it owes more to a framework of culture than simply an adherence to historically received rules.[30]

Significant changes in Romani culture following the Second World War have been attributed to the suspension of these social norms, as strict rules relating to food and contact with certain classes of people broke down. This period also coincided with a perceived loss of authority invested in traditional leaders, the primary maintainers of Romanipen.[31] Furthermore, the Roma who found themselves under Soviet control during the war, while deported to the east of the Urals and often persecuted, were generally left alone to follow their orthodox practices and thus preserved strict interpretations of Romanipen. However, the Roma who lived in other countries of eastern Europe, in the face of widespread discrimination and society's attempts at forced assimilation, often had to compromise their strict interpretation of the customs to survive. As a result, the whole concept of Romanipen became interpreted differently among various Roma groups. Muslim Roma, as one example, considered an uncircumcised man to be impure.

Being a part of Romani society

A considerable punishment for a Christian Rom is banishment from Romani society.[32] An expelled person is considered to be "contaminated" and is shunned by other Christian Romanis.

Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians[33] like the Turcoman Gypsies and Crimean Roma[34] are not part of the Romani society due to the lack of Romanipen and the Romani language.

Romani Code

Romani Code, or Romano Zakono, is the most important part of Romanipen. It is a set of rules for Romani life. It differs from Groups and Religions.

Though Romani ethnic groups have different sets of rules, Oral Romani cultures are most likely to adhere to the Romani code, these communities are geographically spread.[35] There are proverbs about the Romani Code and customs, such as:

Rules of Romani Code describe relationships inside the Romani community and set limits for customs, behavior and other aspects of life.

The Romani Code is not written; Romani people keep it alive in oral tradition.

The kris is a traditional institution for upholding and enforcing the Romani Code.

The code can be summarised in pillars; the main pillar representing the polar ideas of baxt (pronounced [baxt], bah-kht) meaning 'honour' and ladž (or laʒ, pronounced [ladʒ], lah-j) meaning 'shame'.[35]

It is honourable, in some Romani cultures, to celebrate baxt by being generous and displaying your success to the public. The focus on generosity means sharing food is of great importance to some groups of Roma. Making lavish meals to share with other Romani visitors is commonplace and in some cases not having food to share is considered shameful.[35]

Faith and religion

The vast majority of Roma are Christians. They are Catholic Manouche, Mercheros, and Sinti; Muslim Ashkali and Romanlar; Pentecostal Kalderash and Lovari; Protestant Travellers; Anglican Roma; and Baptist Roma. The Roma's religious beliefs are occupied by God and Virgin Mary.[36]

The cult of Saint Sara in the shrine of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Southern France, is a devotion associated with Catholic Romanies.


While in India, the ancestors of the Romani people followed the Hindu religion. This theory is supported by the Romani word for 'cross', trushul, which is the word which describes Shiva's trident (Trishul).[37] A Hindu foundation means that the concept of kuntari, a universal balance, is central to the people's spirituality. Kuntari means that all things belong in the universe according to their natural place. If something does not fit into its natural place, it is considered to be out of balance, and therefore bad luck. For example, birds are supposed to fly, so flightless birds like hens are considered to be out of balance and bad luck. For this reason, Christian Roma traditionally do not eat hens' eggs.[38] With the exception of the Muslim Roma, who eat eggs, even have special recipes for it.[39]

Dasikane Roma

In Balkan Romani an Orthodox Christian Roma is named Dasikane or Daskane or Das, the meaning is sometimes given as a slave or servant.[40]

Deities and saints

Ritual bath during the Romani pilgrimage of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer

Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla is considered a patron saint of the Romani people in Roman Catholicism.[41] Virgin of Hope of Macarena is considered a patron saint of the Spanish Gypsies.[42]

Saint Sarah, or Kali Sara, has been revered as a patron saint in the same manner as the Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla, but a transition occurred in the 21st century, whereby Kali Sara is understood as an Indian deity brought by the refugee ancestors of the Romani people, thereby removing any Christian association. Saint Sarah is progressively being considered as "a Romani goddess, the Protectress of the Roma" and an "indisputable link with Mother India".[43] The Roma pilgrimage for the dark-skinned Saint Sara in Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer is said to have possibly been the Egyptian servant of the three Marys.[44][45] The day of the pilgrimage honouring Sarah is May 24; her statue is carried down to the sea on this day to re-enact her arrival in France.

