Demographics of the Philippines
Philippines population pyramid in 2020
Population109,033,245 (2020 census)
Growth rate1.63% (2015–2020)[1]
Birth rate12.4 births/1,000 population
(2021)[2]
Death rate8.0 deaths/1,000 population (2021)[3]
Life expectancy72.66 years
 • male68.72 years
 • female74.74 years (2011 est.)
Fertility rate1.9 children born/woman (2022 est.)[4]
Infant mortality rate11.0 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate−1.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years29.98%
(male 17,006,677/female 16,036,437)
15–64 years64.22%
(male 35,879,693/female 34,885,763)
65 and over5.80%
(male 2,754,813/female 3,635,271) (2021 est.)
Sex ratio
Total1 male(s)/female
At birth1.05 male(s)/female
Under 151.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years1 male(s)/female
65 and over0.76 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityFilipinos
Major ethnicVisayan (Cebuano, Waray, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo, Karay-a, Aklanon, Masbatenyo, Romblomanon) 31.6%, Tagalog 28.1% (2000 census)
Minor ethnicIlocano 9%, Bikol 6%, Kapampangan 3%, Pangasinan 2%, Zamboangueño 1.5% & others 23.3% (2000 census)
Language
OfficialFilipino (Tagalog) and English[5]
SpokenRecognized regional languages: Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Bicolano, Waray, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Maranao, Maguindanao, Zamboangueño Chavacano and Tausug
Protected auxiliary languages: Spanish and Arabic

Demography of the Philippines records the human population, including its population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects. The Philippines annualized population growth rate between the years 2015–2020 was 1.53%.[6] According to the 2020 census, the population of the Philippines is 109,033,245.[7] The first census in the Philippines was held in the year 1591 which counted 607,612 people.[8]

The majority of Filipinos are lowland Austronesians,[9] while the Aetas (Negritos), as well as other highland groups form a minority. The indigenous population is related to the indigenous populations of the Malay Archipelago. Some ethnic groups that have been in the Philippines for centuries before Spanish and American colonial rule have assimilated or intermixed. 600,000 people from the United States live in the Philippines.[10] They represent 0.56% of the total population. The ethnic groups include Han Chinese, Arabs, Indians and Japanese which form parts of the population.[11]

The most commonly spoken indigenous languages are Tagalog and Cebuano, with 23.8 million (45 million speakers as Filipino) and 16 million speakers, respectively. Nine other indigenous languages have at least one million native speakers: Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Bicolano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Maranao, Maguindanao, and Tausug. One or more of these are spoken as a mother tongue by more than 93% of the population. Filipino and English are the official languages but there are between 120 and 170 distinct indigenous Philippine languages (depending on expert classifications).

Population history

The historical population of the Philippines
Philippines population density Map per province as of 2009 per square kilometer:
  0–50
  51–100
  101–200
  201–300
  301–400
  401–800
  801–1600

The first census in the Philippines was in 1591, based on tributes collected. The tributes counted the total founding population of the Spanish-Philippines as 667,612 people.[12]: 177 [13][14] 20,000 were Chinese migrant traders,[15] at different times: around 15,600 individuals were Latino soldier-colonists who were cumulatively sent from Peru and Mexico and they were shipped to the Philippines annually,[16][17] 3,000 were Japanese residents,[18] and 600 were pure Spaniards from Europe.[19] There was a large but unknown number of South Asian Filipinos, as the majority of the slaves imported into the archipelago were from Bengal and Southern India,[20] adding Dravidian speaking South Indians and Indo-European speaking Bengalis into the ethnic mix.

The rest were Austronesians and Negritos. With 667,612 people, during this era, the Philippines was among the most sparsely populated lands in Asia. In contrast, Japan during that era (the 1500s) had a population of 8 Million or Mexico had a population of 4 million, which was huge compared to the Philippine's 600,000. In 1600, the method of population counting was revamped by the Spanish officials, who then based the counting of the population through church records.

Stephanie J. Mawson, by rummaging through records in the archives of Mexico[21] discovered that the Spaniards were not the only immigrant group to the Philippines; Peru and Mexico too sent soldiers to the islands,[21] and in fact outnumbered the Spaniards who immigrated to the Philippines.[21]

Geographic distribution and year of settlement of the Latin-American immigrant soldiers assigned to the Philippines in the 1600s.[21]
Location 1603 1636 1642 1644 1654 1655 1670 1672
Manila[21] 900 446 407 821 799 708 667
Fort Santiago[21] 22 50 86 81
Cavite[21] 70 89 225 211
Cagayan[21] 46 80 155 155
Calamianes[21] 73 73
Caraga[21] 45 81 81
Cebu[21] 86 50 135 135
Formosa[21] 180
Moluccas[21] 80 480 507 389
Otón[21] 66 50 169 169
Zamboanga[21] 210 184
Other[21] 255
[21]
Total Reinforcements[21] 1,533 1,633 2,067 2,085 n/a n/a 1,632 1,572

In 1798, the population of Luzon or Luconia was estimated to be around 600,000 with the other islands, unknown. 200,000 of the 600,000 population were of mixed-raced descent of either Spanish, Chinese or Latin-American admixture. 5,000 enlisted soldiers on that year, were of South American descent, while 2,500 were pure Spanish officers. There were 20,000 new Chinese immigrants.[22] The book, "Intercolonial Intimacies Relinking Latin/o America to the Philippines, 1898–1964 By Paula C. Park" citing "Forzados y reclutas: los criollos novohispanos en Asia (1756-1808)" gave a higher number of later Mexican soldier-immigrants to the Philippines, pegging the number at 35,000 immigrants in the 1700s in a population of only 1.5 Million thus forming 2.33% of the population.[23][24]

