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Mixtec
Ñuù savi
Mixtec king and warlord Eight Deer Jaguar Claw (right) Meeting with Four Jaguar, in a depiction from the pre-Columbian Codex Zouche-Nuttall.
Total population
Approximately 830,000[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
Mexico ( Oaxaca, Puebla,  Guerrero,  Chiapas)
Languages
Mixtec, Spanish
Religion
Roman Catholicism with elements of traditional beliefs
Related ethnic groups
Zapotecs, Trique
PeopleMixtec
ñuù savi, nayívi savi,
ñuù davi, nayivi davi
LanguageMixtec
sa'an davi, da'an davi, tu'un savi,..
CountryMixteca
Ñuu Savi, Ñuu Djau, Ñuu Davi,..
Turquoise mosaic mask. Mixtec-Aztec, 1400–1521 AD

The Mixtecs (/ˈmstɛks, ˈmʃtɛks/),[3] or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as La Montaña Region and Costa Chica Regions of the state of Guerrero. The Mixtec culture was the main Mixtec civilization, which lasted from around 1500 BC until being conquered by the Spanish in 1523.

The Mixtec region is generally divided into three subregions based on geography: the Mixteca Alta (Upper Mixtec or Ñuu Savi Sukun), the Mixteca Baja (Lower Mixtec or Ñuu I'ni), and the Mixteca Costa (Coastal Mixtec or Ñuu Andivi). The Alta is drier with higher elevations, while the Baja is lower in elevation, hot but dry, and the Coasta is also low in elevation but much more humid and tropical. The Alta has seen the most study by archaeologists, with evidence for human settlement going back to the Archaic and Early Formative periods.[4] The first urbanized sites emerged here. Long considered to be part of the larger Mixteca region, groups living in the Baja were probably more culturally related to neighboring peoples in Eastern Guerrero than they were to the Mixtecs of the Alta.[5] They even had their own hieroglyphic writing system called ñuiñe.[6] The Costa only came under control of the Mixtecs during the military campaigns of the Mixtec cultural hero Eight Deer Jaguar Claw. Originally from Tilantongo in the Alta, Eight Deer and his armies conquered several major and minor kingdoms on their way to the coast, establishing the capital of Tututepec in the Lower Río Verde valley. Previously, the Costa had been primarily occupied by the Chatinos.

In pre-Columbian times, some Mixtec kingdoms competed and allied with each other and with Zapotec kingdoms in the Central Valleys. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtecs were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbian Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million.[7] Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Oto-Manguean language family.

Nomenclature and etymology

The term Mixtec (Mixteco in Spanish) comes from the Nahuatl word mixtecah [miʃˈtekaʔ], "cloud people". There are many names that the Mixtecs have for naming themselves: ñuù savi, nayívi savi, ñuù davi, nayivi davi.[pronunciation?] etc. All these denominations can be translated as 'the land of the rain'.[8] The historic homeland of Mixtec people is La Mixteca, called in Mixtec language Ñuu Savi,[pronunciation?] Ñuu Djau,[pronunciation?] Ñuu Davi,[pronunciation?] etc., depending on the local variant. They call their language sa'an davi,[pronunciation?] da'an davi[pronunciation?] or tu'un savi.[pronunciation?]

Overview

Plate 37 of the Codex Vindobonensis. The central scene supposedly depicts the origin of the Mixtecs as a people whose ancestors sprang from a tree.

In pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. Important ancient centers of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of Tilantongo, as well as the sites of Achiutla, Cuilapan, Huajuapan, Mitla, Tlaxiaco, Tututepec, Juxtlahuaca, and Yucuñudahui. The Mixtecs also made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Albán (which had originated as a Zapotec city before the Mixtecs gained control of it). The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone, wood, and metal was well regarded throughout ancient Mesoamerica.

According to West, "the Mixtec of Oaxaca...were the foremost goldsmiths of Mesoamerica," which included the "lost-wax casting of gold and its alloys."[9]

At the height of the Aztec Empire, many Mixtecs paid tribute to the Aztecs, but not all Mixtec towns became vassals. They put up resistance to Spanish rule until they were subdued by the Spanish and their central Mexican allies led by Pedro de Alvarado.

Mixtecs have migrated to various parts of both Mexico and the United States. In recent years a large exodus of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, such as the Zapotec and Triqui, has seen them emerge as one of the most numerous groups of Amerindians in the United States. As of 2011, an estimated 150,000 Mixteco people were living in California, and 25,000 to 30,000 in New York City.[10] Large Mixtec communities exist in the border cities of Tijuana, Baja California, San Diego, California and Tucson, Arizona. Mixtec communities are generally described as transnational or trans-border because of their ability to maintain and reaffirm social ties between their native homelands and diasporic communities. (See: Mixtec transnational migration.)

Mixtecs in the colonial era

Mixtec funerary mask; Grave No. 7, Monte Alban; Museum of Cultures of Oaxaca.
The stucco reliefs in the Tomb 1 of Zaachila (The Valley, Oaxaca) reveal a remarkable influence from Mixtec art. The tomb likely belongs to a person whose name is registered in the Nuttall Codex. Tomb 1 of Zaachila, Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Late Postclassic.

There is considerable documentation in the Mixtec (Ñudzahui) native language for the colonial era, which has been studied as part of the New Philology. Mixtec documentation indicates parallels between many indigenous social and political structures with those in the Nahua areas, but published research on the Mixtecs does not primarily focus on economic matters. There is considerable Mixtec documentation for land issues, but sparse for market activity, perhaps because indigenous cabildos did not regulate commerce or mediate economic disputes except for land.[11] Long-distance trade existed in the prehispanic era and continued in indigenous hands in the early colonial. In the second half of the colonial period, there were bilingual Mixtec merchants, dealing in both Spanish and indigenous goods, who operated regionally. However, in the Mixteca “by the eighteenth century, commerce was dominated by Spaniards in all but the most local venues of exchange, involving the sale of agricultural commodities and indigenous crafts or the resale of imported goods.”.[12]

Despite the development of a local exchange economy, many Spaniards with economic interests in Oaxaca, including “[s]ome of the Mixteca priests, merchants, and landowners maintained permanent residence in Puebla, and labor for the obrajes (textile workshops) of the city of Puebla in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was sometimes recruited from peasant villages in the Mixteca."[13] There is evidence of community litigation against Mixtec caciques who leased land to Spaniards and the growth of individually contracted wage labor. Mixtec documentation from the late eighteenth century indicates that "most caciques were simply well-to-do investors in Spanish-style enterprises"; some married non-Indians; and in the late colonial era had little claim to hereditary authority.[14]

Geography

Codex Zouche-Nuttall Mixtec British Museum.
Map showing the historic Mixtec area. Pre-Classic archeological sites are marked with a triangle, Classic sites with a round dot, and Post-classic sites with a square.