Christian Roma ceremonies and practices

Roma often adopt the dominant religion of their host country if a ceremony associated with a formal religious institution is necessary, such as a baptism or funeral (their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship remain preserved regardless of such adoption processes). Some Roma continue to practice "Shaktism", a practice with origins in India, whereby a female consort is required for the worship of a god. Adherence to this practice means that for the Romani who worship a Christian God, prayer is conducted through the Virgin Mary, or her mother, Saint Anne. Shaktism continues over 1,000 years after the people's separation from India.[38]

Romani elders serve as spiritual leaders; there are no specific Christian Roma priests, churches, or Christian Roma scriptures, the exception being the Pentecostal Roma, most in Western society.[38]

Within the United Kingdom, a large proportion of British Roma (40% by some estimates) are members of Light and Life, a Charismatic Pentecostal Christian movement.[46]

Burial of the foreskin

It is a custom among Muslim Roma that the foreskin must be buried after Sunet Bijav, (Religious male circumcision ceremony).[47] They believe the foreskin will come back to men in Paradise (Jannah), based a Hadith from Sahih al-Bukhari 6524: The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said: "You will be raised on the Day of Judgement barefooted, naked, and uncircumcized (with foreskin)." Burying the foreskin is also a tradition among Malaysian Muslims.[48]

Balkan Roma Muslims

Balkan Roma Muslims are mostly cultural Muslims or nominal Muslims.[49][50] For the Muslim Romani communities that have resided in the Balkans for centuries, often referred to as Horahane Roma or "Turkish Gypsies", all Muslim Roma got a Religious male circumcision, the following histories apply for religious beliefs:

In the Balkans, the Roma of North Macedonia and southern Serbia, including the disputed territory of Kosovo, have been particularly active in Islamic mystical brotherhoods (Sufism)—Muslim Roma immigrants to Western Europe and America have brought these traditions with them.[53]

Other regions

Ukraine and Russia contain Romani Muslim populations, as the families of Balkan migrants continue to live there. The descendants' ancestors settled on the Crimean peninsula during the 17th and 18th centuries, but most descendants migrated to Ukraine, southern Russia and the Povolzhie (along the Volga River). Formally, Islam is the religion that these communities align themselves with, and the people are recognized for their staunch preservation of the Romani language and identity.[51]

Most Eastern European Roma are Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Muslim.[54] Those in Western Europe and the United States are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant. In southern Spain, many Roma are Pentecostal, but this is a small minority that has emerged in contemporary times.[38] In Egypt, the Roma are split into Christian and Muslim populations.[55] For countless years, dance has been considered a religious procedure for the Egyptian Roma.[56] In Turkey, the Romani people are Muslim and the males are circumcised, while the majority of Roma in Latin America have maintained their European religions, with most following Eastern Orthodox Christianity.[57]


Since World War II, a growing number of Roma have embraced Evangelical movements. For the first time, Roma became ministers and created their own, autonomous churches and missionary organizations. In some countries, the majority of Roma belong to Romani churches. This unexpected change has greatly contributed to a better image of Roma in society. The work they perform is seen as more legitimate, and they have begun to obtain legal permits for commercial activities.[57]


Theravada Buddhism linked to the Dalit Buddhist movement of B.R. Ambedkar has spread among European Roma, particularly in Hungary, although it is still a minority.[58][59]


Main article: Romani dance

Romani dances are influenced by Indian dances. A Romani dance that originated from India is the snake dance. Romani women perform the sapera dance with a cobra to awakened their reptilian powers, mantras and to curse menacing victims forever.[60]