In 1799, Friar Manuel Buzeta estimated the population of all the Philippine islands as 1,502,574.[25] Despite the number of Mixed Spanish-Filipino descent being the lowest, they may be more common than expected as many Spaniards often had Filipino concubines and mistresses and they frequently produced children out of wedlock.[26]: 272 

In the late 1700s to early 1800s, Joaquín Martínez de Zúñiga, an Agustinian Friar, in his Two Volume Book: "Estadismo de las islas Filipinas"[27][28] compiled a census of the Spanish-Philippines based on the tribute counts (Which represented an average family of seven to ten children[29] and two parents, per tribute)[30] and came upon the following statistics:

Data reported for the 1800 as divided by ethnicity and province[27][28]
Province Native Tributes Spanish Mestizo Tributes All Tributes[a]
Tondo[27]: 539  14,437-1/2 3,528 27,897-7
Cavite[27]: 539  5,724-1/2 859 9,132-4
Laguna[27]: 539  14,392-1/2 336 19,448-6
Batangas[27]: 539  15,014 451 21,579-7
Mindoro[27]: 539  3,165 3-1/2 4,000-8
Bulacan[27]: 539  16,586-1/2 2,007 25,760-5
Pampanga[27]: 539  16,604-1/2 2,641 27,358-1
Bataan[27]: 539  3,082 619 5,433
Zambales[27]: 539  1,136 73 4,389
Ilocos[28]: 31  44,852-1/2 631 68,856
Pangasinan[28]: 31  19,836 719-1/2 25,366
Cagayan[28]: 31  9,888 0 11,244-6
Camarines[28]: 54  19,686-1/2 154-1/2 24,994
Albay[28]: 54  12,339 146 16,093
Tayabas[28]: 54  7,396 12 9,228
Cebu[28]: 113  28,112-1/2 625 28,863
Samar[28]: 113  3,042 103 4,060
Leyte[28]: 113  7,678 37-1/2 10,011
Caraga[28]: 113  3,497 0 4,977
Misamis[28]: 113  1,278 0 1,674
Negros Island[28]: 113  5,741 0 7,176
Iloilo[28]: 113  29,723 166 37,760
Capiz[28]: 113  11,459 89 14,867
Antique[28]: 113  9,228 0 11,620
Calamianes[28]: 113  2,289 0 3,161
TOTAL 299,049 13,201 424,992-16

The Spanish-Filipino population as a proportion of the provinces widely varied; with as high as 19% of the population of Tondo province [27]: 539  (The most populous province and former name of Manila), to Pampanga 13.7%,[27]: 539  Cavite at 13%,[27]: 539  Laguna 2.28%,[27]: 539  Batangas 3%,[27]: 539  Bulacan 10.79%,[27]: 539  Bataan 16.72%,[27]: 539  Ilocos 1.38%,[28]: 31  Pangasinan 3.49%,[28]: 31  Albay 1.16%,[28]: 54  Cebu 2.17%,[28]: 113  Samar 3.27%,[28]: 113  Iloilo 1%,[28]: 113  Capiz 1%,[28]: 113  Bicol 20%,[31] and Zamboanga 40%.[31] Summing up all the provinces including those with no Spanish Filipinos, all in all, in the total population of the Philippines, Spanish Filipinos composed 5% of the population.[27][28]

The first official census was in 1878, when the population as of midnight on December 31, 1877, was counted. This was followed by the 1887 census, with the 1898 census not completed. The 1887 census yielded a count of 5,984,727 excluding non-Christians.[32]

In the 1860s to 1890s, in the urban areas of the Philippines, especially at Manila, according to burial statistics, as much as 3.3% of the population were pure European Spaniards and the pure Chinese were as high as 9.9%.[33] The Spanish-Filipino and Chinese-Filipino mestizo populations may have fluctuated. Eventually, everybody belonging to these non-native categories diminished because they were assimilated into and chose to self-identify as pure Filipinos.[33]: 82  Since during the Philippine Revolution, the term "Filipino" included anybody born in the Philippines coming from any race.[34][35] That would explain the abrupt drop of otherwise high Chinese, Spanish and mestizo percentages across the country by the time of the first American census in 1903.[33]

1903 census

In 1903 the population of the Philippines was recounted by American authorities to fulfill Act 467. The survey yielded 7,635,426 people, including 56,138 who were foreign-born.[36]

1920 census

According to the 1920 United States Census, there were 10,314,310 people in the Philippines.[37] 99 percent were Filipino; 51,751 were either Chinese or Japanese; 34,563 were of mixed race; 12,577 were Caucasian; and 7,523 were African.[37]

1939

The 1939 census was undertaken in conformity with Section 1 of Commonwealth Act 170.[38] The Philippine population figure was 16,000,303.[39]

1941

In 1941 the estimated population of the Philippines reached 17,000,000.[40] Manila's population was 684,000.[41]