The Mixtec area, both historically and currently, corresponds roughly to the western half of the state of Oaxaca, with some Mixtec communities extending into the neighboring state of Puebla to the north-west and also the state of Guerrero. The Mixtec people and their homelands are often subdivided into three geographic areas: The Mixteca Alta or Highland Mixtec living in the mountains in, around, and to the west of the Valley of Oaxaca; the Mixteca Baja or Lowland Mixtec living to the north and west of these highlands, and the Mixteca de la Costa or Coastal Mixtec living in the southern plains and the coast of the Pacific Ocean. For most of Mixtec history, the Mixteca Alta was the dominant political force, with the capitals of the Mixtec nation located in the central highlands. The valley of Oaxaca itself was often a disputed border region, sometimes dominated by the Mixtec and sometimes by their neighbors to the east, the Zapotec.

An ancient Coixtlahuaca Basin cave site known as the Colossal Natural Bridge is an important sacred place for the Mixtec.

Mixtec rulers

Notes:

In Mixteca Costa

Acatepec, Yucu Yoo

See also: Acatepec

Tututepec, Yucu Dzaa

See also: Tututepec

Zacatepec, Yucu Chatuta

See also: Zacatepec, Morelos

In Mixteca Alta

Achiutla, Ñuu Ndecu

See also: Achiutla

Pedernales-Achiutla dynasty

Water Rubber Ball (Chacahua? Manialtepec?)

Andua

Bulto de Xipe/Huachino

Chalcatongo, Nuu Ndaya

See also: Chalcatongo

Cholula

See also: Cholula (Mesoamerican site)

Hill of the Mask

Name Born Reign Death Consort (s) Notes
Tlaxiaco dynasty[15]
Lord 8 Jaguar
Bloody Coyote
1113
Tlaxiaco
? ? Lady 2 Vulture Jewel Fan
two children
King at Tlaxiaco, partition from Teozacoalco. His children possibly divided the realm.
Lord 4 Grass
Sun Face
?
Son of Lord 8 Jaguar
? ? Lady 6 Reed Venus Face
one child
Also king at Sosola (Acuchi).
Lord 1 Movement
Fire Serpent with Feathers
?
Son of Lord 4 Grass and Lady 6 Reed
? ? Lady 2 House Precious Quexquemitl
one child
Possibly survived his son, and was succeeded by his grandson.
Lord 7 Serpent
Eagle
?
Son of Lord 4 House, Prince of Hill of the Mask and Lady 3 House
? ? Lady 3 Jaguar War Quexquemitl
one child

Lady 4 Serpent
one child
Possibly survived his son (given the son's absence of nickname), and was succeeded by his grandson.
Lord 7 Rain
Ascending Flame
?
Son of Lord 7 Serpent and Lady 4 Serpent
?-1338 1338
Hill of the Mask
Lady 4 Monkey of Tilantongo,
Precious Fire Serpent
no children
Hill of the Mask annexed to Teozacoalco

Jaltepec, Añute

See also: Jaltepec

Name Born Reign Death Consort (s) Notes
Apoala-Jaltepec dynasty
Lord 10 Reed
Eagle
c.880?
Son of Lord 2 Grass
Death Serpent, prince of Apoala and Lady 8 Rabbit
Sun Headdress, Queen of Whirlpool of Blood-Temple of the
Spiderweb and Smoke
?-after 920 after 920 Lady 2 Lizard
Venus Red and White Band
at least one child
Lord 3 Rain
Ballcourt with Lines
?
Son of Lord 10 Reed and Lady 2 Lizard
? ? Lady 7 Death
Rain Flaming Knot
no children
Suchixtlán dynasty
Lady 9 Wind
Stone Quexquemitl
c.1010
Daughter of Lord 8 Wind
Twenty Eagles, King of Suchixtlán and Lady 10 Deer Jaguar Quexquemitl
?-1090 1090
Jaltepec
aged 79-80?
1041
five children
Spouses, ruled jointly.
  • Lord 13 Grass, Lady 9 Wind's brother, ruled in the settlement of Arrow-Red Liquid
Lord 10 Eagle
Stone Jaguar
?
Son of Lord 10 Flower, King of Tilantongo and Lady 2 Serpent of Suchixtlán
?
Lady 6 Monkey
War Quexquemitl
?
Daughter of Lord 10 Eagle and Lady 9 Wind
1090-1101 1101
Huachino
Lord 11 Wind, King of Huachino,
Bloody Jaguar
1090
two children
Assassinated with her husband in Huachino during the Tilantongo coup d'état of Lord 8 Deer Jaguar Claw.
Lord 1 Alligator
Ballcourt Eagle
1094
Huachino
Second son of Lord 11 Wind, King of Huachino and Lady 6 Monkey
1101-after 1122 after 1122 Lady 6 Wind of Tilantongo,
Feather Blood Quetzal
1122
one child

Lady 6 Flint of Tilantongo,
Precious Fire Serpent
1122
no children
Married daughters of the assassin of his mother; he inherited her main settlement at Jaltepec.
Lord 5 Lizard Blood Jewel 1122 or after 1122
Son of Lord 1 Alligator and Lady 6 Wind of Tilantongo
? ? Lady 4 Rain Heartcross

Lady 8 Rabbit

(Both women were sisters and from the town of Temazcal Cave of Atl Tlachinolli)