Belly dance is performed by the Romani people in Turkey[61]


Main article: Romani music

Django Reinhardt

As the Roma traveled to other countries from India to Europe, the Roma introduced many influences in their music, beginning with their Indian roots and adding elements of Greek, Persian, Turkish, Romanian, Czech and Slavic influence, as well as Western European such as German, French and Spanish influences.[62]

The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Roma, although their music draws heavily from a vast variety of ethnic traditions—for example Romanian, Turkish, Jewish, and Slavic—as well as Romani traditions.[63] Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performer in the lăutari tradition is Taraful Haiducilor. Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Roma themselves, draw heavily on Romani music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania.

Flamenco music and dance came from the Roma in Spain;[64] the distinctive sound of Romani music has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, and Cante Jondo in Europe. European-style Gypsy jazz is still widely practised among the original creators (the Romani People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was Django Reinhardt.[65]

Belly dancing is a form of dance invented by The Domari of Egypt or Ghawazi, however it was originally seen as "ghetto" and "low class" until the native Egyptians and the Europeans saw and emulated it. Nowadays there are very few original Ghawazi dancers due to the exile and expulsions and discrimination which caused many to go out of work and emigrate.[66]

Classical music

Romani music is very important in Eastern European cultures such as Hungary, Russia, and Romania.[67] Performance practices by Romani musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms.[68]


Main article: Romani language

See also: World Day of Romani Language

The Romani language is spoken by millions of Romani people throughout the world.[69] It is of the Indo-Aryan branch. Many Romani people can speak two or more languages. It is not considered an official language because it varies from tribe to tribe.


See also: International Romani Day

Each June, Gypsy Roma Traveller History Month is celebrated in London.[70] International Romani Day is a holiday celebrated in Europe, especially in Budapest, Bulgaria, Romania and Eastern Europe, on April 8.[71] World Roma Festival is a festival celebrated in Prague.[72] Ederlezi and Kakava are holidays celebrated in spring by the Turkish Roma.[73]

Romani Christians celebrate Christmas on December 25 and Easter in either April or May. Romani adults may also fast on these holidays and may eat special foods for these holidays.[74]

Theatre, circus and cinema

There exist four well-known Romani theatres in the world, Romen Theatre, Romance Theatre, Romanothan and Phralipe, and also many small theatres.[75][76][77]


Museum of Romani Culture

Museum of Romani Culture is located in Brno in the Czech Republic.[78]


Main article: Romani cuisine

Romani people don’t eat food prepared by a non-Roma.[79]

Horse meat is forbidden by Christian Roma. Any Christian Roma who eats horse meat, are punished and banished from their tribe. Cat meat and dog meat are also forbidden and are considered unclean.[80][81][82]

Christian Romani tea is similar to Russian tea and stuffed cabbage is popular among the Roma.[83] Berries, vegetables, mushrooms, hedgehog, game and fowl are favored by the Roma.[84]

The Muslim Roma (Horahane) in the Balkans adopted the Islamic culture during the Ottoman Empire period.[27]

There is a Romani restaurant called Romani Kafenava in Maribor, Slovenia. Rabbit stew is a Romani favorite. Other Romani dishes are fried bread dishes, including xaritsa (fried cornbread), pufe (fried wheat bread) and bogacha (baked bread). A Romani dessert is pirogo, a sweet noodle casserole similar to Jewish kugel made with raisins, cream cheese, and butter.[85]


Romanian Roma uses parsley leaves to heal bruises.[86] Roma suffering from illness often seek treatment from a Romani doctor, an elderly Roma who uses traditional medicines such as herbs.[87] Roma refuse to seek medical help from non-Roma and use healers, magic, prayer or herbal remedies for illnesses.[88] A drabarni is a Romani female healer.[89]


Main article: Romani dress

Turkish Roma wear Ottoman pants whereas as Christian Roma wear long skirts.[90]