By then, some 27% of the population could speak English as a second language, while the number of Spanish speakers as first language had further fallen to 3% from 10 to 14% at the beginning of the century. In 1936, Tagalog was selected to be the basis for a national language.[42][unreliable source] In 1987, the Filipino language, a standard language based on Tagalog, was imposed as the national language and as one of the two official languages alongside English.[43]

Philippine census surveys

Main article: Philippines census

Census Population 1960–2015[44]
1960 1970 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 2007 2010 2015 2020
27,087,685 36,684,486 42,070,660 48,098,460 60,703,206 68,616,536 76,506,928 88,566,732 92,337,852 100,981,437 109,033,245

In 1960, the government of the Philippines conducted a survey on both population, and housing. The population was pegged at 27,087,685. Successive surveys were again conducted in 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1990, which gave the population as 36,684,948, 42,070,660, 48,098,460, and 60,703,206 respectively. In 1995, the POPCEN was launched, undertaken at the month of September, The data provided the bases for the Internal Revenue Allocation to local government units, and for the creation of new legislative areas. The count was made official by then President Fidel Ramos by Proclamation No, 849 on August 14, 1995, The population was 68,616,536.

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Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

Vital statistics

UN estimates

World population prospects, 2010[45]
Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 981 000 269 000 712 000 48.6 13.3 35.3 7.42 96.8
1955–1960 1,095,000 285 000 810 000 45.7 11.9 33.8 7.27 86.5
1960–1965 1,218,000 299 000 919 000 43.0 10.6 32.5 6.98 77.4
1965–1970 1,334,000 311 000 1,023,000 40.4 9.4 31.0 6.54 67.8
1970–1975 1,461,000 326 000 1,136,000 38.3 8.5 29.8 5.98 59.3
1975–1980 1,643,000 346 000 1,297,000 37.4 7.9 29.5 5.46 51.8
1980–1985 1,801,000 368 000 1,433,000 35.6 7.3 28.3 4.92 45.2
1985–1990 1,968,000 393 000 1,575,000 34.0 6.8 27.2 4.53 39.5
1990–1995 2,084,000 419 000 1,664,000 31.8 6.4 25.4 4.14 34.5
1995–2000 2,216,000 450 000 1,766,000 30.2 6.1 24.1 3.90 30.1
2000–2005 2,360,000 487 000 1,873,000 28.8 5.5 23.3 3.70 26.3
2005–2010 2,318,000 528 000 1,790,000 25.9 5.5 20.4 3.30 23.0
2010–2015 24.1 5.8 18.3 3.05
2015–2020 20.6 5.8 14.8 2.58
2020–2025 19.6 6.2 13.4 2.45
2025–2030 18.6 6.5 12.1 2.34
1CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births
Population density (2010)

Fertility and births

Total fertility rate (TFR) (wanted fertility rate) and crude birth rate (CBR):[46] [47]

Year CBR (total) TFR (total) CBR (urban) TFR (urban) CBR (rural) TFR (rural)
1993 29.7 4.09 (2.9) 28.5 3.53 (2.6) 30.9 4.82 (3.3)
1998 28.0 3.73 (2.7) 25.8 3.01 (2.3) 30.1 4.67 (3.3)
2003 25.6 3.5 (2.5) 24.7 3.0 (2.2) 26.7 4.3 (3.0)
2008 23.4 3.3 (2.4) 21.6 2.8 (2.1) 24.6 3.8 (2.7)
2013 22.1 3.0 (2.2) 21.5 2.6 (1.9) 22.6 3.5 (2.5)
2017 18.6 2.7 (2.0) 18.4 2.4 (1.8) 18.7 2.9 (2.2)
2022 13.3 1.9 (1.5) 12.7 1.7 (1.3) 14.0 2.2 (1.7)

Single mother phenomenon and illegitimate birth rate

See also: Abortion in the Philippines, Likhaan - the abortion advocacy NGO and free abortion clinic, Law regarding the illegitimate child, Filial responsibility laws holding children responsible for parents well being, Inheritance laws of Philippines, and Nonmarital birth rates by country

More than half of the children born every year in the Philippines are illegitimate, and the percentage of illegitimate children is rising by 2% per year.[48][49][50][51] The percentage of unwed woman in live-in relationship is consistently rising e.g. from 5.2% in 1993 to 18.8% in 2022, i.e. over 30 years the percentage of women in live-in increased nearly 360%; and the percentage of women in a married arrangement is consistently decreasing every year e.g. from 54.4% in 1993 to 36.2% in 2022, i.e. over 30 years 33% less woman chose to marry.[52]

Reporting
Year
% of women in live-in relationship % increase in women in live-in relationship % of women in marriages % change in women in marriages PSA sources
2022 18.8% 1.3% 36.2% -6.2% [52]
2017 17.5% 3.0% 42.4% -3.4% [52]
2013 14.5% 3.3% 45.8% -4.9% [52]
2008 11.2% 3.2% 50.7% -4.9% [52]
2003 8.0% 1.8% 55.6% -2.2% [52]
1998 6.2% 1.0% 53.4% -1.0% [52]
1993 5.2% NA 54.4% NA [52]

The following table, based on the annual official data sourced from Philippine Statistics Authority, shows the growing annual trend of illegitimate child births by percentages:

