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Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federal republic comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital. Other major urban areas include Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BCE and is identified as one of the world's six cradles of civilization. In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha. Last were the Aztecs, who dominated the region in the century before European contact. In 1521, the Spanish Empire and its indigenous allies conquered the Aztec Empire from its capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), establishing the colony of New Spain. Over the next three centuries, Spain and the Catholic Church played an important role expanding the territory, enforcing Christianity and spreading the Spanish language throughout. With the discovery of rich deposits of silver in Zacatecas and Guanajuato, New Spain soon became one of the most important mining centers worldwide. Wealth coming from Asia and the New World contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next centuries, and brought about a price revolution in Western Europe. The colonial order came to an end in the early nineteenth century with the War of Independence against Spain. (Full article...)
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Pinguicula moranensis is a perennial rosette-forming insectivorous herb native to Mexico and Guatemala. A species of butterwort, it forms summer rosettes of flat, succulent leaves up to 10 centimeters (4 in) long, which are covered in mucilaginous (sticky) glands that attract, trap, and digest arthropod prey. Nutrients derived from the prey are used to supplement the nutrient-poor substrate that the plant grows in. In the winter the plant forms a non-carnivorous rosette of small, fleshy leaves that conserves energy while food and moisture supplies are low. Single pink, purple, or violet flowers appear twice a year on upright stalks up to 25 centimeters long.
The species was first collected by Humboldt
on the outskirts of Mina de Morán in the Sierra de Pachuca
of the modern-day Mexican state of Hidalgo
on their Latin American expedition
of 1799–1804. Based on these collections, Humboldt, Bonpland and Carl Sigismund Kunth
described this species in Nova Genera et Species Plantarum
in 1817. The extremely variable species has been redefined at least twice since, while several new species have been segregated from it based on various geographical or morphological
distinctions, although the legitimacy of some of these is still debated. P. moranensis
remains the most common and most widely distributed member of the Section Orcheosanthus
. It has long been cultivated for its carnivorous nature and attractive flowers, and is one of the most common butterworts
in cultivation. (Full article...
Selected article -
This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.
Mario Armando Ramírez Treviño (born 5 March 1962), commonly referred to by his aliases El Pelón and/or X-20, is a Mexican suspected drug lord and former leader of the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization.
In the early 2000s, Ramírez Treviño was a close associate of Jaime González Durán
), a founder and top leader of Los Zetas
drug cartel. In 2008, González Durán was arrested and sentenced to 35 years in prison; by 2010, Los Zetas, who were working as the armed wing of the Gulf Cartel, separated from the organization to operate independently. Both criminal organizations went to war with each other, but Ramírez Treviño remained in the Gulf Cartel. Under the tutelage of Samuel Flores Borrego
(El Metro 3
), he worked as the second-in-command for the criminal organization in Reynosa, Tamaulipas
. In an apparent power struggle within the Gulf Cartel
, however, El Metro 3
was killed, and he became the regional kingpin in September 2011. (Full article...
Selected biography -
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈdjeɣo riˈβeɾa]; December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957), was a prominent Mexican painter. His large frescoes helped establish the mural movement in Mexican and international art.
Between 1922 and 1953, Rivera painted murals
in, among other places, Mexico City
, and Cuernavaca
, Mexico; and San Francisco
, and New York City
, United States. In 1931, a retrospective exhibition of his works was held at the Museum of Modern Art
in New York; this was before he completed his 27-mural series known as Detroit Industry Murals
. (Full article...