In most traditional Romani communities, Romani women tend to wear gold bracelets and gold necklaces and headscarves that are decorated with golden coins.[91]


Main article: Romani literature

Romani literature is written by Romani people.[92]


Romani culture is steeped in superstition. Many Roma hold on to belief in charms, amulets, curses, bad luck, and ghosts.[93]


Main article: Romani folklore

Romani people have their own ethnic hero. Among the Vlach Roma, it is Mundro Salamon or Wise Solomon. Other Romani groups call this hero O Godjiaver Yanko. Among the Welsh Kale, he is Merlinos (the Wizard), taken from Celtic folklore.[94]


See also: Hokkani boro

A stereotype that Romani people have psychic powers (e.g. fortune-teller) is still sometimes present, and some romantics attribute the invention of the Tarot cards to them.[95][96][97]

Relations with other people

An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves

Because of their nomadic lifestyle and differences in language and culture, Roma and their more settled neighbours have held each other in distrust. The popular image of Roma as tramps and thieves unfit for work contributed to their widespread persecution. This belief is often cited as the etymological source of the term gyp, meaning to "cheat", as in "I got gypped by a con man."

There are still tensions between Roma and the majority population around them. Common complaints are that Roma steal and live off social welfare and residents often reject Romani encampments. This has led to Roma being described as "perhaps the most hated minority in Europe."[98] In the UK, travellers (referring to both Irish Travellers and Roma) became a 2005 general election issue, with Michael Howard, the then-leader of the Conservative Party promising to review the Human Rights Act 1998.[99] This law, which absorbs the European Convention on Human Rights into UK primary legislation, is seen by some to permit the granting of retrospective planning permission for Romani communities. Severe population pressures and the paucity of greenfield sites have led to travellers purchasing land and setting up residential settlements almost overnight, thus subverting the planning restrictions imposed on other members of the community. Travellers argued in response that thousands of retrospective planning permissions are granted in Britain in cases involving non-Romani applicants each year and that statistics showed that 90% of planning applications by Roma and travellers were initially refused by local councils, compared with a national average of 20% for other applicants, potentially disproving claims of preferential treatment favouring Roma. They also argued that the root of the problem was that many traditional stopping-places had been barricaded off and that legislation passed by the previous Conservative government had effectively criminalised their communities by removing local authorities' responsibility to provide sites, thus leaving the travellers with no option but to purchase unregistered new sites themselves.[100]

Law enforcement agencies in the United States hold regular conferences on the Roma and similar nomadic groups.[101]

In Denmark, there was much controversy when the city of Helsingør decided to put all Romani students in special classes in its public schools. The classes were later abandoned after it was determined that they were discriminatory and the Romani students were put back in regular classes.[102]

Romani people have traditionally avoided gadje because non-Romani are believed to be polluting and defile the Romani world.[103]

The Greek Doctor A. G. Paspati made the statement in his Book from 1860, that Turks married often Roma Woman, and the Rumelian Romani dialect is nearly lost by the Muslim Turkish Roma, who speak entirely Turkish.[104] Ernest Gilliat-Smith, explained in 1915, that this Turkish Roma in Bulgaria can't speak Romani language, and compare them with very poor Turks rather than Romani people. The French orientalist Henri Bourgeois referred too the Turkish Roma as Pseudo Chingiane, especially the newspaper Laço who was published in 1910 by Emin Resa.[105]

Roma in Eastern Europe

Romani boy in bear costume, part of entertainer team for working Christmas crowds. Budapest, Hungary.

In Eastern Europe, Roma often live in depressed squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. However, in some cases—notably the Kalderash clan in Romania, who work as traditional coppersmiths—they have prospered. Although some Roma still embrace a nomadic lifestyle, most migration is actually forced, as most communities do not accept Romani settlements. However, each year in May approximately 10,000 to 15,000 Romani people go on a pilgrimage to Les-Saintes-Marie-de-la-Mer in Southern France. Roma arrive in caravans for celebrations, weddings and religious ceremonies.