Reporting
Year
Nationwide % of illegitimate children born every year Nationwide % increase in illegitimate children compared to previous year % of illegitimate children born in NCR every year % of illegitimate children born in ARMM every year PSA sources
2021 57.1% 0.1% 69.2% 5.2% [53]
2020 57.0% 2.2% 68.4% 5.4% [54]
2019 54.8% 0.5% 66.2% 4.8% [55]
2018 54.3% 1.0% 65.8% 4.3% [56]
2017 53.3% 4.1% 64.9% 4.3% [57]
2016 49.2% −2.9% 59.9% 4.8% [58]
2015 52.1% 1.8% 63.0% 6.2% [59]
2014 50.3% 2.1% 62.0% 6.6% [60]
2013 48.2% 2.5% 60.9% 6.6% [61]
2012 45.7% 1.1% 58.5% 5.4% [62]
2011 44.6% 7.1% 56.9% 7.6% [63]
2008 37.5% NA NA NA [64]

First time single mothers are mainly due to the teenage pregnancy among girls in the 17 to 19 years old age bracket, thus getting trapped in the cycle of poverty and abuse.[65] Some females become prostitutes in the Philippines after they become unwed single mothers[66] from teenage pregnancy. As of 2016 more than half of Filipina women did not want additional children, but access to contraceptives was limited, and many people were hesitant to use what contraceptives were available due to opposition from the Catholic Church.[67][68] The reasons for the high illegitimate birthrate and single motherhood include the unpopularity of artificial contraception[69] inadequate sex education, delays in implementing birth control legislation and a machismo attitude among many Filipino males. There are three million household heads without a spouse, two million of whom were female (2015 PSA estimates).

Between 2010 and 2014, 54% of all pregnancies in the Philippines (1.9 million pregnancies) were unintended. Consequently, 9% of women between 15 and 19 years of age have begun childbearing, and every year there are 610 000 unsafe abortions. In 2017, modern contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in "the Philippines was 40% among married women of reproductive age and 17% among unmarried sexually active women" and "Forty-six percent of married women used no contraceptive method in 2017 and 14% a traditional method." The "unmet need for family planning' which is the lack of access of contraceptives to women do not want to have more children or wish to delay having children was 17% among married women and 49% among unmarried and among unmarried only 22% women were able to access modern contraceptive methods. "As a consequence of the low contraceptive met need, 68% of unintended pregnancies occur in women not using any method and 24% in those using traditional methods" and the rest had to resort to unsafe traditional methods.[70]

The Catholic Church in Philippines opposes sex before or outside marriage, and the use of modern contraceptive and the passing of laws allowing for divorce. It continues to mix religion with politics since the time of Spanish friar, while Catholic priests continue to have scandals by having affairs and by fathering offspring with women amidst allegations of child sexual abuse by the Catholic Church clergy.[71] The Catholic religion that was introduced by Spanish colonial era Catholic friars was adapted through a process of enculturation.[71] Hence, there is a gap between the [relatively more orthodox] scriptural Catholic religion and the version practiced by Filipinos in daily life.[71] 84% Filipinos are Catholic, and what Filipinos actually do in practice is different from what they believe in,[71] i.e. Filipinos practice a liberal cultural attitude towards sexual relationships while also contrastingly practicing orthodox Catholic religious belief which opposes the modern scientific contraceptives and laws based on the modern values, resulting in lack of access to family planning methods, stigmatization of medical abortions, a high number of unwanted pregnancies, lack of access to safe modern medical abortions, high and still rising trend of illegitimate newborn birth rate.

The law of the Philippines continues to differentiate and discriminate between filiation (recognition of the biological relationship between father and child) and legitimacy (legally considered a legitimate child), national law still continues to label the "nonmarital births" as "illegitimate", which has been criticized by the social and legal activists for the constitutional stigmatization and denial of equal legal rights.

Life expectancy

Life expectancy in the Philippines since 1938
Life expectancy in the Philippines since 1960 by gender
Period Life expectancy in years Period Life expectancy in years
1950–1955 55.4 1985–1990 64.7
1955–1960 57.1 1990–1995 65.7
1960–1965 58.6 1995–2000 66.8
1965–1970 60.1 2000–2005 67.5
1970–1975 61.4 2005–2010 68.0
1975–1980 61.7 2010–2015 68.6
1980–1985 62.9

Source: UN World Population Prospects[72]