(three known children in total)
Lord 1 Rain Celestial Eagle ?
Son of Lord 5 Lizard
? ? Lady 2 Alligator
Smoke Spiderweb
four children
Lord 5 Flower Celestial Eagle ?
Son of Lord 1 Rain and Lady 2 Alligator
? ? Lady 10 Water Xolotl Red Jewel
two children
Lord 6 Reed Jaguar Sun ?
Son of Lord 5 Flower and Lady 10 Water
? ? Lady 5 Movement Copal Ornament
two children
Lord 13 Wind Tlachtli War ?
Son of Lord 6 Reed and 5 Movement
? ? Lady 12 Rain of Zahuatlán,
Butterfly Quetzal Blood
four children
Lord 9 Lizard
Fire Face
?
Son of Lord 13 Wind and Lady 12 Rain of Zahuatlán
? - after 1381 after 1381 Lady 12 Deer of Cuauhtinchán, War Quexquemitl
three children
In his reign Zaachila attacked Jaltepec, took the eldest sons of Lord 9 Lizard, and executed them. His minor son was the only one that survived. This son, Lord 2 Jaguar, would eventually succeed his father.
Lord 2 Jaguar ?
Son of Lord 9 Lizard and Lady 12 Deer of Cuauhtinchán
after 1381-? ? Lady 1 Serpent of Teozacoalco, Sun Fan
1372
one child
Lord 5 Water
Jaguar of Tlaxiaco
?
Son of Lord 2 Jaguar and Lady 1 Serpent of Teozacoalco
?-after 1339 ? Lady 7 Rain of Tlaxiaco,
Fan of Tlaxiaco
two children
Lord 10 Monkey
Rain Falling from Heaven
1339
Jaltepec
Son of Lord 5 Water and Lady 7 Rain of Tlaxiaco
? ? Lady 2 Water of Yanhuitlán,
Xolotl-Jewel
three children
Lord 3 Death
Grey Eagle
?
Son of Lord 10 Monkey and Lady 2 Water of Yanhuitlán
?-1444 1444
Jaltepec
Lady 3 Serpent
Flower Garland
1368
three children
Lord 1 Monkey
Rain Sun
1416
Jaltepec
Son of Lord 3 Death and Lady 3 Serpent
1444-1480 1480
Jaltepec
aged 63-64
Lady 7 Water of Teozacoalco,
Plumed Sun
(d.1477)
1447
at least one child

Lady 10 Movement,
Plumed Sun,
Queen of Quetzaltepec
no children
Lord 4 Serpent
Bloody Eagle
1451
Jaltepec
Son of Lord 1 Monkey and Lady 7 Water of Teozacoalco
1480-1520 1520
Jaltepec
aged 68–69
Lady 5 Monkey of Teozacoalco,
Seed of the Broken Mountain
(1466-1518)
two children
Zaachila-Teozacoalco dynasty
Lord 13 Grass
Fire Serpent
1516
Jaltepec
Son of Lord 4 Deer, King of Teozacoalco and Lady 12 Vulture of Jaltepec
1520-1541 1541
Jaltepec
aged 24-25
Lady 2 Jaguar of Tlaxiaco, Jewel Red Objects Package
1523
five children

Lady 5 Jaguar Cocoa Garland
Grandson of his predecessor.
Lord 10 Grass
Jaguar Smoke Tlaltecuhtli
1527
Jaltepec
Son of Lord 13 Grass and Lady 2 Jaguar of Tlaxiaco
1541-after 1556 After 1556 Lady 10 Serpent Flowered Tree Golden Band
1546
unknown children
Last known ruler in the settlement.

Juquila, Nuu Sitoho

See also: Juquila

"Monkey"

Mitlatongo, Dzandaya

Flower Mountain, Yucu Ita

Broken Mountain

Place of Flints/Pedernales, Nuu Yuchi

Name Born Reign Death Consort (s) Notes
Pedernales-Achiutla dynasty
Lord 4 Wind
Fire Serpent
1092
Huachino
Son of Lord 11 Wind, King of Huachino and
Lady 6 Monkey, Queen of Jaltepec
1115-1164 1164
Pedernales
aged 71–72
Lady 10 Flower of Tilantongo,
Rain Spiderweb
1124
one child

Lady 5 Lizard of Deep Valley,
Zacate-Pulque Vase
1124 or 1125
three children

Lady 5 Wind of Tilantongo,
Jade and Fur Ornament
1125
no children
First known ruler of the settlement, which seems to have been separated either from Tilantongo or Jaltepec.
Lady 13 Flower
Precious Bird
?
Daughter of Lord 4 Wind and Lady 10 Flower of Tilantongo
1164-? ? Prince Lord 4 Alligator of Tilantongo,
Sacred Serpent
c.1138
ten children
Lord 7 Eagle
Flames
1138
Pedernales
First son of Lord Lord 4 Alligator of Tilantongo and
Lady 13 Flower
? ? Lady 3 Serpent of Achiutla,
Sacred Jewel
no children
Left no children and was succeeded by his brother.
Lord 4 Jaguar
War Jaguar
1144
Pedernales
Second son of Lord Lord 4 Alligator of Tilantongo and
Lady 13 Flower
? ? Lady 8 Jaguar of Achiutla,
Serpent Jewel
at least one child
Nephew of his predecessors.
Lord 1 Eagle
Rain
c.1160
Son of Lord 4 Water, prince of Pedernales and Lady
1 Grass of Achiutla
?-after 1171 After 1171 Unmarried
Lord 7 Reed
Pheasant
?
Son of Lord 13 Serpent, Prince of Pedernales and
Lady 11 Deer, Princess of Pedernales
? ? ? Cousin of his predecessor.
Pedernales annexed to Teozacoalco

Quetzal

Río de la Serpiente

San Pedro Cántaros, Nuu Naha

Teozacoalco dynasty

Place of the Drum (Soyaltepec) (?)