Many countries that were formerly part of the Eastern bloc and former Yugoslavia have substantial populations of Roma. The level of integration of Roma into society remains limited. In these countries, they usually remain on the margins of society, living in isolated, ghetto-like settlements (see Chánov). Only a small fraction of Romani children graduate from secondary schools, though numerous official efforts have been made, past and present, to compel their attendance. Roma frequently feel rejected by the state and the main population, creating another obstacle to their integration. The Muslim Roma (Horahane) in the Balkans adopted the Islamic culture during the Ottoman Empire period.[27]

In the Czech Republic, 75% of Romani children are educated in schools for people with learning difficulties and 70% are unemployed, compared with a national rate of 9%. In Hungary, 44% of Romani children are in special schools, while 74% of men and 83% of women are unemployed. In Slovakia, Romani children are 28 times more likely to be sent to a special school than non-Roma, whilst Romani unemployment stands at 80%.[106]

In 2004, Lívia Járóka and Viktória Mohácsi of Hungary became the two current Romani Members of the European Parliament.[107] The first Romani MEP was Juan de Dios Ramírez Heredia of Spain.

Seven former Communist Central European and Southeastern European states launched the Decade of Roma Inclusion initiative in 2005 to improve the socioeconomic conditions and status of the Romani minority.[108]

