... . . .
AP format Chicago format Mid-line ellipsis Vertical ellipsis

The ellipsis ... (/əˈlɪpsɪs/), a.k.a. suspension points, suspension dots, suspension, points of ellipsis, periods of ellipsis, or colloquially dot-dot-dot,[1][2] is a punctuation mark consisting of a series of three dots. An ellipsis can be used many ways including for intentional omission of text or to imply a concept without using words.[3]

The plural is ellipses.

The term originates from the Ancient Greek: ἔλλειψις, élleipsis meaning 'leave out'.[3]

Opinions differ on how to render an ellipsis in printed material and are to some extent based on the technology used for rendering. Many style guides are still influenced by the typewriter. According to The Chicago Manual of Style, it should consist of three periods, each separated from its neighbor by a non-breaking space: . . ..[4] According to the AP Stylebook, the periods should be rendered with no space between them: ....[5] A third option – available in electronic text – is to use the precomposed character U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS.[6]


The most common forms of an ellipsis include a row of three period (a.k.a. dot, a.k.a. full point) characters ... or a precomposed triple-dot glyph, the horizontal ellipsis .

Style guides often include rules governing ellipsis use. For example, The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago style) recommends that an ellipsis be formed by typing three periods, each with a non-breaking space on both sides  . . . , while the Associated Press Stylebook (AP style) puts the dots together, but retains a space before and after the group, thus:  ... .[7]

When a sentence ends with ellipsis, some style guides indicate there should be four dots; three for ellipsis and a period. Chicago advises it,[8] as does the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA style),[9] while some other style guides do not; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary and related works treat this style as optional, saying that it "may" be used.[10]

When text is omitted following a sentence, a period (full stop) terminates the sentence, and a subsequent ellipsis indicates one or more omitted sentences before continuing a longer quotation. Business Insider magazine suggests this style[11] and it is also used in many academic journals. The Associated Press Stylebook favors this approach.[12]

In writing

In her book on the ellipsis, Ellipsis in English Literature: Signs of Omission, Anne Toner suggests that the first use of the punctuation in the English language dates to a 1588 translation of Terence's Andria, by Maurice Kyffin.[1] In this case, however, the ellipsis consists not of dots but of short dashes.[13] "Subpuncting" of medieval manuscripts also denotes omitted meaning and may be related.[14]

Occasionally, it would be used in pulp fiction and other works of early 20th-century fiction to denote expletives that would otherwise have been censored.[15]

An ellipsis may also imply an unstated alternative indicated by context. For example, "I never drink wine ..." implies that the speaker does drink something else—such as vodka.

In reported speech, the ellipsis can be used to represent an intentional silence.

In poetry, an ellipsis is used as a thought-pause or line break at the caesura[16] or this is used to highlight sarcasm or make the reader think about the last points in the poem.

In news reporting, often put inside square brackets, it is used to indicate that a quotation has been condensed for space, brevity or relevance, as in "The President said that [...] he would not be satisfied", where the exact quotation was "The President said that, for as long as this situation continued, he would not be satisfied".

Herb Caen, Pulitzer-prize-winning columnist for the San Francisco Chronicle, became famous for his "three-dot journalism".[17]

Depending on context, ellipsis can indicate an unfinished thought, a leading statement, a slight pause, an echoing voice, or a nervous or awkward silence. Aposiopesis is the use of an ellipsis to trail off into silence—for example: "But I thought he was..." When placed at the end of a sentence, an ellipsis may be used to suggest melancholy or longing.[18]

In different languages

In English

American English

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests the use of an ellipsis for any omitted word, phrase, line, or paragraph from within but not at the end of a quoted passage. There are two commonly used methods of using ellipses: one uses three dots for any omission, while the second one makes a distinction between omissions within a sentence (using three dots: . . .) and omissions between sentences (using a period and a space followed by three dots: . ...). The Chicago Style Q&A recommends that writers avoid using the precomposed  (U+2026) character in manuscripts and to place three periods plus two nonbreaking spaces (. . .) instead, leaving the editor, publisher, or typographer to replace them later.[19]

