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This is a timeline of African-American history, the part of history that deals with African Americans.

The first African slaves in what would become the present day United States of America arrived on August 9, 1526.

During the American Revolution of 1776–1783, enslaved African Americans in the South escaped to British lines as they were promised freedom to fight with the British; additionally, many free blacks in the North fight with the colonists for the rebellion, and the Vermont Republic (a sovereign nation at the time) becomes the first future state to abolish slavery. Following the Revolution, numerous slaveholders in the Upper South free their slaves.

The importation of slaves became a felony in 1808.

After the American Civil War began in 1861, tens of thousands of enslaved African Americans of all ages escaped to Union lines for freedom. Later on, the Emancipation Proclamation was issued, formally freeing slaves in the Confederate States of America. After the American Civil War ended, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prohibits slavery (except as punishment for crime), was passed in 1865.

In the mid-20th century, the civil rights movement occurred, and racial segregation and discrimination was thus outlawed.

16th century

Main article: Slavery in the colonial history of the United States

1526

1565

17th century

1619

1640

1654

1662

1664

1670

1676

1685

18th century

See also: Atlantic slave trade

1705

1712

1738

1739

1753

1760

1770

1773

1774

1775

1776–1783 American Revolution

1777

1780

1781

1783

1787

1788

1790–1810 Manumission of slaves

1791

1793

1794

19th century

1800–1859

See also: Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War

Early 19th century

1800

1807

1808

1816

1817

1820

1821

1822

1827

1829

1830

1831

1832

1833

1837

1839

1840

1842

1843

1845

1847

1849

1850

1851

1852

1853

1854

1855

1856

1857

1859

1860–1874

1861

1862

1863–1877 Reconstruction Era

1863

1863 Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by Abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery.
1863 Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by Abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery.

1864

1865

1866

1867

1868

1870

1871

1872

1873

1874

1875–1899

1875

1876

1877

1879

1880

1881

1882

1883

1884

1886

1887

1890

1892

1893

1895

1896

1898

1899

20th century

1900–1949

1900

1901

1903

1904

1905

1906

1907

1908

1909

1910

1911

1913

1914 January 9 – Phi Beta Sigma fraternity was founded at Howard University

1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925–1949

1925

1926

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940s to 1970

1940

1941

1942

1943

1944

1945–1975 The Civil Rights Movement.

1945

1946

1947

1948

1949

1950–1959

[59]

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

Rosa Parks pictured in 1955
Rosa Parks pictured in 1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960–1969

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

The Edmund Pettus Bridge on "Bloody Sunday" in 1965.
The Edmund Pettus Bridge on "Bloody Sunday" in 1965.