See also


  1. ^ "Who are the Roma people?". New Internationalist. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  2. ^ K. Meira Goldberg; Ninotchka Devorah Bennahum; Michelle Heffner Hayes (2015). Flamenco on the Global Stage: Historical, Critical and Theoretical Perspectives. McFarland. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7864-9470-5. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  3. ^ Wiley, Eric (June 2005). "Romani Performance and Heritage Tourism: The Pilgrimage of the Gypsies at Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer". TDR/The Drama Review. 49 (2): 135–158. doi:10.1162/1054204053971126. JSTOR 4488646. S2CID 57561829.
  4. ^ Berthier, Jean-Charles (1979). "The Socialization of the Gypsy Child". International Social Science Journal. 31 (3): 376–392.
  5. ^ Mróz, Lech (November 2016). Roma-Gypsy Presence in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: 15th – 18th Centuries. Central European University Press. ISBN 9789633861097.
  6. ^ Cunneen, Chris; Deckert, Antje; Porter, Amanda; Tauri, Juan; Webb, Robert (3 July 2023). The Routledge International Handbook on Decolonizing Justice. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781000904048.
  7. ^ Elena Marushiakova; Veselin Popov. "Development of Romani culture". Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  8. ^ Achim, Viorel (23 January 2013). "Chapter I. The arrival of the gypsies on the territory of romania". The Roma in Romanian History. CEUP collection. Central European University Press. pp. 7–26. ISBN 9786155053931 – via OpenEdition Books.
  9. ^ Matras, Y. "Romani Project - The History of the Romani Language". Romani Project- Romani Linguistics and Romani Language Projects. Yaron Matras. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  10. ^ Hubschmannova, Milena. "Origin of Roma". ROMBASE. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  11. ^ "From India to Europe".
  12. ^ Factsheets on Romani Language
  13. ^ Alina Bradford (26 November 2018). "Roma Culture: Customs, Traditions & Beliefs". Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  14. ^ a b Silverman, Carol (24 May 2012). Romani Routes: Cultural Politics and Balkan Music in Diaspora. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–79. ISBN 9780195300949. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  15. ^ Weyrauch, Walter. O (13 August 2001). Gypsy Law: Romani Legal Traditions and Culture. University of California Press. p. 169. ISBN 9780520221857. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  16. ^ Brabant, Malcolm (6 October 2003). "Roma rivalry over child bride ban". BBC News Online. BBC News. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  17. ^ a b McDonald, Henry (3 September 2007). "Gardaí hunt gang accused of seizing Roma child bride". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  18. ^ a b Building the Capacity of Roma Communities to Prevent Trafficking in Human Beings. Warsaw: Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. June 2007. p. 17. ISBN 978-8360190371. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  19. ^ a b Pamporov, Alexey (2006). Roma/Gypsy population in Bulgaria as a challenge for the policy relevance. European Population Conference Liverpool, 20–24 June 2006. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  20. ^ Oprea, Alexandra (21 July 2005). "Child Marriage a Cultural Problem, Educational Access a Race Issue? Deconstructing Uni-Dimensional Understanding of Romani Oppression". European Roma Rights Centre. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  21. ^ Ozkan, Ali Rafet (1 January 2006). "Marriage among the Gypsies of Turkey". The Social Science Journal. 43 (3): 461–470. doi:10.1016/j.soscij.2006.04.003. S2CID 144820319.
  22. ^ Condon, Louise J; Salmon, Debra (3 June 2014). "'You likes your way, we got our own way': Gypsies and Travellers' views on infant feeding and health professional support". Health Expectations. 18 (5): 784–795. doi:10.1111/hex.12214. PMC 5060882. PMID 24890123.
  23. ^ Cooke, Jennifer (1 March 2007). "Blood feud: gypsy clans in court". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  24. ^ Papapavlou, Maria (2006). "Book Review: Gypsy law: Romani legal traditions and culture". Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  25. ^ "Roma Culture: An Introduction | Language Contact Manchester" (PDF). Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  26. ^ Introduction to Roma culture
  27. ^ a b c Crowe, David M. (2000). "Muslim Roma in the Balkans". Nationalities Papers. 28: 93–128. doi:10.1080/00905990050002470. S2CID 153933600.
  28. ^ Smith, Tracy (1997). "Recognising Difference: The Romani 'Gypsy' Child Socialisation and Education Process". British Journal of Sociology of Education. 18 (2): 243–256. doi:10.1080/0142569970180207. JSTOR 1393193.
  29. ^ Aleksandar G. Marinov (2019). Inward Looking: The Impact of Migration on Romanipe from the Romani Perspective.
