This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (June 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Black women are women of sub-Saharan African and Afro-diasporic descent, as well as women of Australian Aboriginal[1] and Melanesian descent. The term 'Black' is a racial classification of people, the definition of which has shifted over time and across cultures. As a result, the term 'Black women' describes a wide range of cultural identities with several meanings around the world.

Intersectionality and misogynoir

Main articles: Intersectionality and Misogynoir

Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw developed the theory of intersectionality, which highlighted the overlapping discrimination faced by Black women (on the basis of both race and gender) in the United States. The theory has been influential in the fields of feminism and critical race theory as a methodology for interpreting the ways in which overlapping social identities relate to systems of oppression.[2] More recently, the term misogynoir has been created to describe the specific effect of intersectionality on Black women.[3] Misogynoir is the term that is used to describe the overlapping cases of misogyny and racism. Examples of misogynoir experienced by Black women include the stereotype of the angry Black woman or Jezebel (stereotype that black women are more sexually promiscuous) and vulnerability to sex trafficking among others.[4] These more specific terms were created as Black women have been historically left out of movements for both racial justice and feminist equality.[5]

Womanism is a social theory based on the history and experiences of black women. Coined by Alice Walker, the concept now encompasses a spectrum of various fields, such as Africana womanism and womanist theology.[6]

Around the world

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2021)

Africa

Main article: Maputo Protocol

The 2003 Maputo Protocol on women's rights in Africa set the continental standard for progressive expansion of women's rights. It guarantees comprehensive rights to women, including the right to participate in the political process, social and political equality with men, autonomy in their reproductive health decisions, and an end to female genital mutilation (FGM).[7]

Ghana

Women in Ghana have been experiencing poverty at higher rates than their male counterparts as a result of less educational opportunities, elevated unemployment rates, and gender inequality.[8] Historically, Ghanaian culture has created the role of women to be in the home cooking, cleaning, and taking care of children.[9] Ghanaian women, on average, complete only primary school as a result of these societal expectations.[8] Men are primarily regarded as breadwinners and have more economic mobility as a result of their ability to carry on the family name and amass ownership of land, one of the highest forms of capital.[10] These societal conditions originated from European colonization of Ghana from the 15th century up until the 20th century.[11] The structural frameworks set up during those five centuries favored Eurocentric beauty standards, work ethic, and culture.[11] This fractured Ghanaian identity and customs, leading to harmful practices such as providing space for only men to further their education, secure a well-paying job, and be politically active. Some other examples includ only teaching women how to be suitable for men,[10] and promoting skin bleaching among women to become closer to whiteness.[11] After Ghana gained their independence in 1957 from Britain, women were not compensated for their inability to own land and gain foundational skills under colonial frameworks, creating the cycle of poverty.[11]

Ghana's patriarchal society, stemming from colonialism, has been impacting women not only economically but relationally as well.[10] Abuse is a prevalent component of polygamous and monogamous relationships in Ghana.[12] This normalization of domestic violence lends itself to the topic of sex trafficking in Ghana and how women are objectified through the male gaze and ultimately abused.[10] Sex trafficking in Ghana is very common as a result of poverty and lack of education and employment skills.[10] It can be hard for women to get out of being a sex worker because it might be viewed as the only way to provide for their families or themselves. The criminalization of sex work in Ghana also makes it difficult for women to escape abuse from their pimps and customers and seek help.[10]

Another factor that plays a role in the susceptibility of women being in poverty is the rise in female-headed households as a result of divorce, women becoming widows, or women being separated from their partners.[13] This has exacerbated the issue of poverty among women because they're unable to have access to the benefits of the socio-economic status men hold in Ghana.[13]