Year by year

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[73][74]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate (per 1000 births)
1903 7,635,000 284,000 329,671 -44,871 37.3 43.2 -5.9
1904 7,659,000 216,176 146,894 69,282 28.2 19.2 9.0
1905 7,699,000 244,586 166,555 78,031 31.8 21.6 10.2
1906 7,761,000 215,296 143,284 72,012 27.7 18.5 9.2
1907 7,844,000 258,010 138,464 119,546 32.9 17.7 15.2
1908 7,964,000 278,369 190,495 87,874 35.0 23.9 11.1
1909 8,095,000 234,726 179,355 55,371 29.0 22.2 6.8
1910 8,220,000 290,210 191,576 98,634 35.3 23.3 12.0
1911 8,387,000 302,855 188,412 114,443 36.1 22.5 13.6
1912 8,576,000 290,995 185,185 105,810 33.9 21.6 12.3
1913 8,786,000 316,056 154,086 161,970 36.0 17.5 18.5
1914 9,017,000 347,337 163,943 183,394 38.5 18.2 20.3
1915 9,269,000 327,206 176,313 150,893 35.3 19.0 16.3
1916 9,542,000 340,269 195,970 144,659 35.7 20.5 15.2
1917 9,836,000 353,283 212,334 140,949 35.9 21.6 14.3
1918 10,314,000 345,751 367,106 -21,355 33.5 35.6 -2.1
1919 10,324,000 306,832 326,716 -19,884 29.7 31.6 -1.9
1920 10,445,000 351,195 200,690 150,505 33.6 19.2 14.4
1921 10,673,000 364,432 205,654 158,778 34.1 19.3 14.8
1922 10,908,000 373,506 203,237 170,269 34.2 18.6 15.6
1923 11,152,000 385,418 202,981 182,437 34.6 18.2 16.4
1924
1925
1926 11,935,000 400,439 229,928 170,511 33.6 19.3 14.3 156.7
1927 12,212,000 414,357 229,328 185,029 33.9 18.8 15.1 152.5
1928 12,498,000 422,716 218,096 204,620 33.8 17.5 16.3 150.1
1929 12,792,000 428,996 237,733 191,263 33.5 18.6 14.9 161.6
1930 13,094,000 429,245 252,988 176,257 32.8 19.3 13.5 165.0
1931 13,405,000 440,159 240,825 199,334 32.8 18.0 14.8 155.1
1932 13,724,000 446,940 211,809 235,131 32.6 15.4 17.1 137.6
1933 14,051,000 459,682 227,594 232,088 32.7 16.2 16.5 145.8
1934 14,387,000 447,738 239,703 208,035 31.1 16.7 14.4 160.8
1935 14,731,000 461,410 257,181 204,229 31.3 17.5 13.8 153.4
1936 15,084,000 485,126 239,107 246,019 32.2 15.9 16.3 134.0
1937 15,445,000 513,760 254,740 259,020 33.3 16.5 16.8 137.3
1938 15,814,000 512,389 261,848 250,541 32.4 16.6 15.8 139.0
1939 16,000,000 522,432 273,141 249,291 32.7 16.9 15.8 146.2
1940 16,460,000 535,117 273,480 261,637 32.5 16.6 15.9 135.8
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946 18,434,000 533,283 278,546 254,737 28.9 15.1 13.8 125.5
1947 18,786,000 272,226 238,527 33,699 14.5 12.7 1.8 234.4
1948 19,234,000 602,415 243,467 358,948 31.3 12.7 18.6 114.4
1949 19,509,000 609,138 231,151 377,987 31.2 11.8 19.4 108.5
1950 19,881,000 642,472 226,505 415,967 32.3 11.4 20.9 2.792 101.6
1951 20,260,000 637,264 237,937 399,327 31.5 11.7 19.8 2.733 105.5
1952 20,646,000 650,725 241,020 409,705 31.5 11.7 19.8 3.080 101.2
1953 21,039,000 468,489 239,988 228,501 22.3 11.4 10.9 3.140 148.8
1954 22,869,000 702,662 217,650 485,012 30.7 9.5 21.2 94.2
1955 23,568,000 734,761 212,798 521,963 31.2 9.0 22.2 84.3
1956 24,288,000 542,249 205,581 336,668 22.3 8.5 13.8 3.364 110.9
1957 25,030,000 514,202 199,919 314,283 20.5 8.0 12.5 3.139 112.9
1958 25,795,000 484,592 185,437 299,155 18.6 7.2 11.4 109.2
1959 26,584,000 616,893 176,448 440,445 23.2 6.6 16.6 3.074 93.4
1960 27,088,000 649,651 196,544 453,107 24.0 7.3 16.7 3.676 84.6
1961 28,214,000 647,846 207,436 440,410 23.0 7.3 15.7 3.201 88.4
1962 29,064,000 775,146 169,880 605,266 26.7 5.9 20.8 3.679 58.6
1963 29,937,000 786,698 214,412 572,286 26.3 7.2 19.1 3.622 72.8
1964 30,841,000 802,648 222,097 580,551 26.0 7.2 18.8 3.683 70.5
1965 31,770,000 795,415 234,935 560,480 25.0 7.4 17.6 3.734 72.9
1966 32,727,000 823,342 236,396 586,946 25.2 7.2 18.0 3.542 72.0
1967 33,713,000 840,302 240,122 600,180 24.9 7.1 17.8 3.487 72.2
1968 34,728,000 898,570 261,893 636,677 25.9 7.5 18.4 3.612 71.0