See also: San Bartolo Soyaltepec

Suchixtlán, Chiyo Yuhu

Name Born Reign Death Consort (s) Notes
Suchixtlán dynasty
Lord 8 Wind
Stone Eagle/
Twenty Eagles
?
Son or descendant
of Lord 3 Rain, King of Jaltepec
?-1027 1027
Suchixtlán
or Jaltepec
Lady 10 Deer
Jaguar Quexquemitl
1009

Lady 10 Grass
1010

Lady 10 Eagle
1011

seven children in total
Hiatus with no known rulers
Lord 12 Movement
Jaguar that Burns the Mexicans
? ? ? Lady 1 Jaguar Divine Fan
at least one child
Lord 13 Eagle
Bloody Jaguar
?
Son of Lord 12 Movement and Lady 1 Jaguar
? ? Lady 12 Flower, Queen of Tilantongo
four children
Zaachila-Teozacoalco dynasty
Lady 2 Flower
Rising Jewel
?
Daughter of Lord 13 Eagle and Lady 12 Flower of Tilantongo
? ? two children Spouses and explicitly co-rulers in Suchixtlán (according to Codex Muro). Lord 6 Death possibly also inherited his kingdom at San Pedro Cántaros.
Lord 6 Death Sun Rain ?
Son of Lord 10 Alligator, king of Cántaros and Lady 7 Vulture (of Tilantongo?)
?-1461 1461
Lady 11 Monkey
Jade Spiderweb
?
Son of Lord 6 Death and Lady 2 Flower
? ? three children Probably ruled jointly, as despite she inherited the kingdom, her husband is said to have also ruled there.
Lord 4 Death
War Venus
?
Son of Lord 6 Deer, king of Tilantongo and Lady 13 Wind of Jaltepec
? ?
Lord 8 Monkey ?
Son of Lord 4 Death
and Lady 11 Monkey
? ? Lady 4 Water of Tilantongo,
Butterfly with Red Spots
no children
Hiatus with no known rulers
Lord 8 Movement Jaguar Tlaloc Wall ? ? ? Lady 8 Flint of Jaltepec,
Venus Legs Bent Strip
(born 1528)
c.1530/40?
no children
Last known ruler of the town.

Teita

Teozacoalco, Chiyo Cahnu

See also: Teozacoalco

Name Born Reign Death Consort (s) Notes
2nd Tilantongo dynasty
Lord 4 Dog
Coyote Hunter
1110
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 8 Deer and
Lady 13 Serpent of Huachino
1115-after 1132 after 1132 Lady 4 Death Jewel
(born 1115)
1125
two children
Lord 13 Dog
Venus Eagle
1132
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 4 Dog and Lady 4 Death
?-after 1149 after 1149 Lady 8 Vulture Stone Quechquemitl

Lady 4 Rabbit Feathers on the Sand

two children in total
Lord 7 Water
Red Eagle
1149
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 13 Dog
? ? Lady 11 Water Precious Serpent
two children
Lord 13 Eagle
Sacred Rain

Son of Lord 7 Water and Lady 11 Water
?-after 1189 after 1189 Lady 13 Death Jade Quechquemitl
two children

Lady 10 Deer Jaguar Quechquemitl
three children

Lady 8 Reed Precious Girl
one child

Lady of the Staff of Respect
no children

Lady 11 Movement Jewel with Quetzal Feathers
two children

Lady 9 Monkey
one child
Lord 8 Rabbit
Fire of Tlaxiaco
1189
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 13 Eagle and Lady 8 Reed
? ? Lady 6 Grass of Tilantongo,
Transparent Butterfly
five children
Lord 12 House
Fire Serpent Flying in the Sky
?
Son of Lord 8 Rabbit and Lady 6 Grass of Tilantongo
? ? five children Sibling-spouses, ruled jointly.
  • Their brother, Lord 1 House ''Jaguar Assassin from the Sky'', ruled at the settlement of Nuu Naha .
Lady 11 Alligator
Quetzal Jewel
?
Daughter of Lord 8 Rabbit and Lady 6 Grass of Tilantongo
?
Lord 9 Movement
Precious Water
?
Son of Lord 12 House and Lady 11 Alligator
?-1321[15] 1321
Teozacoalco
no children Sibling-spouses, ruled jointly. Left no children.
Lady 2 Jaguar
Jade Spiderweb
?
Daughter of Lord 12 House and Lady 11 Alligator
Zaachila-Teozacoalco dynasty
Lord 2 Dog
Rope and Knives
?
Son of Lord 5 Flower, King of Zaachila and Lady 4 Rabbit of Teozacoalco
1321[15]-after 1323 ? Lady 6 Reed of Tilantongo,
Plumed Serpent
three children
Lord 9 House
Mexican Jaguar
1323
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 2 Dog and Lady 6 Reed of Tilantongo
?-after 1357 after 1357 Lady 3 Rabbit of Tilantongo,
Divine Flame
(born 1345)
no children
Also, by marriage, king of Tilantongo.
Lord 2 Water
Fire Serpent
1357
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 9 House and Lady 3 Rabbit of Tlaxiaco
?-after 1402 after 1402 Lady 2 Vulture of Teita,
Flower Jewel
one child

Lady 3 Alligator of Zaachila,
Jade Fan
six children

Lady 12 Flint of Teita
one child

Lady 4 Reed
Twenty Jaguars
no children
After his death his inheritance is divided: His eldest daughter received Tilantongo; his first son got Teozacoalco, and his second son eventually inherited his mother's realm of Zaachila.
Lord 5 Rain
Water Falling from the Sky
1402?
Son of Lord Lord 2 Water and Lady 3 Alligator of Zaachila
?-after 1416 after 1416 Lady 5 Flower of Tlaxiaco,
Quetzal Sun
1416
four children
His children inherited their mother's realm. Teozacoalco reunited with Tilantongo.
Lord 6 Deer
Sacred Rain
1393
Son of Lord 13 Eagle, King of Suchixtlán and Lady 12 Flower, Queen of Tilantongo
? ? Lady 13 Wind of Jaltepec,
Seed of the Broken Mountain
two children
Nephew of the predecessor.
Lord 4 Flower
Pheasant
1409
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 6 Deer and Lady 13 Wind of Jaltepec
?-after 1438 after 1438 Lady 7 Vulture of Etlatongo,
Quetzal Fan
seven children
Probably during his reign, the capital of the dual kingdom of Teozacoalco-Tilantongo may have returned to Tilantongo, but this fact isn't certain.
Lord 10 Rain
Sun Rain
1438
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 4 Flower
and Lady 7 Vulture of Etlatongo
?-after 1476 after 1476 Lady 5 Wind of Suchixtlán,
Cocoa Flower
four children
Lord 4 Deer
Eagle of Tlaxiaco
1476
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 10 Rain
and Lady 5 Wind of Suchixtlán
?-1521 1521
Teozacoalco
aged 44–45
Lady 11 Serpent