The Modern Language Association (MLA) used to indicate that an ellipsis must include spaces before and after each dot in all uses. If an ellipsis is meant to represent an omission, square brackets must surround the ellipsis to make it clear that there was no pause in the original quote: [ . . . ]. Currently, the MLA has removed the requirement of brackets in its style handbooks. However, some maintain that the use of brackets is still correct because it clears confusion.[20]

The MLA now indicates that a three-dot, spaced ellipsis  . . .  should be used for removing material from within one sentence within a quote. When crossing sentences (when the omitted text contains a period, so that omitting the end of a sentence counts), a four-dot, spaced (except for before the first dot) ellipsis . . . .  should be used. When ellipsis points are used in the original text, ellipsis points that are not in the original text should be distinguished by enclosing them in square brackets (e.g. text [...] text).[21][22]

According to the Associated Press, the ellipsis should be used to condense quotations. It is less commonly used to indicate a pause in speech or an unfinished thought or to separate items in material such as show business gossip. The stylebook indicates that if the shortened sentence before the mark can stand as a sentence, it should do so, with an ellipsis placed after the period or other ending punctuation. When material is omitted at the end of a paragraph and also immediately following it, an ellipsis goes both at the end of that paragraph and at the beginning of the next, according to this style.[23]

According to Robert Bringhurst's Elements of Typographic Style, the details of typesetting ellipses depend on the character and size of the font being set and the typographer's preference. Bringhurst writes that a full space between each dot is "another Victorian eccentricity. In most contexts, the Chicago ellipsis is much too wide"—he recommends using flush dots (with a normal word space before and after), or thin-spaced dots (up to one-fifth of an em), or the prefabricated ellipsis character U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS (…, …). Bringhurst suggests that normally an ellipsis should be spaced fore-and-aft to separate it from the text, but when it combines with other punctuation, the leading space disappears and the other punctuation follows. This is the usual practice in typesetting. He provides the following examples:

i ... j k.... l..., l l, ... l m...? n...!

In legal writing in the United States, Rule 5.3 in the Bluebook citation guide governs the use of ellipses and requires a space before the first dot and between the two subsequent dots. If an ellipsis ends the sentence, then there are three dots, each separated by a space, followed by the final punctuation (e.g. Hah . . . ?). In some legal writing, an ellipsis is written as three asterisks, *** or * * *, to make it obvious that text has been omitted or to signal that the omitted text extends beyond the end of the paragraph.

British English

The Oxford Style Guide recommends setting the ellipsis as a single character or as a series of three (narrow) spaced dots surrounded by spaces, thus:  ... . If there is an ellipsis at the end of an incomplete sentence, the final full stop is omitted. However, it is retained if the following ellipsis represents an omission between two complete sentences.[24]

The … fox jumps …
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. … And if they have not died, they are still alive today.
It is not cold … it is freezing cold.

Contrary to The Oxford Style Guide, the University of Oxford Style Guide demands an ellipsis not to be surrounded by spaces, except when it stands for a pause; then, a space has to be set after the ellipsis (but not before). An ellipsis is never preceded or followed by a full stop.[25]

The...fox jumps...
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog...And if they have not died, they are still alive today.
It is not cold... it is freezing cold.

In Polish

When applied in Polish syntax, the ellipsis is called wielokropek, literally 'multidot'. The word wielokropek distinguishes the ellipsis of Polish syntax from that of mathematical notation, in which it is known as an elipsa. When an ellipsis replaces a fragment omitted from a quotation, the ellipsis is enclosed in parentheses or square brackets. An unbracketed ellipsis indicates an interruption or pause in speech. The syntactic rules for ellipses are standardized by the 1983 Polska Norma document PN-83/P-55366, Zasady składania tekstów w języku polskim (Rules for Setting Texts in Polish).

In Russian

The combination "ellipsis+period" is replaced by the ellipsis. The combinations "ellipsis+exclamation mark" and "ellipsis+question mark" are written in this way: !.. ?..