Economically, the majority of Ghanaian women are in the informal sector of Ghana's economy, meaning they are mostly self-employed.[13] Self-employment doesn't always guarantee a stable source of income, making it hard for women to make enough money to support themselves and their families.[13] Some of the prominent entrepreneurial jobs women take up in Ghana are hairdressing, dressmaking,[13] market trading,[14] and agriculture.[8] Market trading, especially, has been a good way for women to better their chances of getting out of poverty[14] because they are given the opportunity to take part in credit services, acquire insurance on their personal items, and build their savings.[15] According to Wrigley-Asante in her journal article, "Market women are considered the backbone of food distribution, ensuring food security for the urban economy".[14] Ghanaian women are very important contributors to Ghana's economy despite not having access to steady wages.[14]

Ghana's government has made strides to address the inequalities present within the culture by creating the WID (women in development) initiative in the 70's to cater to women's welfare, SAP (structural adjustment programs) in the 80's to help women in their productivity, and PAMSCAD (Program of Action to Mitigate the Social Costs of Adjustment) in the late 80's and early 90's to help boost the socioeconomic status of Ghanaian women.[13] These initiatives and programs ultimately failed because they were not addressing the root cause of poverty among women, and colonialism's lasting impacts has rendered the Ghanaian government ill-prepared to give the necessary resources to such complex programs.[16]

Women play a modest role in Ghana's two major political parties, the National Democratic Congress (NDC) and New Patriotic Party (NP), as well as in the Convention People's Party (CPP). The first president, Kwame Nkrumah (CPP), made Ghana the first African nation to introduce a quota in 1959, reserving 10 seats for women in Parliament. Ghana has recently been laggard, however, with a representation of 11% women after the election in 2012 and 13% after the election in 2016.[17]

Tunisia

In Tunisia, Black women are victims of double discrimination, facing prejudice both because of their gender and race.[18] Testimonial evidences complied by the Tunis-branch of Rosa Luxemburg Foundation presented cases of Black women being "stigmatised, hyper-sexualised, and objectified"[19] It has been noted that this sexualization of Black Tunisian women leads to them being viewed as objects by Arab men to "achieve sexual satisfaction" and face sexual harassment.[20]

The feminist movement in the Arab world—including Tunisia—has been labelled as racist, failing to take into consideration the issues of women who are not Arab; this has led to parallels between Arab feminism and White feminism.[21] In 2020, four Black Tunisian women created the Facebook group Voices of Tunisian Black Women in an attempt to bring to light these issues affecting them, which they felt were not being discussed in the Me Too movement.[18] Khawla Ksiksi, one of the group's founders, has stated that comments made by President Kais Saied in 2023 regarding Sub-Saharan migrants has worsened living conditions for Black Tunisians, with many Black Tunisian women participating in the "Carrying My Papers Just In Case" trend.[22]

Caribbean

Further information: Afro-Caribbean people

Caribbean society

Jennifer Palmer argues that in the plantation world of the colonial Caribbean, women of color were typically treated as property owned by White men. In the French islands, race and gender shape popular assumptions about who could own property. However, there were legal loopholes that sometimes opened up windows of opportunity for women of color to be landowners.[23]

United States

Further information: African Americans

According to the American Community Survey from the US Census Bureau, the Black female population in the United States was 21.7 million in 2018. [24]

American slavery

Main articles: Slavery in the United States and Treatment of slaves in the United States

Black slaves, many of whom were women, often faced severe abuse from their owners and other non-black people.[25] Black female slaves were sexually abused by their white male owners and were bred with them in order to bear mulatto children in an attempt to maintain White supremacy, have more slaves to pick cotton and produce superior slaves in the South.[26] Black female slaves received the same treatment in Brazil, Central America, Mexico, Peru and the Caribbean.[27][28] An example of this is former president and slave owner Thomas Jefferson who fathered mixed-race children with Sally Hemings, a slave that he owned.[29] Black slave women and their bodies were also fetishized by their white male slave owners.[30][31]

Enslaved black women had no legal means to protect and prevent themselves from sexual assault by white men and their white slave owners. In 1855 in Missouri, an enslaved Black woman named Celia was convicted of murder and executed by hanging for killing a white man who had raped and enslaved her. The court had rejected her self-defense claim, stating that enslaved Black women had no right to resist their white enslavers’ sexual advances. Black women were also killed and lynched by white people. In May 1870, 15 white men raped a Black woman while other members of the white mob lynched and killed her husband.[32]