Lady 12 Vulture of Jaltepec,
Sun Fan
(born 1484)

one child in total
His kingdom fell to the Spanish, and may have died during the invasion. Probably because of this same invasion, the kingdom lost its status: his son may have succeeded only in the maternal kingdom of Jaltepec.
Teozacoalco occupied by the Spanish

Tilantongo, Ñuu Tnoo

See also: Tilantongo

Name Born Reign Death Consort (s) Notes
1st Tilantongo dynasty
Lord 10 House
Jaguar
? ? ? Lady 1 Grass Puma
one child
Lord 3 Eagle
Eagle of the Serpent Place
?
Son of Lord 10 House and Lady 1 Grass
?-after 942 after 942 Lady 4 Rabbit of Mitlatongo,
Quexquemitl
two children
Lord 9 Wind
Stone Skull
942
Tilantongo
Son of Lord Lord 3 Eagle and Lady 4 Rabbit of Mitlatongo
?-1020 1020
aged 77-78
Lady 5 Reed of Monte Albán,
Rain Hill
c.990

three children
  • His brother, Lord 1 Monkey, inherited their mother's city of Mitlatongo.
Lord 10 Flower
Burnt-Eyed Jaguar
992
Tilantongo
Son of Lord 9 Wind and Lady 5 Reed of Monte Albán
1020-1043 1043
aged 50-51
Lady 2 Serpent of Suchixtlán,
Plumed Serpent
(born 1005)
1013
six children
Many of his relatives are known to have sit exclusively in some throness:
  • ?: Lord 10 Flower (II) Tail Arc (his brother-in-law; ruled in the settlement of Dark Speckled Mountain )
  • ?: Lord 13 Death (his son-in-law; ruled in the settlement of Head ; he would also become father-in-law of Lord 8 Deer)
  • ?: Lord 10 Reed (I) Precious Jaguar (his son-in-law; ruled in the settlement of Tataltepec (Yucu Tatnu))
  • ?: Lord 10 Reed (II) (his son-in-law; ruled in the settlement of Topiltepec, Yucu Quesi/Nuu Ñañu )
Lord 12 Lizard
Arrow Feet
c.1013
Son of Lord 10 Flower and Lady 2 Serpent of Suchixtlán
1043-c.1080? c.1080?
Tilantongo
aged around 66-67
Lady 4 Flint of Topiltepec,
Face Quetzal Feathers

Lady 4 Alligator of Topiltepec,
Jewel Face

four children in total
Married his nieces, daughters of his sister.
Lord 5 Movement
Smoked Sky
?
Son of Lord 12 Lizard
1080-? ? Lady 4 Death of Jaltepec,
Jewel of the People
no children

Lady 2 Grass
1073
one child
The succession of the son and grandson of Lord 12 Lizard is debated, as Lord 12 Lizard is the last of his dynasty explicitly depicted as king of Tilantongo before Lord 8 Deer's conquest (1097). Even his grandson, who died young in a mysterious suicide ritual, is sometimes called by experts as an heir, instead of an official ruler. There isn't also any indication of the time of death of Lord 12 Lizard, which confuses matters. What is known is that, as Lady 2 Grass (Lord 2 Rain's mother) came from Visible Stones (a place under domination of Suchixtlán), Suchixtlán became influent in Tilantongo during this period of uncertainty. It's also possible that Lord 12 Lizard's sister, Lady 4 Rabbit ''Precious Quetzal'', was his next heiress, as, before usurping the throne, Lord 8 Deer had bowed to her and her husband in their town at Sosola (Acuchi).
Lord 2 Rain
Twenty Jaguars
1075
Tilantongo
Son of Lord 5 Movement and Lady 2 Grass
?-18 June 1097 18 June 1097
Tilantongo
aged 21–22
Unmarried
2nd Tilantongo dynasty
Lord 8 Deer
Jaguar Claw
1063
Tilantongo
Son of Lord 5 Alligator Sun Rain, Priest and Lady 11 Water Jewel Bird
18 June 1097 – 10 November 1115 10 November 1115
Tilantongo
aged 51–52
Lady 13 Serpent of Huachino,
Flowered Serpent
1103
five children

Lady 6 Eagle of Chalcatongo,
Jaguar Spiderweb
1105
one child

Lady 10 Vulture
Shining Quexquemitl
1105
two children

Lady 11 Serpent of Totomihuacan,
Jaguar Flower Turquoise Teeth
1105
two children

Lady Lady 6 Wind of Cuyotepeji,
Great Feathers of Noble Blood
no children
Usurper and founder of a new royal line at Tilantongo. After his death the influence in Mixtec realms passed to Pedernales, but the succession continued in Tilantongo. Lord 8 Deer was related to other settlements:
  • His father-in-law, Lord 1 Deer Coanacoch is the only known ruler in the settlement of Cuyotepeji.
Regency of Lady 6 Eagle of Chacaltongo, Jaguar Spiderweb during Lord 6 House's minority
Lord 6 House
Jaguar Falling from Heaven
1109
Tilantongo
Son of Lord 8 Deer and Lady 6 Eagle of Chacaltongo
10 November 1115-? ? Lady 9 Movement of Juquila,
Heart
one child
Lord 5 Water
Stone Jaguar Heaven
?
Son of Lord 6 House and Lady Lady 9 Movement of Juquila
? ? Lady 10 Reed of Tilantongo,
Quetzal Jewel
eight children
Married his cousin, daughter of his father's half-brother.
Lord 8 Reed
Pheasant
?
Son of Lord 5 Water and Lady 10 Reed of Tilantongo
? ? two children Sibling-spouses, ruled jointly.
Lady 5 Rabbit
Jewel
?
Daughter of Lord 5 Water and Lady 10 Reed of Tilantongo
?
Lord 2 Movement
Serpent with Markings
?
Son of Lord 8 Reed and Lady 5 Rabbit
?-1206 1206
Tilantongo
Lady 4 Eagle of Teita,
Blood Quechquemitl

