United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
Seal of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.svg
Seal of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Flag of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.svg
Flag of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
Department of Housing and Urban Development.JPG

Robert C. Weaver Federal Building, Department Headquarters
Agency overview
FormedSeptember 9, 1965; 57 years ago (1965-09-09)
Preceding agency
JurisdictionFederal government of the United States
HeadquartersRobert C. Weaver Federal Building
451 7th Street SW, Washington, D.C.
38°53′2.17″N 77°1′21.03″W / 38.8839361°N 77.0225083°W / 38.8839361; -77.0225083Coordinates: 38°53′2.17″N 77°1′21.03″W / 38.8839361°N 77.0225083°W / 38.8839361; -77.0225083
Employees7,240 (FY2021 FTE)[1]
Annual budget$60.3 billion (FY2021)[note 1][2]
Agency executives
Websitewww.hud.gov

The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is one of the executive departments of the U.S. federal government. It administers federal housing and urban development laws. It is headed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, who reports directly to the President of the United States and is a member of the president's Cabinet.

Although its beginnings were in the House and Home Financing Agency, it was founded as a Cabinet department in 1965, as part of the "Great Society" program of President Lyndon B. Johnson, to develop and execute policies on housing and metropolises.

History

The idea of a department of Urban Affairs was proposed in a 1957 report to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, led by New York Governor Nelson D. Rockefeller.[3] The idea of a department of Housing and Urban Affairs was taken up by President John F. Kennedy, with Pennsylvania Senator and Kennedy ally Joseph S. Clark Jr. listing it as one of the top seven legislative priorities for the administration in internal documents. [4]

The department was established on September 9, 1965, when Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act[5] into law. It stipulated that the department was to be created no later than November 8, sixty days following the date of enactment. The actual implementation was postponed until January 14, 1966, following the completion of a special study group report on the federal role in solving urban problems.

HUD is administered by the U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Its headquarters is located in the Robert C. Weaver Federal Building. Some important milestones for HUD's development include:[6]

Agencies

Agencies

Offices

Corporation

Organizational structure

Major programs

The major program offices are:

Office of Inspector General

See also: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Inspector General

The United States Congress enacted the Inspector General Act of 1978 to ensure integrity and efficiency in government. The Inspector General is appointed by the President and subject to Senate confirmation. He or she is responsible for conducting and supervising audits, investigations, and inspections relating to the programs and operations of HUD. The OIG is to examine, evaluate and, where necessary, critique these operations and activities, recommending ways for the Department to carry out its responsibilities in the most effective, efficient, and economical manner possible.

The mission of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is to:[26]

The OIG accomplishes its mission by conducting investigations pertinent to its activities; by keeping Congress, the Secretary, and the public fully informed of its activities, and by working with staff (in this case of HUD) in achieving success of its objectives and goals. The Honorable Rae Oliver Davis, who was appointed on January 23, 2019, is the current Inspector General.[27]

Budget and staffing

The Department of Housing and Urban Development was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $48.3 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as outlined in the following chart.[28]

Program Funding (in billions)
Discretionary Spending
Management and Administration $1.9
Public and Indian Housing $28.7
Community Planning and Development $6.8
Housing Programs $11.7
Offsetting Receipts ($8.3)
Mandatory Spending
Mandatory Programs $7.3
Total $48.3

Criticisms

See also: Criticism of the United States government § Criticism of agencies

A scandal arose in the 1990s when at least 700 houses were sold for profit by real estate speculators taking the loans; at least 19 were arrested.[29][failed verification] The scandal devastated the Brooklyn and Harlem housing market and with $70 million in HUD loans going into default.[30] Critics said that the department's lax oversight of their program allowed the fraud to occur.[31] In 1997, the HUD Inspector General issued a report saying: "The program design encourages risky property deals, land sale, and refinance schemes, overstated property appraisals, and phony or excessive fees."[32] In June 1993, HUD Secretary Henry Cisneros admitted that "HUD has in many cases exacerbated the declining quality of life in America."[33] In 1996, Vice President Al Gore, referring to public housing projects, declared that, "These crime-infested monuments to a failed policy are killing the neighborhoods around them".[citation needed]

HUD Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing Roberta Achtenberg has been quoted as saying "HUD walks a tightrope between free speech and fair housing. We are ever mindful of the need to maintain the proper balance between these rights." Libertarian critic James Bovard commented that, "The more aggressive HUD becomes, the fewer free speech rights Americans have. Many words and phrases are now effectively forbidden in real estate ads... Apparently, there are two separate versions of the Bill of Rights -- one for private citizens and the other for federal bureaucrats and politicians".[34]

In 2006, The Village Voice named HUD "New York City's worst landlord" and "the #1 worst in the United States" based upon decrepit conditions of buildings and questionable eviction practices.[32]