Entrepreneurship

According to State of Women Owned Business report of 2020, Black women are the fastest growing entrepreneur group in the United States,[33] creating many innovative businesses across the nation.[33] Despite their entrepreneurial achievements, Black women continue to face racism and discriminatory barriers in business buildings.[34]

Education

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, Black women are among the most educated in the United States of America.[35][36]

Self-Esteem and Confidence

Black women have higher self-confidence and self-esteem than any group of women, according to a survey by Glamour and L’Oreal Paris, along with Dr. Jean Twenge, Ph.D., a researcher on the effects of race and self-confidence. Racism and discrimination haven’t created a downturn in how Black women view themselves.[37] Black women also have a more positive outlook on their physical appearances versus white women.[38] This self-esteem and confidence is celebrated in what is known as "Black Girl Magic".

Hair

Black women’s hair, which is of various textures,[39] has deep cultural meanings, ranging from political statements to pride, beauty, and fashion.[40] Despite there being a lack of education in Black American hair and why Black women choose particular hairstyles and products, cosmetologists and educators have paved the way for greater education in this area, for example, bringing awareness to the fact that Black hair doesn’t create its own oil like white hair does which creates a need for Black women’s hair to be treated with moisturizers and oils for it to remain healthy.[39][41][42]

Because of greater education in Black women’s hair, the United States Army lifted a ban on dreadlocks, which were previously banned.[43] The Navy, Air Force, and Army now allow two-strand twists as well as braids at an increased size.[44] The latter change came after a fight against hair discrimination.

Increased risk for health problems

Black women are often at a higher risk of contracting certain diseases than White women are. According to the American Cancer Society, the death rate for all cancers for Black women is 14% higher than that of White women.[45] While the probability of being diagnosed with cancer in Black women is one in three, the chance of dying from cancer is one in five.[45] Cancer is not the only disease that disproportionately affects African-American women. Black women are three times more likely to develop uterine fibroids. Lupus is two-three times more common in women of color, but more specifically, one in every 537 Black women will have lupus.[46] Black women are also at a higher chance of being overweight thus making them open to more obesity-related diseases.[47] There is also a racial disparity when it comes to pregnancy-related deaths. While there are 12.4 deaths for every 100,000 births for White women, the statistics for Black women is 40.0 deaths for every 100,000 births.[48] In a 2007 US study of five medical complications that are common causes of maternal death and injury, Black women were two to three times more likely to die than White women who had the same condition.[49] The World Health Organization in 2014 estimated that Black expectant and new mothers in the United States die at about the same rate as women in countries such as Mexico and Uzbekistan.[50] A 2018 study found that "The sexual and reproductive health of African-American women has been compromised due to multiple experiences of racism, including discriminatory healthcare practices from slavery through the post-Civil Rights era."[51] Another 2018 study found that darker skin tones were underrepresented in medical textbook imagery and that these omissions "may provide one route through which bias enters medical treatment".[52] Black women are more likely to die from breast cancer.[53] Black women are also more likely to die from diabetes.[54] Black women have higher rates of HIV than white and Hispanic women.[55] Black women have the highest risk for genital herpes.[56] Black women also have higher rates of chlamydia than white women.[57] Trichomoniasis is more common among African American women.[58] Black women are more likely to die from cervical cancer.[59]

Discrimination, racism and sexism put black women at risk for low-income jobs, multiple role strain and health problems which is associated with mental illnesses.[60] Black women with depression are more likely to experience sleep disturbances, self-criticism, and irritability.[61]

60% of black women have been molested or sexually abused before age 18 by a black man.[62]