Lady 12 Flint of Mountain of Flowers,
Hummingbird Jewel

Lady 10 Eagle of Mountain of Flowers,
Serpent Spiderweb

three children in total
Apparently survived his own sons and heirs, Lord 8 Grass ''Coyote Sacrificer'' and Lord 1 Lizard ''Bloody Jaguar'', and was succeeded by his grandchildren.
Lord 12 Reed
Coyote Sun
?
Son of Lord 1 Lizard, Prince of Tilantongo and Lady 6 Reed of Sunken Disk Plain
1206-? ? three children Sibling-spouses, ruled jointly.
Lady 3 Jaguar
Precious Butterfly Sun
?
Daughter of Lord 1 Lizard, Prince of Tilantongo and Lady 6 Reed of Sunken Disk Plain
?
Lord 5 Rain
Sun Movement
?
Son of Lord 12 Reed and Lady 3 Jaguar
? ? Lady 13 Lizard of Puma,
Truly Precious Butterfly
one child
Lord 5 Rain was related to other settlements' rulers:
  • ?: Lord 7 Movement Bloody Jaguar, his father-in-law, is the only known ruler in the settlement of Puma .
Lord 13 Wind
Fire Serpent
?
Son of Lord 5 Rain and Lady 13 Lizard of Puma
? ? Lady 1 Water of Teozacoalco,
Venus Quechquemitl
1277
one child
Lord 9 Serpent
Jaguar War Illuminator
?
Son of Lord 13 Wind and Lady 1 Water of Teozacoalco
? ? Lady 8 Flint of Yucuita

Lady 7 Flower of Yucuita

four children in total
Lord 4 Water
Bloody Eagle
?
Son of Lord 9 Serpent
?-1341 1341
Tilantongo
Lady Lady 6 Water
Quetzal Jewel of Flower War
no children
Left no children, and his dynasty came to an end. He was succeeded by his widow.
Zaachila-Teozacoalco dynasty
Lady 6 Water
Quetzal Jewel of Flower War
?
Daughter of Lord 2 Dog, King of Teozacoalco and Lady Lady 6 Reed of Tilantongo
1341-after 1345 after 1345 Lord 4 Water
Bloody Eagle
no children

Prince Lord 4 Death of Tlaxiaco,
War Venus
1343
four children
Widow and niece of the previous. As the eldest child of the only sister of Lord 4 Water that had children, she became the inheritor of his uncle-husband's kingdom. She inherited it not as widow of her husband, but as a rightful heir of her uncle.
Lady 3 Rabbit
Divine Flame
1345
Tilantongo
Daughter of Lord Lord 2 Dog, King of Teozacoalco and Lady 6 Reed of Tilantongo
after 1345-after 1372 after 1372 1353
six children
Like her mother, she married her own uncle (her mother's brother), keeping the kingdom in the family, and made possible the reunion of Tilantongo and Teozacoalco.
Lord 9 House
Mexican Jaguar
1323
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 2 Dog, King of Teozacoalco and Lady 6 Reed of Tilantongo
Lord 2 Water
Fire Serpent
1357
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 9 House and Lady 3 Rabbit of Tlaxiaco
?-after 1402 after 1402 Lady 2 Vulture of Teita,
Flower Jewel
one child

Lady 3 Alligator of Zaachila,
Jade Fan
six children

Lady 12 Flint of Teita
one child

Lady 4 Reed
Twenty Jaguars
no children
After his death his inheritance is divided: His eldest daughter received Tilantongo; his first son got Teozacoalco, and his second son eventually inherited his mother's realm of Zaachila.
Lady 12 Flower
Broken Mountain Butterfly
?
Daughter of Lord 2 Water and 2 Vulture of Teita
? ? Lord Lord 12 Eagle, King of Suchixtlán,
Bloody Jaguar
no children
First separate ruler of Tilantongo since 1341. At her death, her children inherited Tilantongo.
Lord 6 Deer
Sacred Rain
1393
Son of Lord 13 Eagle, King of Suchixtlán and Lady 12 Flower
? ? Lady 13 Wind of Jaltepec,
Seed of the Broken Mountain
two children
Nephew of the predecessor.
Lord 4 Flower
Pheasant
1409
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 6 Deer and Lady 13 Wind of Jaltepec
?-after 1438 after 1438 Lady 7 Vulture of Etlatongo,
Quetzal Fan
seven children
Probably during his reign, the capital of the dual kingdom of Teozacoalco-Tilantongo may have returned to Tilantongo, but this fact isn't certain.
Lord 10 Rain
Sun Rain
1438
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 4 Flower
and Lady 7 Vulture of Etlatongo
?-after 1476 after 1476 Lady 5 Wind of Suchixtlán,
Cocoa Flower
four children
Lord 4 Deer
Eagle of Tlaxiaco
1476
Teozacoalco
Son of Lord 10 Rain
and Lady 5 Wind of Suchixtlán
?-1521 1521
Teozacoalco
aged 44–45
Lady 11 Serpent

Lady 12 Vulture of Jaltepec,
Sun Fan
(born 1484)

one child in total
His kingdom fell to the Spanish, and may have died during the invasion. Probably because of this same invasion, the kingdom lost its status: his son may have succeeded only in the maternal kingdom of Jaltepec.
Tilantongo occupied by the Spanish

