Textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan
Textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan
Magnified view of a plain or tabby weave textile
Magnified view of a plain or tabby weave textile
Fabric shop in canal town Mukalla, Yemen
Fabric shop in canal town Mukalla, Yemen
Late antique textile, Egyptian, now in the Dumbarton Oaks collection
Late antique textile, Egyptian, now in the Dumbarton Oaks collection
Mrs. Condé Nast wearing a silk Fortuny tea gown
Traditional tablecloth, Maramureș, Romania
Traditional tablecloth, Maramureș, Romania

Textile is a broad term that includes a wide range of materials, including fibers, yarns, fabrics, filaments, threads, etc. Initially, "textiles" only referred to woven fabrics, although weaving is just one method of producing fabric, along with knitting and nonwovens. As a hypernym, the term "textile" can apply to many items, from the fiber used to manufacture textiles to the finished products made from textiles.[1][2][3][4][5]

Fiber is the smallest component of a fabric; fibers are typically spun into yarn, and yarns are used to manufacture fabrics.[6][7] Fiber has a hair-like appearance and a higher length-to-width ratio. The sources of fibers may be natural, synthetic, or both. The techniques of felting and bonding directly transform fibers into fabric. In other cases, yarns are manipulated with different fabric manufacturing systems to produce various fabric constructions. The fibers are twisted or laid out to make a long, continuous strand of yarn.[8] Yarns are then used to make different kinds of fabric by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, tatting, or braiding.[9][10][5] Woven, knitted, and nonwoven structures are the most common types of fabric.[11]After manufacturing, textile materials are processed and finished to add value, such as aesthetics, physical characteristics, and increased usefulness.[12] The manufacturing of textiles is the oldest industrial art.[13] Dyeing, printing, and embroidery are all different decorative arts applied to textile materials.[14]

Textiles are divided into two groups: consumer textiles and technical textiles. In consumer textiles, aesthetics and comfort are the most important factors, but in technical textiles, functional properties are the priority.[11][15]

Consumer textiles and technical textiles are the two principal sectors of the textile industry. Geotextiles, industrial textiles, medical textiles, and many other areas are examples of technical textiles, whereas clothing and furnishings are examples of consumer textiles. Each component of a textile product, including fiber, yarn, fabric, processing, and finishing, affects the final product. Components may vary among various textile products as they are selected based on fitness for purpose.[11][7][15]

Etymology

Textile

The word 'textile' comes from the Latin adjective textilis, meaning 'woven', which itself stems from textus, the past participle of the verb texere, 'to weave'.[4] Originally applied to woven fabrics, the term "textiles" is now used to encompass a diverse range of materials, including fibers, yarns, and fabrics, as well as other related items.[8][1][2]

Fabric

The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, with roots in the Proto-Indo-European language. Stemming most recently from the Middle French fabrique, or 'building, thing made', and earlier from the Latin fabrica ('workshop; an art, trade; a skillful production, structure, fabric'), the noun fabrica stems from the Latin faber, or 'artisan who works in hard materials', which itself is derived from the Proto-Indo-European dhabh-, meaning 'to fit together'.[16]

Cloth

The generic name for all textile fabrics is cloth.[5] The word 'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a 'cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around ones body', from the Proto-Germanic kalithaz, similar to the Old Frisian klath, the Middle Dutch cleet, the Middle High German kleit and the German kleid, all meaning 'garment'.[17]

Related terms

Fabric is synonymous with cloth, material, goods, or piece goods.[11] The related words "fabric"[10] and "cloth"[3] and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibers, including carpeting and geotextiles, which may not necessarily be used in the production of further goods, such as clothing and upholstery. A fabric is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, felting, stitching, crocheting or bonding that may be used in the production of further products, such as clothing and upholstery, thus requiring a further step of the production. Cloth may also be used synonymously with fabric, but often specifically refers to a piece of fabric that has been processed or cut.[citation needed]

Textiles made from Alpaca wool at the Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador
Textiles made from Alpaca wool at the Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador

History

Main article: History of clothing and textiles

The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp ikat in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest Romblon.
The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp ikat in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest Romblon.