Brazil

Main article: Afro-Brazilians

Black women make up 28% of the Brazilian population and still suffer discrimination in Brazil. The legacy of slavery and mistreatment of Black women during the Portuguese colonial era is still dealt with today.[63][64] Interracial marriage between Black women and white Portuguese men was common in Brazil.[65] Black women were often raped by white men in Brazil in effort to whiten the Brazilian population.[66]

Famous leaders

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2021)

Some of the most important[clarification needed] artistic and political leaders in history have been Black women. For instance, Queen Qalhata and Candace of Meroe are important early African queens.[67][68]

Thus far, 21 Black women have been elected or appointed as head of a UN recognized state, all of which have been in Africa or the Caribbean. The first Black woman to be appointed head of state was Elisabeth Domitien, who served as the Prime Minister of the Central African Republic from January 1975 to April 1976. The longest-serving Black woman head of government was Eugenia Charles, who served as the head of government for Dominica for nearly 15 years, from July 1980 to June 1995. President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf served as President of Liberia for 12 years.[69]

In 2021, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala became the first Black woman to lead a major multilateral organization when she was appointed Director-General of the World Trade Organization.[70]

Four Black women have been awarded Nobel Prizes. Toni Morrison was the first Black woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize when, in 1993, she was awarded the prize for literature. Wangari Maathai was the first Black woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize which she received in 2004.[71] Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymah Gbowee shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Tawakkol Karman in 2011.[72]

In the United States, Toni Morrison was the first Black woman Nobel laureate. Shirley Chisholm was an important Democratic candidate for U.S. President in the 1970s. In the 2020 United States presidential election, Kamala Harris was named Joe Biden's running mate, making her the first Black and South Asian woman to be on a major party ticket. Biden won the election, making Harris the first Black/South Asian person and Black/South Asian woman to be Vice President of the United States.[73] With Justice Stephen Breyer's announcement of his intention to retire at the end of the 2021–22 term, President Joe Biden nominated Ketanji Brown Jackson to succeed him as Supreme Court justice.[74] She was confirmed by the United States Senate in a 53–47 vote on April 7, 2022, and took her seat on June 30, 2022.[75]

As leaders in the Civil Rights movements over the course of time, Ida B. Wells led an anti-lynching movement in the United States of America and founded the Alpha Suffrage Club.[76] Betsy Stockton paved the way for non-royals in Hawaii to gain access to an education by founding the first non-Royal school in Maui and all of Hawaii in 1823.[77]

LGBT black women

Main article: African-American LGBT community

One survey found that 23% of black women aged 18 to 34 identify as bisexual in the United States.[78] Black women are increasingly identifying as bisexual.[79] Lesbian marriage is also increasing among black women.[80] Black trans women often face high levels of discrimination.[81][82][83]

Discrimination

See also: Discrimination based on skin color

Black women often experience both racism and sexism.[84][85][86]

Dark-skinned black women often face more discrimination than light-skinned black women due to colorism. When Black women were enslaved in America, the sexual assault of Black women produced light-skinned children, who were afforded more privileges than their darker skinned mothers, although they were seldom acknowledged as legitimate children.[87] Light-skinned black women have more privileges and advantages than dark-skinned black women.[88] Lighter skinned black women are also more likely to be married than dark-skinned black women because light skin is associated with status and beauty.[87] Light-skinned black women are more represented in the media than dark-skinned black women.[89]

Studies of human attractiveness have consistently shown that black women are rated as less attractive than white, Asian and Latina women in the United States.[90] In studies of heterosexual men's preferences in the United States, black women are the least desired group of women, followed by white women and Latina women, while Asian women are the most desired women.[91][92][93][94] However, black men showed a strong preference for black women in dating, preferring them over white women.[91] Nevertheless they still preferred Asian women over black women,[95] and Asian, Latino and White men preferred any race over black women.[91] It has been proposed that discrimination against black women in dating is linked to anti-black stereotypes in the media.[92] Black women have also long been viewed as more 'sexual' than other races of women (a phenomenon known as the 'Jezebel' stereotype) which can make men less interested long term relationships with black women.[96]

Transgendered black women are more likely to get killed due to discrimination and transphobia.[97]