Tlaxiaco, Ndisi Nuu

See also: Tlaxiaco

Name Born Reign Death Consort (s) Notes
Tlaxiaco dynasty[15]
Lord 8 Jaguar
Bloody Coyote
1113
Tlaxiaco
? ? Lady 2 Vulture ''Jewel Fan''
two children
First known king at Tlaxiaco, partition from Teozacoalco.
Lord 4 Grass
Sun Face
?
Son of Lord 8 Jaguar
? ? Lady 6 Reed ''Venus Face''
one child
Lord 2 Wind
Bloody Rain
?
Son of Lord 4 Grass and Lady 6 Reed ''Venus Face''
? ? Lady 4 Death of Achiutla
no children
Left no children. Tlaxiaco was inherited by his uncle.
Lord 2 Movement
Fire Serpent in Flames
?
Son of Lord 8 Jaguar
? ? Lady 2 Death ''Plumed Sun''
one child
Lord 3 Serpent
Flame Rain
?
Son of Lord 2 Movement and Lady 2 Death
? ? Lady 12 Wind ''Quetzal Jewel''

Lady 7 Death

two children in total
Lord 1 Deer
Eagle
?
Son of Lord 3 Serpent and Lady 12 Wind ''Quetzal Jewel''!Lady 12 Wind or Lady 7 Death
? ? Lady 10 Grass ''Precious Butterfly''
two children
Lord 12 Rain
Bloody Jaguar
?
Son of Lord 3 Serpent and Lady 12 Wind or Lady 7 Death
?-1305 1305
Tlaxiaco
Lady 1 Monkey of Tilantongo,
Jade Quexquemitl
one child
Lord 12 Deer
Serpent that Lightens the War
?
Son of Lord 3 Dog and Lady 8 Serpent, heiress of Tlaxiaco
? ? Lady 11 Lizard of Achiutla,
Flame Jewel
1305
no children

Lady 6 Rabbit of Tilantongo,
Jewel Seed
no children
It 's possible that he succeeded his maternal grandfather during his mother's lifespan; she chose to follow her husband (12 Deer's father) in a peregrination.[15] The male line is explicitly broken off after 12 Deer's death: he had no children. A succession crisis is opened, and is ultimately won by Lady 11 Rabbit, who was cleverly allied with Tilantongo-Teozacoalco.
Pedernales-Achiutla dynasty
Lady 11 Rabbit
Jewel of the Rising Sun
?
Daughter of Lord 8 Wind, King of Achiutla and Lady 10 Dog of Tlaxiaco
c.1330 ? two children Spouses, ruled jointly. Lady 11 Rabbit (from Achiutla on paternal side) was a niece of Lord 12 Deer.
Lord 10 Rabbit
Jaguar of Tlaxiaco
?
Son of Lord 4 Movement ''Rain Falling from the Sky'' and Lady 2 Eagle ''Sunflower''
?
Lord 9 Rain
Bloody Jaguar
?
Son of Lord 10 Rabbit and Lady 11 Rabbit
?-after 1343 after 1343 Lady 7 Flint of Teozacoalco
1343
three children
Lord 11 Wind
Smoked Claw
?
Son of Lord 9 Rain and Lady 7 Flint of Teozacoalco
? ? Lady 4 Grass of Achiutla,
Jewel Flower
five children
  • Lord 1 Dog, his brother-in-law, is the only known ruler in the settlement of Feline Mountain .
Lord 1 Monkey
Sun Rain
?
Son of Lord 11 Wind and Lady 4 Grass of Achiutla
? ? Lady 5 Flint
Heavenly Fan
three children
Lord 13 Eagle
Eagle of Tlaxiaco
?
Son of Lord 1 Monkey and Lady 5 Flint
?-after 1400 after 1400 Lady 8 Jaguar of Achiutla
c.1400
one child
His heiress didn't succeed in the kingdom; his successor was his granddaughter.
  • Lord 3 Reed Smoked Eye, his brother, is the only known ruler in the settlement of Cuilapán.
Zaachila-Teozacoalco dynasty[15]
Lady 8 Deer
Quetzal Spiderweb
?
Daughter of Lord 5 Rain, King of Teozacoalco and Lady 5 Flower of Tlaxiaco
? ? Lord 10 Alligator, King of Achiutla,
Stone Claw
no children
Her twin brother ascended in the Zapotec throne of Zaachila.
Lord 3 Serpent
Venus Sun
?
Son of Lord 5 Rain, King of Teozacoalco and Lady 5 Flower of Tlaxiaco
? ? Lady 10 Movement
Sun Jewel
no children
Younger brother of the twins.
Lord 8 Grass/ Malinaltzin
Sun Rain
c.1435
Tlaxiaco
Son of Lord 5 Rain, King of Teozacoalco and Lady 5 Flower of Tlaxiaco
?-1503 1511
Tlaxiaco
aged 75–76
Lady 9 Deer of Teozacoalco,
Jewel Flower
1460
one child

Lady 1 Serpent
Butterfly Quetzal Feathers
no children
Younger brother of the former. In 1503 Tlaxiaco was defeated by the Aztec Empire.
Tlaxiaco annexed to the Aztec Empire

Totomihuacan

Tula (Toltec)

See also: Toltec

Deep Valley

Yanhuitlán

See also: Yanhuitlán

Zaachila, Tocuisi (Zapotec)

See also: Zapotec civilization

Name Born Reign Death Consort (s) Notes
Zaachila Zapotec dynasty[15]
Lord 9 Serpent ? ? ? Lady 11 Rabbit
Venus Quexquemitl
at least one child
Lord 5 Flower
Xipe
?
Son of Lord 9 Serpent and Lady 11 Rabbit
?-1328 1328
Zaachila
Lady 4 Rabbit of Teozacoalco,
Quetzal
six children
Lord 3 Alligator
(Ozomatli)
?
Son of Lord 5 Flower and Lady 4 Rabbit of Teozacoalco
1328-1361 1361
Zaachila
Lady 12 Flint
Staff of Respect

Lady 10 House ''Jewel''

five children in total
Lord 11 Water
Stone Rain

(Cosijoeza I; Huijatoo)
?
Son of Lord 3 Alligator
1361-1386 1386
Zaachila
Lady 8 Movement of Zaachila,
Fire Serpent
no children