1969 35,774,000 946,753 241,678 705,075 26.5 6.8 19.7 3.870 67.3
1970 36,684,000 966,762 234,038 732,724 26.4 6.4 20.0 3.631 60.0
1971 37,902,000 963,749 250,139 713,610 25.4 6.6 18.8 3.475 62.0
1972 38,991,000 968,385 285,761 682,624 24.8 7.3 17.5 3.366 67.9
1973 40,123,000 1,049,290 283,475 765,815 26.2 7.1 19.1 3.466 64.7
1974 41,279,000 1,081,073 283,975 797,098 26.2 6.9 19.3 3.495 58.7
1975 42,071,000 1,223,837 271,136 952,701 29.1 6.4 22.7 3.891 53.3
1976 43,338,000 1,314,860 299,861 1,014,999 30.3 6.9 23.4 4.049 56.9
1977 44,417,000 1,344,836 308,904 1,035,932 30.3 7.0 23.3 4.072 56.8
1978 45,498,000 1,387,588 297,034 1,090,554 30.5 6.5 24.0 4.165 53.1
1979 46,592,000 1,429,814 306,427 1,123,387 30.7 6.6 24.1 4.179 50.2
1980 48,098,000 1,456,860 298,006 1,158,854 30.3 6.2 24.1 4.026 45.1
1981 49,536,000 1,461,204 301,117 1,160,087 29.5 6.1 23.4 3.874 44.1
1982 50,783,000 1,474,491 308,758 1,165,733 29.0 6.1 22.9 3.775 41.8
1983 52,055,000 1,506,356 327,260 1,179,096 28.9 6.3 22.6 3.733 42.7
1984 53,351,000 1,478,205 313,359 1,164,846 27.7 5.9 21.8 3.557 38.5
1985 54,668,000 1,437,154 334,663 1,102,491 26.3 6.1 20.2 3.309 38.0
1986 56,004,000 1,493,995 326,749 1,167,246 26.7 5.8 20.9 3.328 35.0
1987 57,356,000 1,582,469 335,254 1,247,215 27.6 5.8 21.8 3.434 32.1
1988 58,721,000 1,565,372 325,098 1,240,274 26.7 5.5 21.2 3.311 30.1
1989 60,097,000 1,565,254 325,621 1,239,633 26.0 5.4 20.6 3.230 27.5
1990 60,703,000 1,631,069 313,890 1,317,179 26.9 5.4 21.5 3.279 24.3
1991 63,729,000 1,643,296 298,063 1,345,233 25.8 4.7 21.1 2.944 20.9
1992 65,339,000 1,684,395 319,579 1,364,816 25.8 4.9 20.9 3.031 21.9
1993 66,982,000 1,680,896 318,546 1,362,350 25.1 4.8 20.3 3.138 20.6
1994 68,624,000 1,645,011 321,440 1,323,571 24.0 4.7 19.3 3.013 18.9
1995 68,617,000 1,645,043 324,737 1,320,306 24.0 4.7 19.3 3.085 18.6
1996 69,951,000 1,608,468 344,363 1,264,105 23.0 4.9 18.1 2.935 19.0
1997 71,549,000 1,653,236 339,400 1,313,836 23.1 4.7 18.4 2.936 17.0
1998 73,147,000 1,632,859 352,992 1,279,867 22.3 4.8 17.5 2.829 17.3
1999 74,746,000 1,613,335 347,989 1,265,346 21.6 4.7 16.9 2.723 15.6
2000 76,348,000 1,766,440 366,931 1,399,509 23.1 4.8 18.3 2.917 15.7
2001 77,926,000 1,714,093 381,834 1,332,259 22.0 4.9 17.1 2.756 15.2
2002 79,503,000 1,666,773 396,297 1,270,476 21.0 5.0 16.0 2.618 14.2
2003 81,081,000 1,669,442 396,331 1,273,111 20.6 4.9 15.7 2.563 13.7
2004 82,663,000 1,710,994 403,191 1,307,803 20.7 4.9 15.8 2.564 13.2
2005 84,241,000 1,688,918 426,054 1,262,864 20.0 5.1 14.9 2.474 12.8
2006 86,973,000 1,663,029 441,036 1,221,993 19.1 5.1 14.0 2.391 13.1
2007 88,706,000 1,749,878 441,956 1,307,922 19.7 5.0 14.7 2.541 12.4
2008 90,457,000 1,784,316 461,581 1,322,735 19.7 5.1 14.6 2.455 12.5
2009 92,227,000 1,745,585 480,820 1,264,765 18.9 5.2 13.7 2.349 12.4
2010 94,013,000 1,782,981 488,265 1,294,716 19.0 5.2 13.8 2.420 12.6
2011 95,053,000 1,746,864 498,486 1,248,378 18.4 5.3 13.2 2.325 12.8
2012 96,328,000 1,790,367 514,745 1,275,622 18.6 5.3 13.2 2.334 12.4
2013 97,571,000 1,761,602 531,280 1,230,322 17.9 5.4 12.5 2.248 12.5
2014 99,138,000 1,748,857 536,999 1,211,858 17.6 5.4 12.2 2.187 12.3
2015 100,699,000 1,744,767 560,605 1,184,162 17.3 5.5 11.8 2.162 11.9
2016 102,530,000 1,731,289 582,183 1,149,106 16.8 5.6 11.2 2.110 12.6
2017 104,169,000 1,700,618 579,262 1,121,356 16.2 5.5 10.7 2.044 11.9
2018 105,755,000 1,668,120 590,709 1,077,411 15.8 5.6 10.2 1.980 12.6
2019 107,288,150 1,674,302 620,724 1,053,578 15.6 5.8 9.8 1.964 13.0
2020 109,035,343 1,528,624 613,936 914,688 14.0 5.6 8.4 1.774 11.0
2021 110,198,654 1,364,739 879,429 485,310 12.4 8.0 4.4 1.569 13.6
2022 111,572,254 1,455,393 679,766 775,627 13.0 6.1 6.9 1.652 13.8