Stereotypes

Further information: Stereotypes of African Americans

Minstrel shows often portrayed African American women as loud, masculine, aggressive, naive, subserviently-caring, and obnoxious.[98] Black women were also stereotyped and portrayed as promiscuous Jezebels.[99] Black women are also often stereotyped to be poor, uneducated, young, overweight, single mothers who are gold diggers and welfare queens.[100]

See also

References

  1. ^ Morris, Bilal G. (May 24, 2022). "The Aboriginal Australians: The First Inhabitants Of Australia Were Black People". newsone.com. Newsone. Retrieved September 21, 2022. [T]he first people to roam the lands of Australia were black migrants who arrived on the continent almost 80,000 years ago.
  2. ^ Adewunmi, Bim (April 2, 2014). "Kimberlé Crenshaw on intersectionality: "I wanted to come up with an everyday metaphor that anyone could use"". New Statesman. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  3. ^ Anyangwe, Eliza (October 5, 2015). "Misogynoir: where racism and sexism meet". The Guardian. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  4. ^ Page, Cheryl (January 1, 2019). "The Double Whammy of Being Female and African-American: How Black Women are More Vulnerable to Trafficking and Other Forms of Discrimination". Journal Publications.
  5. ^ "The Routledge Companion to Black Women's Cultural Histories". Routledge & CRC Press. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  6. ^ "Womanism". bmrc.lib.uchicago.edu.
  7. ^ Christine Ocran, "The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa." African Journal of International and Comparative Law 15.1 (2007): 147–152.
  8. ^ a b c Amu N., Judith (2005). The Role of Women in Ghana’s Economy. Ghana: Friedrich Ebert Foundation. pp.16–26.
  9. ^ Bukari, Francis Issahaku Malongza; Apusigah, Agnes Atia; Abagre, Cynthia Itboh (2017). "Affirmative Action as a Strategy for Promoting Women's Participation in Politics in the Frafra Traditional Area of Ghana". Ghana Journal of Development Studies. 14 (2): 121–141. doi:10.4314/gjds.v14i2.7. ISSN 0855-6768. S2CID 158938608.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Ansah, Nancy (2006). "Structural relations of the sex trade and its link to trafficking: The case of Ghana". Agenda: 100–103. doi:10.1080/10130950.2006.9674782 (inactive August 10, 2023). ISSN 1013-0950 – via Taylor & Francis Online.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of August 2023 (link)
  11. ^ a b c d Utsey, Shawn O.; Abrams, Jasmine A.; Opare-Henaku, Annabella; Bolden, Mark A.; Williams, Otis (May 21, 2014). "Assessing the Psychological Consequences of Internalized Colonialism on the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adults in Ghana". Journal of Black Psychology. 41 (3): 195–220. doi:10.1177/0095798414537935. ISSN 0095-7984. S2CID 146178551.
  12. ^ Tenkorang, Eric Y. (May 1, 2023). "Family Structure and Marital Violence among Women in Ghana". Journal of Family Violence. 38 (4): 723–734. doi:10.1007/s10896-022-00385-7. ISSN 1573-2851. S2CID 247585867.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Awumbila, Mariama (October 1, 2006). "Gender equality and poverty in Ghana: implications for poverty reduction strategies". GeoJournal. 67 (2): 149–161. doi:10.1007/s10708-007-9042-7. ISSN 1572-9893. S2CID 154300298.
  14. ^ a b c d Wrigley-Asante, Charlotte; Owusu, George; Amu, Jane B.; Commodore, Tracy S. (2021). "Crime and safety in urban public spaces: Experiences of Ghanaian women traders in the Makola market in Accra, Ghana". The Geographical Journal. 188 (1): 76–90. doi:10.1111/geoj.12423. ISSN 0016-7398. S2CID 243788714.
  15. ^ Scheiterle, Lilli; Birner, Regina (November 13, 2018). "Assessment of Ghana's Comparative Advantage in Maize Production and the Role of Fertilizers". Sustainability. 10 (11): 4181. doi:10.3390/su10114181. ISSN 2071-1050.
  16. ^ "The Politics of Reform in Ghana, 1982–1991". publishing.cdlib.org. Retrieved May 7, 2023.
  17. ^ Diana Højlund Madsen, "Gender, Power and Institutional Change–The Role of Formal and Informal Institutions in Promoting Women’s Political Representation in Ghana." Journal of Asian and African Studies 54.1 (2019): 70–87.