The precursor of today's textiles includes leaves, barks, fur pelts, and felted cloths.[18]

The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp ikat in Southeast Asia, is displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asian people of the northwest Romblon. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and perhaps much earlier, were probably made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the elements. At some point, people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles. The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests that textile-like materials were made as early as the Paleolithic era.[19][20]

A weaving shed of the Finlayson & Co factory in Tampere, Finland in 1932[21]
A weaving shed of the Finlayson & Co factory in Tampere, Finland in 1932[21]
Textile machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales in the 1940s
Textile machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales in the 1940s

The speed and scale of textile production have been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques.[22]

Textile industry

The textile industry grew out of art and craft and was kept going by guilds. In the 18th and 19th centuries, during the industrial revolution, it became increasingly mechanized. In the 20th century, science and technology were driving forces.[23]

Naming

Most textiles were called by their generic names, their place of origin, or were put into groups based loosely on manufacturing techniques and on their designs.[24][25][26][27]

Types

Clothing made of textiles, Thailand
Clothing made of textiles, Thailand

Textiles are various materials made from fibers and yarns. The term "textile" was originally only used to refer to woven fabrics, but today it covers a broad range of subjects.[1]

Consumer textiles

Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household, textiles are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, towels, coverings for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. Textiles are used in many traditional hand crafts such as sewing, quilting and embroidery.[11]

Technical textiles

Textiles produced for industrial purposes, and designed and chosen for technical characteristics beyond their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (such as implants), geotextile (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), protective clothing (such as clothing resistant to heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet proof vests).

In the workplace, textiles can be used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents, nets, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails, and parachutes; textiles are also used to provide strengthening in composite materials such as fibreglass and industrial geotextiles. [11][15]

Due to the often highly technical and legal requirements of these products, these textiles are typically tested in order to ensure they meet stringent performance requirements. Other forms of technical textiles may be produced to experiment with their scientific qualities and to explore the possible benefits they may have in the future. Threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, when woven into fabric, have been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems", using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements to generate energy.[28][29]

Use and applications

Textiles are all around us. Textile is a component of basic needs like food and shelter. Textiles are everywhere in our lives, from bath towels to space suits. Textiles help humans by comforting, protecting, and extending their lives. Textiles meet our clothing needs, keeping us warm in the winter and cool in the summer. There are several applications for textiles, such as medical textiles, intelligent textiles, and automotive textiles. All of them contribute to the well-being of humans.[8]

Commercial textiles/ Domestic textiles End uses Technical textiles/ Industrial purpose textiles End uses
Clothing Clothing items for men, women and children. nightwear, sportswear, lingerie, undergarments, swimsuit. Accessories such as caps, umbrella, socks, gloves, and handbags.[11][30] Agro-textiles Agro-textiles are used in agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, landscape gardening and forestry. Mainly for crop protection, in crop development for instance shade nets, thermal insulation and sunscreen materials, windshield, antibird nets, covering livestock protection, suppressing weed and insect control, etc.[31]
Furnishing Upholstery, curtains, draperies, Carpets, towels.[11][30] Geotextile Technical textiles which are used in civil engineering, roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, retaining structures, reservoirs, canals, dams, bank protection, coastal engineering and construction site silt fences, and protection of melting glaciers.[32]
Bedding Bed sheets, khes, blankets, pillows.[11][30] Automotive textile Airbags, Seat belts, Headliners, Upholstery, car carpets, and Door card.[33]
Others Shower curtains[11] Medical textile Implants, Sutures, Dressings, Bandages, Medical gowns, Face masks.[11]
Indutech This particular sector includes conveyor belts, drive belts, ropes and cordages, filtration products, glass battery separators, decatising and bolting cloth, AGM (absorption glass mat) plasma screens, coated abrasives, composite materials, printed circuit boards, printer ribbon, seals, gaskets, paper making fabrics.[15]

Other uses

Instrument of historic information

In addition, textiles serve as a medium for transmitting information about numerous civilizations, traditions, and cultures, such as the Inca Empire's textile arts remnants, which represent the aesthetics and social values of the Incas.[34][35]

There are textile museums that display history related to many aspects of textiles.