In Japanese

The most common character corresponding to an ellipsis is called 3-ten rīdā ("3-dot leaders", ). 2-ten rīdā exists as a character, but it is used less commonly. In writing, the ellipsis consists usually of six dots (two 3-ten rīdā characters, ……). Three dots (one 3-ten rīdā character) may be used where space is limited, such as in a header. However, variations in the number of dots exist. In horizontally written text the dots are commonly vertically centered within the text height (between the baseline and the ascent line), as in the standard Japanese Windows fonts; in vertically written text the dots are always centered horizontally. As the Japanese word for dot is pronounced "ten", the dots are colloquially called "ten-ten-ten" (てんてんてん, akin to the English "dot dot dot").[26][27]

In text in Japanese media, such as in manga or video games, ellipses are much more frequent than in English, and are often changed to another punctuation sign in translation. The ellipsis by itself represents speechlessness, or a "pregnant pause". Depending on the context, this could be anything from an admission of guilt to an expression of being dumbfounded at another person's words or actions.[28] As a device, the ten-ten-ten is intended to focus the reader on a character while allowing the character to not speak any dialogue. This conveys to the reader a focus of the narrative "camera" on the silent subject, implying an expectation of some motion or action. It is not unheard of to see inanimate objects "speaking" the ellipsis.

In Chinese

In Chinese, the ellipsis is six dots (in two groups of three dots, occupying the same horizontal or vertical space as two characters). In horizontally written text the dots are commonly vertically centered along the midline (halfway between the Roman descent and Roman ascent, or equivalently halfway between the Roman baseline and the capital height, i.e. ⋯⋯); in vertically written text the dots are always centered horizontally (i.e. Chinese: ︙︙).[29]

In Spanish

In Spanish, the ellipsis is commonly used as a substitute of et cetera at the end of unfinished lists. So it means "and so forth" or "and other things".

Other use is the suspension of a part of a text, or a paragraph, or a phrase or a part of a word because it is obvious, or unnecessary, or implied. For instance, sometimes the ellipsis is used to avoid the complete use of expletives.

When the ellipsis is placed alone into a parenthesis (...) or—less often—between brackets [...], which is what happens usually within a text transcription, it means the original text had more contents on the same position but are not useful to our target in the transcription. When the suppressed text is at the beginning or at the end of a text, the ellipsis does not need to be placed in a parenthesis.

The number of dots is three and only three.[30]

In French

In French, the ellipsis is commonly used at the end of lists to represent et cetera. In French typography, the ellipsis is written immediately after the preceding word, but has a space after it, for example: comme ça... pas comme ceci. If, exceptionally, it begins a sentence, there is a space before and after, for example: Lui ? ... vaut rien, je crois.... However, any omitted word, phrase or line at the end of a quoted passage would be indicated as follows: [...] (space before and after the square brackets but not inside), for example: ... à Paris, Nice, Nantes, Toulouse [...].

In German

In German, the ellipsis in general is surrounded by spaces, if it stands for one or more omitted words. On the other side there is no space between a letter or (part of) a word and an ellipsis, if it stands for one or more omitted letters, that should stick to the written letter or letters.

Example for both cases, using German style: The first el...is stands for omitted letters, the second ... for an omitted word.

If the ellipsis is at the end of a sentence, the final full stop is omitted.[31]

Example: I think that ...

In Italian

The Accademia della Crusca suggests the use of an ellipsis ("puntini di sospensione") to indicate a pause longer than a period and, when placed between brackets, the omission of letters, words or phrases.[32]

"Tra le cose più preziose possedute da Andrea Sperelli era una coperta di seta fina, d’un colore azzurro disfatto, intorno a cui giravano i dodici segni dello Zodiaco in ricamo, con le denominazioni […] a caratteri gotici." (Gabriele D’Annunzio, Il piacere)[33]

In mathematical notation

An ellipsis is used in mathematics to mean "and so forth"; usually indicating the omission of terms that follow an obvious pattern as indicated by included terms.