  30. ^ Saul, Nicholas; Tebbut, Susan (2005). Nicholas Saul, Susan Tebbutt (ed.). The role of the Romanies: images and counter-images of 'Gypsies'/Romanies in European cultures. Liverpool University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-85323-689-4. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  31. ^ Guy, Will (2001). Will Guy (ed.). Between past and future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-902806-07-5. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  32. ^ "For Roma, Life in US Has Challenges | Voice of America - English". 6 April 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  33. ^ "History of the Balkan Egyptians" (PDF).
  34. ^ "Turcoman Gypsies in the Balkans: Just a Preferred Identity or More?". Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  35. ^ a b c Matras, Yaron (6 January 2015). The Romani Gypsies. Harvard University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0674368385. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  36. ^ Religion and Beliefs
  37. ^ "RADOC".
  38. ^ a b c d "Roma". Countries and their Cultures. Advameg, Inc. 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  39. ^ "Roman Mutfağını Tanıyor muyuz?-3 (ÇİNGENE YUMURTASI) - Romani Godi". 8 October 2022. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  40. ^ "Restless Beings Project: Roma Engage". restlessbeings. Restless Beings. 2008–2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  41. ^ "BLESSED CEFERINO GIMENEZ MALLA 1861-1936". – Visit the Saviour. Voveo Marketing Group. December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  42. ^ "ABC SEVILLA (Sevilla) - 30/05/1964, p. 59 - Hemeroteca". 22 August 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  43. ^ Ronald Lee (2002). "THE ROMANI GODDESS KALI SARA". Romano Kapachi. Ronald Lee. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  44. ^ "Saintes Marie de la Mer: The Church". Office of Tourism. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  45. ^ Wineyard, Val. "Saintes Maries de la Mer". I Write about Mary Magdalene. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  46. ^ Strangwayes-Booth, Alex (19 November 2016). "How Gypsies Have Moved from Fortune-Telling to Fervent Christianity". BBC.
  48. ^ "School holidays in Malaysia, time for circumcision". Reuters. 23 November 2009.
  49. ^ Becky, Taylor (2014). Another Darkness, Another Dawn: A History of Gypsies, Roma and Travellers. Reaktion Books. p. 31. ISBN 9781780232973.
  50. ^ Barutcu, Atilla (January 2015). ""Ucundan Azıcık"la Atılan Sağlam Temel: Türkiye'de Sünnet Ritüeli ve Erkeklik İlişkisi". Masculinities: A Journal of Identity and Culture.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Veselin. "Roma Muslims in the Balkans". Academia.
  52. ^ Mironescu, Vlad (20 September 2014). "Care este religia predominantă a țiganilor din România?". Gândul (in Romanian). Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  53. ^ Speziale, Fabrizio (1 December 2005). "Adapting Mystic Identity to Italian Mainstream Islam: The Case of a Muslim Rom Community in Florence". Balkanologie. Revue d'études pluridisciplinaires. 9 (Vol. IX, n° 1-2). doi:10.4000/balkanologie.589 – via
  54. ^ Acton, Thomas A.; Barbour, S.; Mundy, G. (19 April 1997). "Mediterranean Religions and Romani People". Journal of Mediterranean Studies. 7 (1): 37–51 – via Project MUSE.
  55. ^ Eliopoulos, Nicholas C. (2 August 2006). Gypsy Council. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781413469462.
  56. ^ Gadalla, Moustafa (2004). Egyptian Romany: The Essence of Hispania. Greensboro, North Carolina: Tehuti Research Foundation. ISBN 1931446199. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  57. ^ a b Bernal, Jorge (5 May 2003). "The Rom in the America" (PDF). United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  58. ^ Vishvapani (29 November 2011). "Hungary's Gypsy Buddhists & Religious Discrimination". Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  59. ^ Bhalesain, Pravin (2011). "Gypsies embracing Buddhism:A step forward for Building a Harmonious Society in Europe" (PDF). Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  60. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (8 August 2016). The Encyclopedia of World Folk Dance. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 260. ISBN 9781442257498.
  61. ^ "Gypsy Belly Dance Costumes & Accessories | Belly Dance".
  62. ^ Heald Phd, Bruce D. (27 November 2012). Gypsies of the White Mountains: History of a Nomadic Culture. Arcadia. ISBN 9781614238041.
  63. ^ "Jurnalul National". Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  64. ^ Hayes, Michelle Heffner (2009). Flamenco: Conflicting Histories of the Dance. North Carolina: McFarland Books. pp. 31–37. ISBN 978-0786439232.
  65. ^ Rethinking (In)Security in the European Union: The Migration-Identity-Security Nexus. p. 148.
  66. ^ Egypt: Third Edition. p. 101.
  67. ^ Dalzell, Tom (2007). The new Partridge dictionary of slang and unconventional English (Reprint. ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 943. ISBN 978-0415259378.
  68. ^ "THE GYSPSY INFLUENCE IN CLASSICAL MUSIC" (PDF). Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  69. ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
  70. ^ Event to mark Gypsy and traveller day. June 5, 2015.