Narrative art

Bayeux Tapestry is a rare example of secular Romanesque art. The art work depicts the Norman Conquest of England in 1066.[36][37]

Decorative arts

Textiles are also used for decorative art. Appliqué work of pipili is decorative art of Odisha, a state in eastern India, used for umbrellas, wall hangings, lamp sheds, and bags. To make a range of decorative products, colored clothes are sewn in the shapes of animals, birds, flowers, and magnificent walls on a base cloth.[38]

Architextiles

Architextiles, a combination of the words architecture and textile, are textile-based assemblages. Awnings are a basic type of architectural textile.[39] Mughal Shahi Lal Dera Tent, which was a movable palace, is an example of the architextiles of the Mughal period.[40]

Fiber sources and types

Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute, bamboo), mineral (asbestos, glass fibre), and synthetic (nylon, polyester, acrylic, rayon). The first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibers made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond.

Animal

Animal textiles are commonly made from hair, fur, skin or silk (in the case of silkworms).

Plant

Close-up view of a Barong Tagalog made with piña fiber in the Philippines
Close-up view of a Barong Tagalog made with piña fiber in the Philippines

Grass, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized. Coir (coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also in floormats, doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and sacking.

Fibres from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast' fibres. Hemp Fiber is yellowish-brown fiber made from the hemp plant. The fiber characteristics are coarser, harsher, strong and lightweight. Hemp fiber is used primary to make twine, rope and cordage.[45]

Mineral

Minerals and natural and synthetic fabrics may be combined, as in emery cloth, a layer of emery abrasive glued to a cloth backing. Also, "sand cloth" is a U.S. term for fine wire mesh with abrasive glued to it, employed like emery cloth or coarse sandpaper.

Synthetic

A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave cotton, velvet, printed cotton, calico, felt, satin, silk, hessian, polycotton
A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave cotton, velvet, printed cotton, calico, felt, satin, silk, hessian, polycotton
Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland
Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland
Embroidered skirts by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas, Peru, using traditional Peruvian embroidery methods[46]
Embroidered skirts by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas, Peru, using traditional Peruvian embroidery methods[46]
A fabric tunnel in Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh.
A fabric tunnel in Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh.

Synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing, as well as the manufacture of geotextiles. Synthetic fibers are those that are chemically constructed, therefore are unsustainable.

Blends (Blended textiles)

Fabric or yarn produced with a combination of two or more types of different fibers, or yarns to obtain desired traits. Blending is possible at various stages of textile manufacturing. Final composition is liable for the properties of the resultant product. Natural and Synthetic fibers are blended to overcome disadvantage of single fiber properties and to achieve better performance characteristics and aesthetic effects such as devoré, heather effect, cross dyeing and stripes pattern etc. Clothing woven from a blend of cotton and polyester can be more durable and easier to maintain than material woven solely from cotton. Other than sharing functional properties, blending makes the products more economical.[50][51]

Union or Union fabrics is the 19th century term for blended fabrics. While it is no longer in use.[52] ''Mixture'' or ''Mixed cloth'' is another term used for blended cloths when different types of yarns are used in warp and weft sides.[53][54]

Blended textiles are not new.

Composition

Fiber composition[57] the fiber blend composition of mixtures of the fibers,[58] is an important criterion to analyze the behavior, properties such as functional aspects, and commercial classification of the merchandise.[59][60][61]

The most common blend is cotton and polyester. Regular blended fabric is 65% Polyester and 35% Cotton. It is called a ''reverse blend'' if the ratio of cotton predominates—the percentage of the fibers changes with the price and required properties.

