Per mille
In UnicodeU+2030 PER MILLE SIGN (‰)
See alsoU+0025 % PERCENT SIGN
U+2031 PER TEN THOUSAND SIGN (Basis point)
Visualisation of 1%, 1‰, 1‱, 1 pcm and 1 ppm as fractions of the large block (larger version)

Per mille (from Latin per mīlle 'in each thousand')[1] is parts per thousand.[2] Other recognised spellings include per mil,[2] per mill,[1][3] permil,[1] permill,[1] or permille.[4][5]

The associated sign is written , which looks like a per cent sign % with an extra zero or o in the divisor.

Major dictionaries do not agree on the spelling[1][2][3] and some dictionaries, such as Macmillan,[6] do not even contain an entry. One common usage is blood alcohol content, which is usually expressed as a percentage in English-speaking countries.

Per mille should not be confused with parts per million (ppm).

Computer systems

The code point for the glyph is included in the General Punctuation block of Unicode characters: U+2030 PER MILLE SIGN.[4] It may be typed using Alt+0137, Compose%o, Ctrl+⇧ Shift+u 2030, or ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+r according to operating system.

Note that for the compose key sequence the percent key (%) is followed by lower case letter o and not, as might be expected, by digit 0.[7]


This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A railroad distance and gradient sign in Gdańsk, Poland. The 50‰ grade is equivalent to 5%.
A tram and gradient sign in Gdańsk, Poland. The 50‰ grade is equivalent to 5%.

Examples of use include:

Related units

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e "per mil". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ a b c "per mille". Cambridge Dictionary. Business English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2020-06-08. per mille adverb (also per mil)
  3. ^ a b "per mill". Oxford Dictionaries: The American Dictionary. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
  4. ^ a b Unicode. "General Punctuation". 2014. Accessed 5 Aug 2014.
  5. ^ "per mille". Longman Business Dictionary. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  6. ^ "per mille". Macmillan Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-08-01. No result
  7. ^ Monniaux, David. "UTF-8 (Unicode) compose sequence". Retrieved 2015-07-15.