The whole numbers from 1 to 100 can be shown as:

The positive whole numbers, an infinite list, can be shown as:

To indicate omitted terms in a repeated operation, an ellipsis is sometimes raised from the baseline, as:

But, this raised formatting is not standard. For example, Russian mathematical texts, use the normal, baseline format.[34]

The ellipsis is not a formally defined mathematical symbol. Repeated summations or products may be more formally denoted using capital sigma and capital pi notation, respectively:

(see termial)
(see factorial)

Ellipsis is sometimes used where the pattern is not clear. For example, indicating the indefinite continuation of an irrational number such as:

It can be useful to display a formula compactly, for example:

In set notation, the ellipsis is used as horizontal, vertical and diagonal for indicating missing matrix terms, such as the size-n identity matrix:

In computer programming

Some programming languages use ellipsis to indicate a range or for a variable argument list.

The CSS text-overflow property can be set to ellipsis, which cuts off text with an ellipsis when it overflows the content area.[35][36]

In computer user interface


An ellipsis is sometimes used as the label for a button to access user interface that has been omitted – probably due to space limitations – particularly in mobile apps running on small screen devices. This may be described as a "more button".[37]

Similar functionality may be accessible via a button with a hamburger icon () or a narrow version called the kebab icon which is a vertical ellipsis ().

More info needed

According to some style guides, a menu item or button labeled with a trailing ellipsis requests an operation that cannot be completed without additional information and selecting it will prompt the user for input.[38] Without an ellipsis, selecting the item or button will perform an action without user input.

A drop-down menu of file operations

For example, the menu item "Save" overwrites an existing file whereas "Save as..." prompts the user for save options before saving.


Ellipsis is commonly used to indicate that a longer-lasting operation is in progress like "Loading...", "Saving...".

Sometimes progress is animated with an ellipse-like construct of repeatedly adding dots to a label.

In texting

In text-based communications, the ellipsis may indicate:

Although an ellipsis is complete with three periods (...), an ellipsis-like construct with more dots is used to indicate "trailing-off" or "silence".[42] The extent of repetition in itself might serve as an additional contextualization or paralinguistic cue; one paper wrote that they "extend the lexical meaning of the words, add character to the sentences, and allow fine-tuning and personalisation of the message".[43]

While composing a text message, some environments show others in the conversation a typing awareness indicator ellipsis to indicate remote activity.[44]

Computer representations

In computing, several ellipsis characters have been codified.


Unicode defines the following ellipsis characters:

Unicode recognizes a series of three period characters (U+002E . FULL STOP) as compatibility equivalent (though not canonical) to the horizontal ellipsis character.[45]


In HTML, the horizontal ellipsis character may be represented by the entity reference … (since HTML 4.0), and the vertical ellipsis character by the entity reference ⋮ (since HTML 5.0).[46] Alternatively, in HTML, XML, and SGML, a numeric character reference such as … or … can be used.


In the TeX typesetting system, the following types of ellipsis are available:

Name Glyph TeX markup
Lower ellipsis \ldots
Centred ellipsis \cdots
Diagonal ellipsis \ddots
Vertical ellipsis \vdots

In LaTeX, the reverse orientation of \ddots can be achieved with \reflectbox provided by the graphicx package: \reflectbox{\ddots} yields .

With the amsmath package from AMS-LaTeX, more specific ellipses are provided for math mode.[47]

Markup Usage Example Output
\dotsc dots with commas 1, 2, \dotsc , 9
\dotsb dots with binary operators/relations 1 + 2 + \dotsb + 9
\dotsm dots with multiplication A_1 A_2 \dotsm A_9
\dotsi dots with integrals \int_{A_1}\int_{A_2}\dotsi\int_{A_9}
\dotso other dots 123 \dotso 9


The horizontal ellipsis character also appears in older character maps:

Note that ISO/IEC 8859 encoding series provides no code point for ellipsis.

As with all characters, especially those outside the ASCII range, the author, sender and receiver of an encoded ellipsis must be in agreement upon what bytes are being used to represent the character. Naive text processing software may improperly assume that a particular encoding is being used, resulting in mojibake.


In Windows, the horizontal ellipsis can be inserted with Alt+0133, using the numeric keypad.