  18. ^ a b Bajec, Alessandra (November 19, 2020). "Giving a voice to Tunisia's Black women, victims of double discrimination". Radio France Internationale. Archived from the original on February 20, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  19. ^ Bajec, Alessandra (December 29, 2020). "The Black Tunisian women fighting 'double discrimination'". openDemocracy. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  20. ^ ElHajjaji, Chouaib (April 17, 2018). "Black Tunisian women: ceaseless erasure and post-racial illusion". openDemocracy. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  21. ^ Alghoul, Diana (April 1, 2017). "Why is the Arab feminist movement so racist?". Middle East Monitor. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  22. ^ Lungumbu, Sandrine (June 7, 2023). "Tunisian black women: 'My skin colour says I don't belong'". BBC. Archived from the original on December 25, 2023. Retrieved December 27, 2023.
  23. ^ Jennifer L. Palmer, "The fruits of their labours: Race, gender and labour in the eighteenth-century French Caribbean." French History 32.4 (2018): 471–492.
  24. ^ "Black Women Statistics". BlackDemographics.com. Retrieved August 5, 2023.
  25. ^ Greenberg, Kenneth S; White, Deborah Gray; Harris, J. William (1987). "Black Women and White Men in the Antebellum South". Reviews in American History. 15 (2): 252. doi:10.2307/2702176. JSTOR 2702176.
  26. ^ "Slavery in the U.S. | Boundless US History". courses.lumenlearning.com.
  27. ^ see "American Slavery in Comparative Perspective" (2019)online
  28. ^ David Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine, eds. More than chattel: Black women and slavery in the Americas (Indiana University Press, 1996).
  29. ^ Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. Thomas Jefferson Foundation.
  30. ^ "Commodification of the Black Body, Sexual Objectification and Social Hierarchies during Slavery" (PDF). Spring 2015.
  31. ^ Holmes, Caren M. (2016). "The Colonial Roots of the Racial Fetishization of Black Women". Black & Gold. 2.
  32. ^ "Sexual Violence Targeting Black Women". Equal Justice Initiative Reports. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  33. ^ a b "The Atlanta Voice 04 Dec 2020, page 13". Newspapers.com. Retrieved June 20, 2023.
  34. ^ "Quad-City Times 12 Sep 2021, page D3". Newspapers.com. Retrieved June 20, 2023.
  35. ^ "New Study Shows Black Women Are Among The Most Educated In U.S." Essence. October 27, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2023.
  36. ^ "The Miami Herald 05 Sep 2021, page A9". Newspapers.com. Retrieved June 24, 2023.
  37. ^ "Why Black Women Are More Confident Than Any Other Group of Females". Glamour. August 1, 2017. Retrieved June 24, 2023.
  38. ^ Parker, Lonnae O'Neal (February 27, 2012). "Black women heavier and happier with their bodies than white women, poll finds". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 24, 2023.
  39. ^ a b "The Spokesman-Review 12 Apr 2007, page 45". Newspapers.com. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  40. ^ "The Sacramento Bee 06 Jul 2005, page E2". Newspapers.com. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  41. ^ "Public Opinion 06 Feb 2001, page 14". Newspapers.com. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  42. ^ "The Journal News 30 Jul 2016, page 31". Newspapers.com. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  43. ^ Mele, Christopher (February 10, 2017). "Army Lifts Ban on Dreadlocks, and Black Servicewomen Rejoice". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  44. ^ Rhodan, Maya (August 13, 2014). "U.S. Military Rolls Back Restrictions on Black Hairstyles". Time. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  45. ^ a b "Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans" (PDF). Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  46. ^ "Lupus facts and statistics". Lupus Foundation of America. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  47. ^ Gillum, Richard F. (1987–2008). "Overweight and Obesity in Black Women: A Review of Published Data From The National Center for Health Statistics". Journal of the National Medical Association. 79 (8): 865–871. ISSN 0027-9684. PMC 2625572. PMID 3508218.