  71. ^ "8 April, International Roma Day: "Step up human rights protection for Roma and guarantee their access to vital services during COVID-19 pandemic"". Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  72. ^ Tong, Diane (28 January 2015). Gypsies: An Interdisciplinary Reader. Routledge. p. 56. ISBN 9781135636371.
  73. ^ Guides, Insight (September 2019). Insight Guides Turkey (Travel Guide with Free eBook). Apa Publications (UK) Limited. ISBN 9781839051500.
  74. ^ Taylor, Ken; Williams, Victoria R. (5 October 2017). Etiquette and Taboos Around the World: A Geographic Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Customs. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9781440838217.
  75. ^ "The history of the Romen Theatre - RomArchive". Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  76. ^ "Teatr Romen - RomArchive". Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  77. ^ Kenrick, Donald (5 July 2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies). Scarecrow Press. p. 276. ISBN 9780810864405.
  78. ^ Bugajski, Janusz (10 September 2020). Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-communist Era. Routledge. ISBN 9781000161359.
  79. ^ Crowe, David; Kolsti, John; Hancock, Ian (22 July 2016). The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 137. ISBN 9781315490243.
  80. ^ Sirchie, Venus (2021). History of Gypsies. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781664162785.
  81. ^ Weyrauch, Walter O. (12 September 2001). Gypsy Law: Romani Legal Traditions and Culture. University of California Press. p. 38. ISBN 9780520221864.
  82. ^ Dreams of the Road: Gypsy Life in the West Country. p. 141.
  83. ^ Hancock, Ian F. (2002). We are the Romani People. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. p. 80. ISBN 9781902806198.
  84. ^ Wedeck, Harry E. (2015). Dictionary of Gypsy Life and Lore. Open Road Media. ISBN 9781504022743.
  85. ^ "Inside the Culinary Traditions of the Roma people". Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  86. ^ Hoffmann, F.; Manning, M.J. (2014). Herbal Medicine and Botanical Medical Fads. Taylor & Francis. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-317-95693-8.
  87. ^ Matras, Y. (2015). The Romani Gypsies. Harvard University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-674-36838-5.
  88. ^ Loue, S.; Sajatovic, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health. Springer. p. 1303. ISBN 978-1-4419-5655-2.
  89. ^ Taylor, B.; Kaplan, J.; Hobgood-Oster, L.; Ivakhiv, A.J.; York, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 1416. ISBN 978-1-84371-138-4.
  90. ^ Adamou, E. (2021). The Adaptive Bilingual Mind: Insights from Endangered Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-108-83951-8.
  91. ^ Yaron Matras. "Romani Culture: An Introduction". Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  92. ^ Romani literature
  93. ^ Monique Joiner Siedlak (2019). Gypsy Magic. Oshun Publications, LLC. ISBN 9781948834926.
  94. ^ Roma
  95. ^ Stern, Stephen (1991). Creative Ethnicity: Symbols and Strategies of Contemporary Ethnic Life. Utah State University Press. ISBN 9780874211481.
  96. ^ "Fortune Telling as Part of the Roma Culture — Правозахисний фонд "Розвиток" |". Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  97. ^ Brunvand, Jan Harold (24 May 2006). American Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 743. ISBN 9781135578787.
  98. ^ "Gypsies are 'Europe's most hated'". BBC News Online. BBC News. 26 April 2005. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  99. ^ "Tory traveller proposals: Your views". BBC News Online. BBC News. 23 March 2005. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  100. ^ "This Week's Highlights: Gypsies". Inside Out. BBC Online. 19 September 2005. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  101. ^ Hector Becerra (30 January 2006). "Gypsies: the Usual Suspects". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 April 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  102. ^ "Danish Authorities Find Romani Classes Illegal". European Roma Rights Centre. 16 December 2004. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  103. ^ Human Rights Abuses of the Roma (Gypsies): Hearing Before the Subcommittee on International Security, International Organizations, and Human Rights of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, April 14, 1994. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994. ISBN 9780160448379.
  104. ^ Paspati, A. G.; Hamlin, C. (1860). "Memoir on the Language of the Gypsies, as Now Used in the Turkish Empire". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 7: 143–270. doi:10.2307/592158. JSTOR 592158.
  105. ^ Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin (2021). "Ottoman Empire". Roma Writings. pp. 23–33. doi:10.30965/9783657705207_004. hdl:10023/27175. ISBN 9783657705207.
  106. ^ Gary Younge (8 January 2003). "Shame of a continent". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  107. ^ "The Building Blocks of the Romani Women's Movement in Europe - RomArchive". Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  108. ^ "Greenberg Turns Attention To Plight Of The Roma". Retrieved 30 March 2023.