In macOS, it can be inserted with ⌥ Opt+; (on an English language keyboard).

In some Linux distributions, it can be inserted with AltGr+. (this produces an interpunct on other systems), or Compose...

In Android, ellipsis is a long-press key. If Gboard is in alphanumeric layout, change to numeric and special characters layout by pressing ?123 from alphanumeric layout. Once in numeric and special characters layout, long press . key to insert an ellipsis. This is a single symbol without spaces in between the three dots ( ).

In Chinese and sometimes in Japanese, ellipsis characters are made by entering two consecutive horizontal ellipses, each with Unicode code point U+2026. In vertical texts, the application should rotate the symbol accordingly.

See also


  1. ^ a b Toner, Anne (2015). Ellipsis in English Literature: Signs of Omission. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 151.. According to Toner it is difficult to establish when the "dot dot dot" phrase was first used. There is an early instance, which is perhaps the first in a piece of fiction, in Virginia Woolf's short story "An Unwritten Novel" (1920).
  2. ^ Source for suspension: Trask, Larry (1997). "Quotation Marks and Direct Quotations". Guide to Puntuation. Department of Informatics, University of Sussex. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  3. ^ a b "ellipsis". Oxford English Dictionary. Lexico.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  4. ^ "Ellipses defined". The Chicago Manual of Style Online (16th ed.). 2010.
  5. ^ Fung, Henry (2016). "AP Style: How to Use Ellipses". Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  6. ^ Butterick, Matthew. "Butterick's Practical Typography" (2nd ed.). Archived from the original on 14 December 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  7. ^ Yin, Karen (2011). "Em Dashes and Ellipses: Closed or Spaced Out?". AP vs Chicago: Edit or Die. Quiet Press. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018. [better source needed]
  8. ^ The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (2017), §13.51–52.
  9. ^ Summarized here: Jackson, Paige (22 April 2011). "Ellipses–When and How?". Blog.APAStyle.org. American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  10. ^ "Usage Notes: All About Ellipses – It's time to stop calling them 'dot dot dot'". Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster. 2017. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  11. ^ Robinson, Melia (30 April 2016). "Here's how to use the four-dot ellipsis like a pro". BusinessInsider.com. Insider Inc. / Axel Springer SE. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  12. ^ "Using AP Style Ellipses Correctly". WordAgents.com. Lindenhurst, New York: Word Agents. 5 December 2017. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018. [better source needed]
  13. ^ Buxton, Alex (21 October 2015). "... dot, dot, dot: How the ellipsis made its mark". Research. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  14. ^ McNabb, Cameron Hunt (17 August 2016). "The Mysterious History of the Ellipsis, From Medieval Subpuncting to Irrational Numbers". Slate. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
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  16. ^ "What Are Ellipses in a Poem?". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  17. ^ `HERB CAEN WAY . . .' HONORS S.F. COLUMNIST Archived 2017-09-05 at the Wayback Machine, in the Deseret News; published May 29, 1996; retrieved September 5, 2017
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  20. ^ Fowler, H. Ramsey, Jane E. Aaron, Murray McArthur. The Little, Brown Handbook. Fourth Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Longman. 2005. p. 440.
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  29. ^ zh:省略号
  30. ^ "Puntos suspensivos". RAE. Archived from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
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  35. ^ "text-overflow". Mozilla Developer Network. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
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  38. ^ "developer.apple.com: Menu and Menu Item Titles". Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
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  41. ^ Ong, Kenneth Keng Wee (2011). "Disagreement, Confusion, Disapproval, Turn Elicitation and Floor Holding: Actions accomplished by Ellipsis Marks-Only Turns and Blank Turns in Quasisynchronous Chat". Discourse Studies. 13 (2): 211–234. doi:10.1177/1461445610392138. hdl:10220/7160. S2CID 220786774.
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  45. ^ "Unicode Data". 2026;HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS;Po;0;ON;<compat> 002E 002E 002E;;;;N;;;;;
  46. ^ "W3C Working Draft: HTML5: 8.5 Named character references". 2011. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
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Further reading