Blending adds value to the textiles; it helps in reducing the cost (Artificial fibers are less expensive than natural fibers) and adding advantage in properties of the final product.[62][63] For instance, a small amount of spandex adds stretch to the fabrics.[64] Wool can add warmth.[65]

Production methods

Main articles: Textile manufacturing and Textile industry

Top five exporters of textiles—2013
($ billion)
China 274
India 40
Italy 36
Germany 35
Bangladesh 28
Source:[66]
  • Felting involves applying pressure and friction to a mat of fibres, working and rubbing them together until the fibres become interlocked and tangled, forming a nonwoven textile. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.
  • Barkcloth is made by pounding bark until it is soft and flat.

Treatments

A double ikat weaving made by the Tausug people from Sulu, made of banana leaf stalk fiber (Abacá)
A double ikat weaving made by the Tausug people from Sulu, made of banana leaf stalk fiber (Abacá)

After manufacturing, textiles undergo a range of finishing procedures, including bleaching, dyeing, printing, as well as mechanical and chemical finishing.[12]

Coloration

Textiles are often dyed, with fabrics available in almost every colour. The dyeing process often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing.[68] Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dyeing), drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220 CE in China. Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or white.

Finishes

Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as permanent press process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free.[69] More recently, nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.[70]

Textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes, for example, have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals.[71] Further to this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis.[72]

Eisengarn, meaning "iron yarn" in English, is a light-reflecting, strong material invented in Germany in the 19th century. It is made by soaking cotton threads in a starch and paraffin wax solution. The threads are then stretched and polished by steel rollers and brushes. The end result of the process is a lustrous, tear-resistant yarn which is extremely hardwearing.[73][74]

Environmental and health impacts

Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to cause an allergic reaction,[75] due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, are concerned.[76]

Environmental and health effects of textile industry wastewater

Many kind of respiratory diseases, skin problems and allergies maybe caused by the dyes and pigments discharged in water

Testing

Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories, it is also possible to have textiles tested according to the Oeko-tex certification standard, which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products.