In the news
- 6 September 2022 –
- Couy Griffin, a commissioner of Otero County, New Mexico, United States, is barred from public office by a state judge due to his involvement in the January 6 attack, which was determined to be an insurrection. This is the first time that the Fourteenth Amendment has been used in more than a century to ban a person who participated in an insurrection from serving in the government. (New York Times) (CNN)
- 5 September 2022 – 2022 Pacific hurricane season
- Three people are killed after Tropical Storm Kay strengthens into a hurricane in Mexico. (Reuters)
- 3 September 2022 – Illegal immigration to the United States
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection agents and Mexican police find nine migrants dead in the Rio Grande after dozens of migrants attempt to cross into Eagle Pass, Texas, United States. At least 70 other migrants are rescued. (AP)
- 1 September 2022 –
- Four people are killed and several others are injured after a mass shooting at a soccer field in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. (AP)
- 24 August 2022 – Mexican drug war
- Eight people are killed in a shooting between two criminal groups in Tuzantla, Michoacán, Mexico. (AP)
- 19 August 2022 – 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping
- A Mexican court issues the arrest warrants for 83 suspects, consisting of military personnel, police officers, administrative and judicial authorities, and members of the Guerreros Unidos syndicate, in connection with the abduction and disappearance of 43 students from the Ayotzinapa Rural Teachers' College in Iguala, Guerrero, on September 26, 2014. (CNN)
Selected fare or cuisine -
Mexican wine and wine making began with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, when they brought vines from Europe to modern day Mexico, the oldest wine-growing region in the Americas. Although there were indigenous grapes before the Spanish conquest, the Spaniards found that Spanish grapevines also did very well in the colony of New Spain (Mexico) and by the 17th century wine exports from Spain to the New World fell. In 1699, Charles II of Spain prohibited wine making in Mexico, with the exception of wine for Church purposes. From then until Mexico’s Independence, wine was produced in Mexico only on a small scale.
After Independence, wine making for personal purposes was no longer prohibited and production rose, especially in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many other European immigrant groups helped with the comeback of wine in Mexico. However, the Mexican Revolution
set back wine production, especially in the north of the country. Wine production in Mexico has been rising in both quantity and quality since the 1980s, although competition from foreign wines and 40% tax on the product makes competing difficult within Mexico. Mexico is not traditionally a wine-drinking country, but rather prefers beer
. Interest in Mexican wine, especially in the major cities and tourists areas (along with the introduction into the US on a small scale), has grown along with Mexican wines’ reputation throughout the world. Many Mexican companies have received numerous awards. Various wine producers from Mexico have won international awards for their products. In 2020, the wine Don Leo Gran Reserva Cabernet Sauvignon won gold in the International Cabernet competition (CIDC) and the trophy for the world's best Cabernet. The wine is produced in Parras, Coahuila in the Northwestern region of Mexico. (Full article...
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
Mexican Central Railway train at station, Mexico. (from
Leaders of the 1910 revolt pose for a photo after the
Partido Nacional Revolucionario
, with the colors of the Mexican flag (from History of Mexico
Logo of the
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790 (from
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the
The American occupation of
The National film library. (from
A map of Mexico 1845 after Texas annexation by U.S. (from
Northern Dance in Nuevo León (from
President Enrique Peña Nieto with President of China
are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities. (from History of Mexico
The identities of the
Maximilian receiving a Mexican delegation at
A pilot standing in front of his
The painting "Surrender of
, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum
. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs. (from History of Mexico
Shield Jaguar and
Miguel Hidalgo with a banner with the
Entry into Mexico City by the Mexican army. (from
Since the 16th century, the
Panel 3 from Cancuen, Guatemala, representing king
Alegoría de la Constitución de 1857
, Petronilo Monroy, 1869. (from History of Mexico
Variegated maize ears (from
occurred on September 25, 1866. between 350 soldiers of the Belgian
Legion and Juarista forces, ending the battle with the victory of the latter. (from History of Mexico
Club América vs Cruz Azul at the
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle. (from
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650–750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress. (from
Lázaro Cárdenas mural (from
Ingredients at a market in Mexico City, including
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution. (from
A detachment of Rurales during the Porfiriato (from
view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun
, from the Pyramid of the Moon
. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains. (from History of Mexico
, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology
, Mexico city
. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo (from History of Mexico
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700–1789) (from
President Vicente Fox with Prime Minister of India
Mexico City street market (from
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (
A unit of Cristeros preparing for battle. (from
portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya. (from History of Mexico
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900–1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of
sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stairs on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes
, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase. (from History of Mexico
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–900 CE. A temple to
Battle of Centla, first time a horse was used in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso,
was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
Three world leaders: (background, left to right) Mexican President
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850. (from
Mexican Army troops in the
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