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970–2000

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1994

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

21st century

2001–2010

2001

2002

2003

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011–2020

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2020

2021-2022

2021

2022

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Peck, Douglas T. (2001). "Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón's Doomed Colony of San Miguel de Gualdape". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 85 (2): 183–198. ISSN 0016-8297. JSTOR 40584407.
  2. ^ Milanich, Jerald T. (2018). Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. Gainesville: Library Press at UF. ISBN 978-1-947372-45-0. OCLC 1021804892.
  3. ^ Slavery in Colonial Georgia. Original entry by Betty Wood, Girton College, Cambridge, England, 09/19/2002. Last edited by NGE Staff on 09/29/2020. www.google.com/amp/s/m.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/slavery-colonial-georgia%3famp. Retrieved March. 15, 2021.
  4. ^ "Africans, Virginia's First – Encyclopedia Virginia". Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  5. ^ Jordan, Winthrop (1968). White Over Black: American attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807871419.
  6. ^ Higginbotham, A. Leon (1975). In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780195027457.
  7. ^ Donoghue, John (2010). "Out of the Land of Bondage": The English Revolution and the Atlantic Origins of Abolition" (PDF). The American Historical Review. 115 (4): 943–974. doi:10.1086/ahr.115.4.943.
  8. ^ "Slavery and Indentured Servants". Library of Congress, American Memory. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  9. ^ "John Punch". PBS. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  10. ^ John Henderson Russell. The Free Negro In Virginia, 1619–1865, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1913, pp. 29–30, scanned text online.
  11. ^ a b c d Ponder, Erik. "LibGuides: African American Studies Research Guide: Milestones in Black History". libguides.lib.msu.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  12. ^ Baker, Billy and Crimaldi, Laura. "Black and free, woman bought Boston parcel in 1670." Boston Globe, May 20, 2014. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  13. ^ Blackburn, Robin (1998). The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800. Verso. pp. 256–58. ISBN 9781859841952.
  14. ^ "Interactive Timeline 1619-2019 | 400 Years of Resistance to Slavery and Injustice". 400years.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  15. ^ Ferenc M. Szasz, "The New York Slave Revolt of 1741: A Re-Examination," New York History (1967): 215–230. in JSTOR
  16. ^ John K. Thornton, "African dimensions of the Stono rebellion," American Historical Review (1991): 1101–1113. in JSTOR
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  18. ^ Berry, Faith (2001). From Bondage to Liberation. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. p. 50. ISBN 0-8264-1370-6.
  19. ^ Rollins, Charlemae (1965). Famous American Negro Poets. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0396051294.
  20. ^ Kachun, Mitch (Summer 2009). "From Forgotten Founder to Indispensable Icon: Crispus Attucks, Black Citizenship, and Collective Memory". Journal of the Early Republic. 29 (2): 249–86. doi:10.1353/jer.0.0072. S2CID 144216986.
  21. ^ Kachun, Mitch (2017). First Martyr of Liberty: Crispus Attucks in American Memory. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199910861.
  22. ^ Phillis Wheatley: America's second Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers by Henry Louis Gates, Basic Civitas Books, 2003, p. 5.
  23. ^ MacLeod, Duncan J. (1974). Slavery, Race and the American Revolution. Cambridge UP. pp. 31–32.
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  25. ^ Cassadra Pybus, "Jefferson's Faulty Math: the Question of Slave Defections in the American Revolution", William and Mary Quarterly, 2005, 62#2: 243–264. in JSTOR
  26. ^ Allen, Robert S. (1982). Loyalist Literature: An Annotated Bibliographic Guide to the Writings on the Loyalists of the American Revolution. Dundurn. p. 30. ISBN 9780919670617.
  27. ^ Raboteau, Albert J. (2004). Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-517413-7. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  28. ^ Brooks, Walter H. (April 1, 1922). "The Priority of the Silver Bluff Church and its Promoters". The Journal of Negro History. 7 (2): 172–196. doi:10.2307/2713524. ISSN 0022-2992. JSTOR 2713524. S2CID 149920027.
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  31. ^ Wilbon, Roderick (April 28, 2017). "First Baptist Church of St. Louis, oldest African-American church west of the Mississippi River, celebrates its 200th anniversary". Retrieved 2022-02-14.
  32. ^ "First African Baptist Church History (S0006)" (PDF). State Historical Society of Missouri. 1974.
  33. ^ The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself: Electronic Edition. [1] page58
  34. ^ Wormley, G. Smith."Prudence Crandall", The Journal of Negro History Vol. 8, No. 1 January 1923.
  35. ^ "Connecticut's "Black Law" (1833)". Citizens All (project). Yale University. Archived from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2012-03-19. Lacking no legal means to prevent Prudence Crandall from opening her school, Andrew Judson, a local politician, pushed legislation through the Connecticut Assembly outlawing the establishment of schools 'for the instruction of colored persons belonging to other states and countries.'
  36. ^ "Morehouse Legacy". morehouse.edu. Morehouse College. Archived from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
  37. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. p. 292.
  38. ^ a b Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. p. 293.
  39. ^ John C. Willis, Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000
  40. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. pp. 295–296.
  41. ^ Williams, Yvonne, "Harvard", in Young, p. 99.
  42. ^ James D. Anderson, Black Education in the South, 1860–1935, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1988, pp. 244–245.
  43. ^ Sean Dennis Cashman (1992). African-Americans and the Quest for Civil Rights, 1900-1990. NYU Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 9780814714416.
  44. ^ a b Taylor, Quintard (ed.), "African American History Timeline: 1901-2000", BlackPast.org, Seattle, Washington, retrieved November 1, 2014
  45. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 41. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
  46. ^ Wolgemuth, Kathleen L. (April 1959). "Woodrow Wilson and Federal Segregation". The Journal of Negro History. Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc. 44 (2): 158–173. doi:10.2307/2716036. JSTOR 2716036. S2CID 150080604.
  47. ^ Blumenthal, Henry (January 1963). "Woodrow Wilson and the Race Question". The Journal of Negro History. Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc. 48 (1): 1–21. doi:10.2307/2716642. JSTOR 2716642. S2CID 149874271.
  48. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. p. 300.
  49. ^ Monroe H. Little, Review of James Madison's A Lynching in the Heartland, History-net Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  50. ^ Angela Y. Davis,Women, Race & Class. New York: Vintage Books, 1983, pp. 194–195.
  51. ^ "America's First Sit-Down Strike: The 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In". City of Alexandria. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  52. ^ "Divine's Followers Give Aid to Strikers – With Evangelist's Sanction They 'Sit Down' in Restaurant". The New York Times. US. September 23, 1939. Retrieved July 20, 2010. [The workers] are seeking wage increases, shorter hours, a closed shop and cessation of what they charge has been racial discrimination.
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  54. ^ Potter, Joan (2002). African American Firsts. Kensington. pp. 301–302.
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  56. ^ McGuire, Danielle L. (2010). At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance- A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. Random House. pp. xv–xvii. ISBN 978-0-307-26906-5.
  57. ^ a b c Jessie Carney Smith, ed. (2010). "Timeline". Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35797-8.
  58. ^ Morgan v. Virginia, 1946
  59. ^ For more detail during this period, see Freedom Riders website chronology
  60. ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009, pp. 154–55.
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  67. ^ Branch, pp. 555–556
  68. ^ Branch, pp. 756–765.
  69. ^ Branch, pp. 786–791.
  70. ^ UNITED STATES of America and Interstate Commerce Commission v. The City of Jackson, Mississippi, Allen Thompson, Douglas L. Lucky and Thomas B. Marshall, Commissioners of the City of Jackson, and W.D. Rayfield, Chief of Police of the City of Jackson, United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit, May 13, 1963.
  71. ^ "Northern City Site of Most Violent Negro Demonstrations", Rome News-Tribune (CWS), May 30, 1963.
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  95. ^ "Joe Biden selects California Sen. Kamala Harris as running mate". Associated Press. August 11, 2020. selecting the first African American woman and South Asian American to compete on a major party's presidential ticket
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Further reading