  48. ^ "Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System | Maternal and Infant Health | CDC". www.cdc.gov. August 7, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  49. ^ Tucker, Myra J.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Callaghan, William M.; Hsia, Jason (2007). "The Black–White Disparity in Pregnancy-Related Mortality From 5 Conditions: Differences in Prevalence and Case-Fatality Rates". American Journal of Public Health. American Public Health Association. 97 (2): 247–251. doi:10.2105/ajph.2005.072975. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1781382. PMID 17194867.
  50. ^ Organization, World Health (May 12, 2014). "World health statistics 2014: a wealth of information on global public health". apps.who.int. hdl:10665/112739. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  51. ^ Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Jeffries, William L.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Howell, A. Vyann; Belyue-Umole, Angela; King, Winifred (September 24, 2018). "Racism, African American Women, and Their Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Historical and Contemporary Evidence and Implications for Health Equity". Health Equity. 2 (1): 249–259. doi:10.1089/heq.2017.0045. ISSN 2473-1242. PMC 6167003. PMID 30283874.
  52. ^ Louie, Patricia; Wilkes, Rima (April 2018). "Representations of race and skin tone in medical textbook imagery". Social Science & Medicine. 202: 38–42. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.02.023. PMID 29501717.
  53. ^ "Cancer Facts & Figures for African American/Black People". American Cancer Society. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  54. ^ "Diabetes and African Americans - the Office of Minority Health".
  55. ^ "HIV hits black women hardest, CDC report says". www.nbcnews.com. May 9, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  56. ^ "African Americans Disproportionately Affected by STDs". www.cdc.gov. April 24, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  57. ^ "African Americans/Blacks | Health Disparities | CDC". www.cdc.gov. December 14, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  58. ^ Bassey, Glory B.; Clarke, Andrea I. L.; Elhelu, Oumsalama K.; Lee, Clarence M. (February 1, 2022). "Trichomoniasis, a new look at a common but neglected STI in African descendance population in the United States and the Black Diaspora. A review of its incidence, research prioritization, and the resulting health disparities". Journal of the National Medical Association. 114 (1): 78–89. doi:10.1016/j.jnma.2021.12.007. PMID 35042602. S2CID 245995585. Retrieved January 1, 2024 – via ScienceDirect.
  59. ^ "African American women and cervical cancer: What to know". www.medicalnewstoday.com. March 31, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  60. ^ Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M. (October 1, 2009). "African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors". Research in Nursing & Health. 32 (5): 480–492. doi:10.1002/nur.20344. PMC 2854624. PMID 19650070.
  61. ^ Communications, NYU Web. "Depression May Look Different in Black Women". www.nyu.edu. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  62. ^ "Study: 60 Percent of Black Females Are Sexually Abused Before They Turn 18". BET.
  63. ^ Black Women Are Now the Largest Group in Brazil's Public Universities, Folha de S.Paulo, August 9, 2021. Translated by Kiratiana Freelon.
  64. ^ Newman-Bremang, Kathleen (March 4, 2020). "The Danger Of Being A Black Woman In Brazil". Refinery29.
  65. ^ Esteve, Albert; Edward Telles. "Racial Intermarriage in the Americas: Comparing Brazil, Cuba and the United States".
  66. ^ Funari, Pedro Paulo A.; Hall, Martin; Jones, Sian (March 7, 2013). Historical Archaeology: Back from the Edge - Page 329. Routledge. ISBN 9781134816163.
  67. ^ Vercoutter, Jean (January 1, 1976). The Image of the Black in Western art. Morrow. ISBN 9780688030865.
  68. ^ Walker, Robin (January 1, 2006). When We Ruled: The Ancient and Mediœval History of Black Civilisations. Every Generation Media. ISBN 9780955106804.
  69. ^ "Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf". Forbes.