Laws and regulations

Different countries have certain laws and regulations to protect consumers' interests. Textile Fiber Products Identification Act is a law that protects consumers in the United States. The act protects producer and consumer interests by implementing labelling (required content disclosure) and advertising requirements on textile products. The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act applies to all textile fiber products besides wool, which is governed by the Wool Product Label Number. The law prohibits misinformation about the fiber content, misbranding, and any unfair advertising practice, as well as requires businesses to operate in a particular manner.[77][11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Joseph, Marjory L. (1977). Introductory textile science. Internet Archive. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 3, 4, 439. ISBN 978-0-03-089970-6.
  2. ^ a b "textile | Description & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-08-19.
  3. ^ a b "Cloth". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2012-06-06. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  4. ^ a b "Textile". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  5. ^ a b c Fairchild's dictionary of textiles. Internet Archive. New York, Fairchild Publications. 1959. pp. 552, 553, 211, 131.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ Division, United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour (1941). Some Basic Information on the Textile Industry. U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division. pp. 3–6.
  7. ^ a b "Household Textile - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2022-05-19.
  8. ^ a b c Kadolph, Sara J. (1998). Textiles. Internet Archive. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Merrill. pp. 4, 5. ISBN 978-0-13-494592-7.
  9. ^ "An Introduction to Textile Terms" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2006.
  10. ^ a b "Definition of FABRIC". Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Elsasser, Virginia Hencken (2005). Textiles : concepts and principles. Internet Archive. New York, NY : Fairchild Publications. pp. 8, 9, 10. ISBN 978-1-56367-300-9.
  12. ^ a b Choudhury, Asim Kumar Roy (2017-04-29). Principles of Textile Finishing. Woodhead Publishing. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0-08-100661-0.
  13. ^ Atlanta Economic Review 1971-11: Vol 21 Iss 11. Internet Archive. College of Business Administration. Georgia State University. 1971. p. 6.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  14. ^ Elsasser, Virginia Hencken (2005). Textiles : concepts and principles. Internet Archive. New York, NY : Fairchild Publications. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-56367-300-9.
  15. ^ a b c d Horrocks, A. R.; Anand, Subhash C. (2000-10-31). Handbook of Technical Textiles. Elsevier. pp. 1 to 20. ISBN 978-1-85573-896-6.
  16. ^ Harper, Douglas. "fabric". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  17. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cloth". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  18. ^ Weibel, Adèle Coulin (1952). Two thousand years of textiles; the figured textiles of Europe and the Near East. Internet Archive. New York, Published for the Detroit Institute of Arts [by] Pantheon Books. p. 27.
  19. ^ Balter, M. (2009). "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man". Science. 325 (5946): 1329. doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126.
  20. ^ Kvavadze, E.; Bar-Yosef, O.; Belfer-Cohen, A.; Boaretto, E.; Jakeli, N.; Matskevich, Z.; Meshveliani, T. (2009). "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers". Science. 325 (5946): 1359. Bibcode:2009Sci...325.1359K. doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. S2CID 206520793. Supporting Online Material Archived 2009-11-27 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Doria-archive of the Finnish National Library[full citation needed]
  22. ^ Ul-Islam, Shahid; Butola, B. S., eds. (2018). Advanced Textile Engineering Materials. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-119-48785-2.
  23. ^ Hollen, Norma R.; Hollen, Norma R. Textiles (1988). Textiles. Internet Archive. New York : Macmillan. pp. 1, 2, 3. ISBN 978-0-02-367530-0.
  24. ^ Malekandathil, Pius (2016-09-13). The Indian Ocean in the Making of Early Modern India. Routledge. p. 359. ISBN 978-1-351-99745-4.
  25. ^ Peck, Amelia (2013). Interwoven Globe: The Worldwide Textile Trade, 1500-1800. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-58839-496-5.
  26. ^ Corbman, Bernard P. (1983). Textiles : fiber to fabric. Internet Archive. New York : Gregg Division, McGraw-Hill. pp. 2 to 8. ISBN 978-0-07-013137-8.
  27. ^ Cerchia, Rossella Esther; Pozzo, Barbara (2021-01-13). The New Frontiers of Fashion Law. MDPI. pp. 2, 3. ISBN 978-3-03943-707-8.