Current vital statistics

[75] [76]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January - August 2022 1,052,747 507,516 +545,231
January - August* 2023 988,955 497,771 +491,184
Difference Decrease -63,792 (-6.06%) Positive decrease -9,745 (-1.92%) Decrease -54,047

Structure of the population

Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 01.VIII.2015) (Excluding 2134 Filipinos in Philippine Embassies, Consulates and Missions Abroad.): [77]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 51,069,962 49,909,341 100,979,303 100
0–4 5,590,485 5,228,446 10,818,931 10.71
5–9 5,596,837 5,246,083 10,842,920 10.74
10–14 5,405,418 5,088,524 10,493,942 10.39
15–19 5,202,239 4,988,946 10,191,185 10.09
20–24 4,795,772 4,671,722 9,467,494 9.38
25–29 4,252,817 4,107,630 8,360,447 8.28
30–34 3,755,963 3,585,931 7,341,894 7.27
35–39 3,447,349 3,295,338 6,742,687 6.68
40–44 2,995,391 2,853,937 5,849,328 5.79
45–49 2,680,464 2,603,861 5,284,325 5.23
50–54 2,227,579 2,202,968 4,430,547 4.39
55–59 1,785,436 1,821,398 3,606,834 3.57
60–64 1,325,815 1,435,368 2,761,183 2.73
65-69 878 327 1,037,798 1,916,125 1.90
70-74 523 237 696 843 1,220,080 1.21
75-79 338 520 520 578 859 098 0.85
80-84 169 388 305 752 475 140 0.47
85-89 69 930 148 296 218 226 0.22
90-94 21 868 53 087 74 955 0.07
95-99 5 956 14 010 19 966 0.02
100+ 1 171 2 825 3 996 <0.01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 16,592,740 15,563,053 32,155,793 31.84
15–64 32,468,825 31,567,099 64,035,924 63.41
65+ 2,008,397 2,779,189 4,787,586 4.74
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2021) (Estimates or projections based on the 2015 population census.): [77]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 55,641,183 54,557,471 110,198,654 100
0–4 5,713,939 5,376,619 11,090,558 10.06
5–9 5,721,245 5,393,760 11,115,005 10.09
10–14 5,571,493 5,266,058 10,837,551 9.83
15–19 5,282,220 5,065,572 10,347,792 9.39
20–24 5,025,243 4,778,690 9,803,933 8.90
25–29 4,731,675 4,491,835 9,223,510 8.37
30–34 4,332,532 4,161,373 8,493,905 7.71
35–39 3,809,605 3,689,326 7,498,931 6.80
40–44 3,315,063 3,236,820 6,551,883 5.95
45–49 2,991,320 2,930,462 5,921,782 5.37
50–54 2,552,972 2,536,854 5,089,826 4.62
55–59 2,159,465 2,201,321 4,360,786 3.96
60–64 1,679,598 1,793,510 3,473,108 3.15
65-69 1,202,310 1,377,181 2,579,491 2.34
70-74 757 578 957 989 1,715,567 1.56
75-79 450 941 660 111 1,111,052 1.01
80+ 343 984 639 990 983 974 0.89
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 17,006,677 16,036,437 33,043,114 29.99
15–64 35,879,693 34,885,763 70,765,456 64.22
65+ 2,754,813 3,635,271 6,390,084 5.80

By region

Total fertility rate (TFR) and other related statistics by region, as of 2013:[78]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49
National Capital Region 2.3 3.0 3.0
Cordillera Administrative Region 2.9 4.8 4.0
Ilocos Region 2.8 4.5 3.2
Cagayan Valley 3.2 6.1 3.7
Central Luzon 2.8 4.1 3.3
Calabarzon 2.7 3.1 3.4
Mimaropa 3.7 5.8 4.5
Bicol 4.1 4.0 4.6
Western Visayas 3.8 4.2 4.2
Central Visayas 3.2 3.9 3.6
Eastern Visayas 3.5 5.9 4.0
Zamboanga Peninsula 3.5 6.4 4.5
Northern Mindanao 3.5 5.7 4.3
Davao 2.9 5.0 3.9
Soccsksargen 3.2 3.8 4.2
Caraga 3.6 6.6 4.4
ARMM 4.2 4.7 5.5

Ethnic groups and modern immigrants in the Philippines

This article needs to be updated. The reason given is: 2020 ethnic group statistics by PSA is now available. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (September 2023)
Ethnographic map of the Philippines, 1890

Main articles: Ethnic groups in the Philippines and Immigration to the Philippines

Further information: Filipinos

The majority of the people in the Philippines are related to Austronesian peoples. According to the CIA Factbook, the largest ethnic groups as of 2020 are the Tagalogs (26%), the Bisaya people (14.3%), the Ilocano people (8%), the Bicolano people (6.5%), the Waray people (3.8%), the Kapampangan people (3.0%), the Pangasinan people (1.9%), and the Maguindanao people (1.9%), among other local ethnicities (18.5%).[79] The indigenous peoples of the Philippines form a minority of the population. Other large ethnic groups include Filipinos of Japanese, Indian, Chinese, Spanish, and American descent. There are more than 175 ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines, each with their own, identity, literature, tradition, music, dances, foods, beliefs, and history, but which form part of the tapestry of Filipino culture. The latest censuses did not take account of ethnicity, and the only census that included questions on ethnicity is of the 2000 census. Nevertheless, a 2019 Anthropology Study by Matthew Go, published in the Journal of Human Biology, using physical anthropology, estimated that, 72.7% of Filipinos are Asian, 12.7% of Filipinos can be classified as Hispanic (Latin-American Mestizos or Austronesian-Spanish Mestizos), 7.3% as Indigenous American, African at 4.5% and European at 2.7%.[80]