Lady 13 Serpent of Cacaxtli,
Plumed Serpent
six children
Lord 6 Water
Cracked Boards

(Zaachila I)
c.1350
Son of Lord 11 Water and Lady 13 Serpent of Cacaxtli
1386-1415 1415
Zaachila
aged 64–65
Lady 1 Reed of Tlaxiaco,
Sun Jewel
one child
Lord 3 Reed
Smoked Eye

(Zaachila II)
?
Son of Lord 6 Water and Lady 1 Reed of Tlaxiaco
1415-1454 1454
Zaachila
Unmarried Left no descendants. He was succeeded by a cousin.
Lord 5 Reed Twenty Jaguars
(Cosijopii I; Zaachila III)
1397
Son of Lord 2 Water, King of Teozacoalco and Lady 3 Alligator of Zaachila
1454-1487 1487
Zaachila
aged 89–90
Unmarried Left no descendants. He was succeeded by a nephew.
Lord 8 Deer
Fire Serpent

(Cosijoeza II)
?
Son of Lord 5 Rain, King of Teozacoalco and Lady 5 Flower of Tlaxiaco
1487-1504 1504
Zaachila
Xilabela of the Aztec Empire
two children
Nephew of the predecessor. Had a twin sister, Lady 8 Deer, who ascended to the throne of Tlaxiaco.
Regency of Xilabela of the Aztec Empire (1504-1518)
Cosijopii II 30 December 1502
Zaachila
Son of Lord 8 Deer and Xilabela of the Aztec Empire
1504-1523 1563
Zaachila
aged 60–61
? Siblings, it's possible that they ruled jointly.
Pinopija ?
Zaachila
Daughter of Lord 8 Deer and Xilabela of the Aztec Empire
1504-1520 c.1520
Zaachila
?
Zaachila annexed to the Aztec Empire

In Mixteca Baja

Acatlan

See also: Acatlán de Osorio

Chila

See also: Chila (municipality)

Language, codices, and artwork

The preconquest Codex Bodley, page 21, names Lord Eight Grass as being the last king of Tiaxiaco.
Shield of Yanhuitlan in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico city

The Mixtecan languages (in their many variants) were estimated to be spoken by about 300,000 people at the end of the 20th century, although the majority of Mixtec speakers also had at least a working knowledge of the Spanish language. Some Mixtecan languages are called by names other than Mixtec, particularly Cuicatec (Cuicateco), and Triqui (or Trique).

The Mixtec are well known in the anthropological world for their Codices or phonetic pictures[clarification needed] in which they wrote their history and genealogies in deerskin in the "fold-book" form. The best-known story of the Mixtec Codices is that of Lord Eight Deer, named after the day in which he was born, whose personal name is Jaguar Claw, and whose epic history is related in several codices, including the Codex Bodley and Codex Zouche-Nuttall. He successfully conquered and united most of the Mixteca region.

They were also known for their exceptional mastery of jewelry and mosaic, among which gold and turquoise figure prominently. Products by Mixtec goldsmiths formed an important part of the tribute the Mixtecs paid to the Aztecs during parts of their history.[16][unreliable source?] Turquoise mosaic masks also played an important role in both political and religious functions.[17] These masks were used as gifts to form political alliances, in ceremonies during which the wearer of the mask impersonated a god, and were fixed to funerary bundles that were seen as oracles.[18]

References

  1. ^ Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indios (CDI) (2000): Lenguas indígenas de México. Viewed 30 November 2006.
  2. ^ Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior: Lazos. Síntesis informativa Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 24 January 2005. Viewed 30 November 2006
  3. ^ "Mixtec". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  4. ^ Joyce, Arthur (2009). Mixtecs, Zapotecs, and Chatinos: Ancient Peoples of Southern Mexico. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631209782.
  5. ^ Gutiérrez, Gerardo (7 February 2017). "Classic and Postclassic Archaeological Features of the Mixteca-Tlapaneca-Nahua region of Guerrero: Why Didn't Anyone Tell Me the Classic was Over". After Monte Albán: Transformation and Negotiation in Oaxaca, Mexico. University Press of Colorado. pp. 367–362. ISBN 978-1-60732-597-0.
  6. ^ Lind, Michael (2008). "Arqueología de la Mixteca" (PDF). Desacatos. 27: 13–32.
  7. ^ archaeology.about.com › ... › Archaeology 101 › Glossary › M Terms
  8. ^ "About". San Diego State University. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  9. ^ West, Robert. Early Silver Mining in New Spain, 1531–1555 (1997). Bakewell, Peter (ed.). Mines of Silver and Gold in the Americas. Aldershot: Variorum, Ashgate Publishing Limited. p. 48.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Claudia Torrens (28 May 2011). "Some NY immigrants cite lack of Spanish as a barrier". UTSanDiego.com. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  11. ^ Kevin Terraciano, ‘’The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui History, Sixteen through Eighteenth Centuries’’. Stanford: Stanford University Press 2001, 248–49.
  12. ^ Terraciano, ibid. p. 251
  13. ^ William B. Taylor, "Town and Country in the Valley of Oaxaca", ‘’The Provinces of Early Mexico’’, Ida Altman and James Lockhart, eds. Los Angeles, UCLA Latin American Center 1976, p. 74.
  14. ^ Kevin Terraciano, "The Colonial Mixtec Community," Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 80, Feb. 2000 p. 39
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Pérez Jiménez & Jansen 2010, p.407-461
  16. ^ "Ancient Scripts: Mixtec". www.ancientscripts.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2006.
  17. ^ McEwan, Colin; et al. (2006). Turquoise Mosaics from Mexico. Durham: Duke University Press.
  18. ^ Headrick, Annabeth (1999). "The Street of the Dead ... It Really Was: Mortuary bundles at Teotihuacan". Ancient Mesoamerica. 10 (1): 69–85. doi:10.1017/S0956536199101044. JSTOR 26307065. S2CID 162410036.

Further reading

Media related to Mixtec at Wikimedia Commons