  28. ^ Keim, Brandon (February 13, 2008). "Piezoelectric Nanowires Turn Fabric Into Power Source". Wired News. CondéNet. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
  29. ^ Yong Qin, Xudong Wang & Zhong Lin Wang (October 10, 2007). "Letter/abstract: Microfibre–nanowire hybrid structure for energy scavenging". Nature. 451 (7180): 809–813. Bibcode:2008Natur.451..809Q. doi:10.1038/nature06601. PMID 18273015. S2CID 4411796. cited in "Editor's summary: Nanomaterial: power dresser". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. February 14, 2008. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
  30. ^ a b c Abisch, Roz; Kaplan, Boche (1975). Textiles. Internet Archive. New York, Watts. pp. 1, 2. ISBN 978-0-531-00824-9.
  31. ^ Annapoorani, Grace S. (2018). Agro Textiles and Its Applications. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-93-85059-89-6.
  32. ^ "Italian glaciers tell the tale of climate change; lost 1/3rd of its volume - World News". www.wionews.com. Retrieved 2022-05-22.
  33. ^ Shishoo, Roshan (2008-10-20). Textile Advances in the Automotive Industry. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-84569-504-0.
  34. ^ Phipps, Elena; Hecht, Johanna; Martín, Cristina Esteras; Martin, Cristina Esteras; N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (2004). The Colonial Andes: Tapestries and Silverwork, 1530-1830. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-58839-131-5.
  35. ^ D.C.), Textile Museum (Washington (2003). Textile Museum Journal. Textile Museum. p. 123.
  36. ^ Bernstein, David J. (1986). The mystery of the Bayeux tapestry. Internet Archive. London : Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0-297-78928-4.
  37. ^ King Harold II and the Bayeux Tapestry. Internet Archive. Woodbridge, Suffolk ; Rochester, NY : Boydell Press. 2005. ISBN 978-1-84383-124-2.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  38. ^ "Facilitation of IPR Protection through Geographical Indications | Services | Textiles Committee (Ministry of Textiles, Government of India)". 2015-04-27. Archived from the original on 2015-04-27. Retrieved 2022-05-24.
  39. ^ Garcia, Mark (2006). Architextiles. Wiley. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-470-02634-2.
  40. ^ Willem. "Mughal Shahi Lal Dera Tent". trc-leiden.nl. Retrieved 2022-05-24.
  41. ^ Vatin Nikolai Ivanovich, Alexandr A. Berlin, Roman Joswik (2015). Engineering Textiles. Apple Academic Press. p. 142. ISBN 9781498706032.
  42. ^ Arno Cahn, Edward C. Leonard, Edward George Perkins (1999). Proceedings of the World Conference on Palm and Coconut Oils for the 21st Century. AOCS Press. p. 115. ISBN 9780935315998.
  43. ^ Trevisan, Adrian. "Cocoon Silk: A Natural Silk Architecture". Sense of Nature. Archived from the original on 2012-05-07.
  44. ^ Hendrickx, Katrien (2007). The Origins of Banana-fibre Cloth in the Ryukyus, Japan. Leuven University Press. p. 188. ISBN 9789058676146. Archived from the original on March 27, 2018.
  45. ^ Cohen, Allen (11 November 2011). J.J. Pizzuto's Fabric Science (tenth ed.). Fairchild Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-60901-380-6.
  46. ^ Art-Gourds.com Archived 2008-10-13 at the Wayback Machine Traditional Peruvian embroidery production methods
  47. ^ Hammerskog, Paula; Wincent, Eva (2009). Swedish Knits: Classic and Modern Designs in the Scandinavian Tradition. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-60239-724-8. acrylic fiber used to imitate wools.
  48. ^ Euroflax Industries Ltd. "Euroflaxx Industries (Import of Textiles)" Archived 2010-01-13 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Fonte, Diwata (August 23, 2005). "Milk-fabric clothing raises a few eyebrows". The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved 2009-10-21.
  50. ^ Barnett, Anne (1997). Examining Textiles Technology. Heinemann Educational. p. 51. ISBN 9780435421045.
  51. ^ Gulrajani, M. L. (1981). Blended Textiles : Papers of the 38th All India Textile Conference, an International Conference, November 18-20th ... Bombay. Textile Association.
  52. ^ Montgomery, Florence M. (1984). Textiles in America 1650-1870 : a dictionary based on original documents, prints and paintings, commercial records, American merchants' papers, shopkeepers' advertisements, and pattern books with original swatches of cloth. Internet Archive. New York ; London : Norton. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-393-01703-8.
  53. ^ Kadolph, Sara J. (1998). Textiles. Internet Archive. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Merrill. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-13-494592-7.
  54. ^ Fairchild's dictionary of textiles. Internet Archive. New York, Fairchild Publications. 1959. p. 355.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  55. ^ Indian Journal of History of Science. National Institute of Sciences of India. 1982. p. 120.