The total number of immigrants and expats in Philippines as of the 2010 censuses is 177,365.[81] By country:[82]


Languages

Main articles: Languages of the Philippines and Philippine languages

According to the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino, there are 135 ethnic languages in the Philippine archipelago, each spoken by the respective ethno-linguistic group, except for the national Filipino language which is spoken by all 134 ethno-linguistic groups in the country. Most of the languages have several varieties (dialects), totaling over 300 across the archipelago. In the 1930s, the government promoted the use of the Tagalog language as the national language, and called the new Tagalog-based language as the national Filipino language, becoming the 135th ethnic language of the country.[43][failed verification][83][failed verification] Visayan languages (Cebuano, Waray, Hiligaynon, etc.) are widely spoken throughout the Visayas and in most parts of Mindanao. Ilokano is the lingua franca of Northern Luzon excluding Pangasinan. Zamboangueño Chavacano is the official language of Zamboanga City and lingua franca of Basilan.

Filipino and English are the official languages of the country for purposes of communication and instruction.[5] Consequently, English is widely spoken and understood, although fluency has decreased as the prevalence of Tagalog in primary and secondary educational institutions has increased.

Religion

Main article: Religion in the Philippines

The Philippine Statistics Authority in October 2015 reported that 80.58% of the total Filipino population were Roman Catholics, 10.8% were Protestant and 5.57% were Islamic.[84] Although the 2012 International Religious Freedom (IRF) reports that an estimate by the National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) in 2011 stated that there were then 10.3 million Muslims, or about 10 percent of the total population however this is yet to be proven officially.[85] In 2000, according to the "World Values Survey", 1.8% were Protestant Christians and 10.9% were then irreligious.[86][dubious ] Other Christian denominations include the Iglesia ni Cristo (one of a number of separate Churches of Christ generally not affiliated with one another), Aglipayan Church, Members Church of God International, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Minority religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism. Roman Catholics and Protestants were converted during the four centuries of Western influence by Spain, and the United States. Under Spanish rule, much of the population was converted to Christianity.

Orthodox Christianity also has a presence in the Philippines. The Orthodoxy was brought over by Russian and Greek immigrants to the Philippines. Protestant Christianity arrived in the Philippines during the 20th century, introduced by American missionaries.

Other religions include Judaism, Mahayana Buddhism, often mixed with Taoist beliefs, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Indigenous Philippine folk religions.

Population by religious affiliation (2015)
Affiliation Number
Roman Catholic, including Catholic Charismatic 80.58 80.58
 
74,211,896
Islam 5.57 5.57
 
5,127,084
Evangelicals (PCEC) 2.68 2.68
 
2,469,957
Iglesia ni Cristo 2.45 2.45
 
2,251,941
Non-Roman Catholic and Protestant (NCCP) 1.16 1.16
 
1,071,686
Aglipayan 1.00 1
 
916,639
Seventh-day Adventist 0.74 0.74
 
681,216
Bible Baptist Church 0.52 0.52
 
480,409
United Church of Christ in the Philippines 0.49 0.49
 
449,028
Jehovah's Witnesses 0.45 0.45
 
410,957
Other Protestants 0.31 0.31
 
287,734
Church of Christ 0.28 0.28
 
258,176
Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide 0.23 0.23
 
207,246
Tribal Religions 0.19 0.19
 
177,147
United Pentecostal Church (Philippines) Inc. 0.18 0.18
 
169,956
Other Baptists 0.17 0.17
 
154,686
Philippine Independent Catholic Church 0.15 0.15
 
138,364
Unión Espiritista Cristiana de Filipinas, Inc. 0.15 0.15
 
137,885
Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints 0.15 0.15
 
133,814
Association of Fundamental Baptist Churches in the Philippines 0.12 0.12
 
106,509
Evangelical Christian Outreach Foundation 0.10 0.1
 
96,102
None 0.08 0.08
 
73,248
Convention of the Philippine Baptist Church 0.07 0.07
 
65,008
Crusaders of the Divine Church of Christ Inc. 0.06 0.06
 
53,146
Buddhist 0.05 0.05
 
46,558
Lutheran Church of the Philippines 0.05 0.05
 
46,558
Iglesia sa Dios Espiritu Santo Inc. 0.05 0.05
 
45,000
Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association 0.05 0.05
 
42,796
Faith Tabernacle Church (Living Rock Ministries) 0.04 0.04
 
36,230
Others 0.33 0.33
 
299,399
TOTAL 92,097,978
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[84]

Education

Main articles: Education in the Philippines and Higher education in the Philippines

Education in the Philippines has been influenced by foreign models, particularly the United States, and Spain.[87][88] Philippine students enter public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This is followed by junior high school (4 years) and senior high school (2 years). Students then take the college entrance examinations (CEE), after which they enter university (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools include private school, preparatory school, international school, laboratory high school, and science high school. School year in the Philippines starts from June, and ends in March with a two-month summer break from April to May, one week of semestral break in October, and a week or two during Christmas and New Year holidays.

Starting in SY 2011–2012 there has been a phased implementation of a new program. The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]).[89]

Publications

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Notes

  1. ^ Including others such as Latin-Americans and Chinese-Mestizos, pure Chinese paid tribute but were not Philippine citizens as they were transients who returned to China, and Spaniards were exempt

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from The World Factbook (2024 ed.). CIA. (Archived 2011 edition.)