In September 2010, HUD started auctioning off delinquent home mortgage loans, defined as at least 90 days past due, to the highest bidder. It sold 2,000 loans in six national auctions. In 2012, this sale was massively increased under a "Distressed Asset Stabilization Program" (DASP), and the 100,000 loans sold as of 2014 have netted $8.8 billion for the FHA, rebuilding cash reserves that had been depleted by loan defaults. The second stated and eponymous objective is to stabilize communities, by requiring purchasers to service the loans in a manner that stabilizes the surrounding communities by getting the loans to re-perform, renting the home to the borrower, gifting the property to a land bank or paying off the loans in full.[35] An audit published August 2014 found "only about 11 percent of the loans sold through DASP [were] considered 're-performing'".[35] "Rather than defaulting—[FHA] keeps many of the properties they’re tied to from going through the typical foreclosure process. As a result, the FHA might actually be diverting housing stock from first-time homebuyers, the very group it was formed to serve..."[35]

Related legislation

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For FY2021, $60.3 billion is the gross discretionary budget authority, which does not account for budgetary savings from offsets and other sources. The net discretionary budget authority, which does account for these savings, is $15 billion lower, at $45.3 billion. For more information, consult the "Totals" section on pages 1-3 of reference 2.

References

  1. ^ U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2021). 2022 Budget in Brief U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (PDF) (Report). U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2021. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  2. ^ Alyse N. Minter (July 22, 2021). Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): FY2022 Budget Request Fact Sheet (Report). Congressional Research Service. p. 3. Archived from the original on July 22, 2021. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  3. ^ "Urban affairs message, February 1962: 1-6 and undated (3 of 3 folders) | JFK Library". www.jfklibrary.org. Retrieved June 7, 2022.
  4. ^ "1960 | JFK Library". www.jfklibrary.org. Retrieved June 7, 2022.
  5. ^ Pub.L. 89–174
  6. ^ Basic Congressional and Presidential Actions Establishing Major HUD-related Programs Archived July 15, 2001, at archive.today. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
  7. ^ The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Archived January 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
  8. ^ "§ 1701a. — Short title of amendment of 1938. - US § 1701a. — Short title of amendment of 1938. - US Code :: Justia". law.justia.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2022. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
  9. ^ "HUD Interactive Timeline". www.huduser.org. Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
  10. ^ "Executive Order 9070 Establishing the National Housing Agency". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
  11. ^ Reckard, Scott (May 17, 2013). "HUD to shut down offices as a result of sequester". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 19, 2013. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
  12. ^ "Center for Faith Based and Neighborhood Partnerships/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  13. ^ "Departmental Enforcement Center/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  14. ^ "Congressional / Intergovernmental Relations/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  15. ^ "Field Policy / Management/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  16. ^ "General Counsel/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  17. ^ "Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  18. ^ "Office of Hearings and Appeals/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  19. ^ "null". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  20. ^ "HUDUser.gov - HUD USER". www.huduser.org. Archived from the original on May 21, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  21. ^ "Public Affairs/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  22. ^ "Small / Disadvantaged Business Utilization/U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  23. ^ "null". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  24. ^ "Project Based Vouchers - HUD". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on May 18, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  25. ^ "Section 184 Indian Home Loan Guarantee Program - HUD". portal.hud.gov. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  26. ^ "OIG Mission Statement" Archived September 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine HUD Office of the Inspector General
  27. ^ ""The Honorable Rae Oliver Davis"". Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  28. ^ 2016 Department of Housing and Urban Development Congressional Justification Archived June 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, pg 1-2, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Accessed June 19, 2015
  29. ^ Pristin, Terry (May 11, 2001). "HUD Scraps Cuomo Remedy for Harlem Housing Scandal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  30. ^ "HUD: The Horror Movie". The Village Voice. July 5, 2006. Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  31. ^ Pristin, Terry (April 2, 2001). "Housing Pledge by Cuomo Faces an Uncertain Future". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  32. ^ a b "NYC's 10 Worst Landlords". The Village Voice. July 5, 2006. Archived from the original on October 17, 2006.
  33. ^ ENGELBERG, STEPHEN (June 23, 1993). "Leader of H.U.D. Assesses It Harshly". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  34. ^ James Bovard (2000). Feeling Your Pain: The Explosion and Abuse Of Government Power in the Clinton-Gore Years. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 167, 175, 176. 0-312-23082-6.
  35. ^ a b c Mark Kurlyandchik (September 9, 2014). "Feds accused of selling out neighborhoods to Wall St. firms". Mark Kurlyandchik. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  36. ^ Armstrong, William L. (September 19, 1989). "S.Amdt.771 to H.R.2916 - 101st Congress (1989-1990)". www.congress.gov. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2020.