  56. ^ Montgomery, Florence M. (1984). Textiles in America 1650-1870 : a dictionary based on original documents, prints and paintings, commercial records, American merchants' papers, shopkeepers' advertisements, and pattern books with original swatches of cloth. Internet Archive. New York ; London : Norton. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-393-01703-8.
  57. ^ Kumar, Raj; Srivastava, H.C. (1980-06-01). "Analysis of Fiber Blends. Part II. Determination of Blend Composition by Moisture Regain". Textile Research Journal. 50 (6): 359–362. doi:10.1177/004051758005000607. ISSN 0040-5175. S2CID 136831481.
  58. ^ "ASTM D629 - 15 Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles". www.astm.org. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  59. ^ Effect of fiber content ''Fiber content is a significant consideration for the design with polymer reinforced composites, as it controls the mechanical, thermomechanical, and tribological performance. Therefore, for particular applications, it is important to identify how the polymer composite behavior reacts with the fiber content under given operating circumstances.'' https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/fiber-content
  60. ^ ''An analysis such as this permits evaluation of fiber properties which are important in such more ubtle characteristics as ... that there are many reasons why different fibers are blended which include both economic and performance factors .'' Page 517 https://www.google.co.in/books/edition/Mechanical_Engineering/xhArAQAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=&printsec=frontcover
  61. ^ Franck, R. R. (2001-10-29). Silk, Mohair, Cashmere and Other Luxury Fibres. Elsevier. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-85573-759-4.
  62. ^ Joseph, Marjory L. (1992). Joseph's introductory textile science. Internet Archive. Fort Worth : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-03-050723-6.
  63. ^ ''polyester - andcotton - blend clothing has advantages over all - cotton garments . For one thing , polyester , which is man - made , costs less than cotton , which grows naturally , but is expensive to ...'' Page 79 https://www.google.co.in/books/edition/Improving_Reading_Comprehension_Skills/20gN3AousRAC?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=frontcover
  64. ^ Stauffer, Jeanne (2004). Sewing Smart with Fabric. DRG Wholesale. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-59217-018-0.
  65. ^ Mendelson, Cheryl (2005-05-17). Home Comforts: The Art and Science of Keeping House. Simon and Schuster. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-7432-7286-5.
  66. ^ "India overtakes Germany and Italy, is new world No. 2 in textile exports". The Times of India. June 3, 2014. Archived from the original on 2015-02-15. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
  67. ^ Rowe, Ann Pollard (1997). Looping and Knitting. Washington, D.C.: The Textile Museum. p. 2.
  68. ^ Green Inc. Blog "Cutting Water Use in the Textile Industry." Archived 2009-07-24 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times. July 21, 2009. July 28, 2009.
  69. ^ "What makes fabric "wrinkle-free"? Is it the weave or a special type of fiber?". Ask.yahoo.com. 2001-03-15. Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  70. ^ "The Materials Science and Engineering of Clothing". Tms.org. Archived from the original on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  71. ^ Lazarov, A (2004). "Textile dermatitis in patients with contact sensitization in Israel: A 4-year prospective study". Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 18 (5): 531–7b. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.00967.x. PMID 15324387. S2CID 8532195.
  72. ^ Lazarov, A; Cordoba, M; Plosk, N; Abraham, D (2003). "Atypical and unusual clinical manifestations of contact dermatitis to clothing (textile contact dermatitis): Case presentation and review of the literature". Dermatology Online Journal. 9 (3): 1. doi:10.5070/D30KD1D259. PMID 12952748.
  73. ^ Industriegeschichte aus dem Bergischen land (in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016)
  74. ^ WDR digit project. Eisengarnfabrikation in Barmen. Archived 2016-11-28 at the Wayback Machine (Video (16 min) in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016).
  75. ^ Scheman, AJ; Carroll, PA; Brown, KH; Osburn, AH (1998). "Formaldehyde-related textile allergy: An update". Contact Dermatitis. 38 (6): 332–6. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1998.tb05769.x. PMID 9687033. S2CID 32650590.
  76. ^ Alaee, M; Arias, P; Sjödin, A; Bergman, A (2003). "An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release" (PDF). Environment International. 29 (6): 683–9. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00121-1. PMID 12850087. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-28.
  77. ^ Kadolph (2009). Textiles. Pearson Education. p. 433. ISBN 978-81-317-2570-2.

Further reading