  70. ^ "WTO Director-General: Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala". www.wto.org. Retrieved November 20, 2023.
  71. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2004". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved November 20, 2023.
  72. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2011". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved November 20, 2023.
  73. ^ Lerer, Lisa; Ember, Sydney (November 7, 2020). "Kamala Harris Makes History as First Woman and Woman of Color as Vice President". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  74. ^ Lerer, Lisa; Ember, Sydney (February 25, 2022). "President Biden Nominates Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson to Serve as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court". The White House. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  75. ^ Hulse, Carl; Karni, Annie (April 7, 2022). "The Senate confirms Jackson, elevating the first Black woman to the Supreme Court". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 7, 2022.
  76. ^ History, Black Entrepreneur (March 25, 2023). "Ida B. Wells - Antilynching Leader & Journalist". Black Entrepreneur History. Retrieved June 24, 2023.
  77. ^ History, Black Entrepreneur (March 20, 2021). "Betsy Stockton - Founder of Hawaii's First Non-Royal School in 1800s". Black Entrepreneur History. Retrieved June 24, 2023.
  78. ^ Bridges, Tristan; Mignon R. Moore (June 14, 2019). "23% of young black women now identify as bisexual". Chicago Reporter.
  79. ^ Wallace, Sara (July 31, 2019). "Why Are Black Women Increasingly Identifying as Bisexual?". The Gospel Coalition.
  80. ^ Walker, Dionne N. (March 9, 2021). "'Black Women Are Marrying—We're Marrying Each Other:' Lesbian Marriage Grows as Black Women Defy Marriage Trends". The Reckoning.
  81. ^ "United States: Transgender People at Risk of Violence". Human Rights Watch. November 18, 2021.
  82. ^ Forestiere, Annamarie (September 23, 2020). "America's War on Black Trans Women". Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review.
  83. ^ Ao, Bethany (June 25, 2020). "Black trans communities suffer a greater mental-health burden from discrimination and violence". The Philadelphia Inquirer.
  84. ^ "Racism and Sexism Combine to Shortchange Working Black Women". August 22, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  85. ^ "Black Women Are Believed Less Than Others with Discrimination Claims". www.fuqua.duke.edu. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  86. ^ "It's Not Just a "Black Thing:" Black Women in the Law and Issues of Double Identity and Discrimination". american.edu.
  87. ^ a b "The Origins of Colorism and How This Bias Persists in America". ThoughtCo. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  88. ^ Moore, K. R.; Williams, D. R.; Baird, D. D. (2020). "Disparities by Skin Color among Young African-American Women". Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 8 (4): 1002–1011. doi:10.1007/s40615-020-00856-x. PMC 8351471. PMID 32888171.
  89. ^ "Colourism: Do light-skinned black women have it easier in showbiz?". June 3, 2018.
  90. ^ Flockhart, T.R.; Reiter, A.; Hassett, M.R. (2022). The Reproduction and Maintenance of Inequalities in Interpersonal Relationships. Advances in Psychology, Mental Health, and Behavioral Studies. IGI Global. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-6684-4130-5. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  91. ^ a b c Stewart, D.M. (2020). Black Women, Black Love: America's War on African American Marriage. Basic Books. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-58005-816-2. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  92. ^ a b "Why black women and Asian men are at a disadvantage when it comes to online dating". Toronto Star. White men: congratulations! Women of every racial background seem to strongly prefer dating you. Asian and Latin women are most popular with the gents. Black women and Asian men are the two groups most notably at a dating disadvantage.
  93. ^ Bruch, Elizabeth E.; Newman, M. E. J. (August 3, 2018). "Aspirational pursuit of mates in online dating markets". Science Advances. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 4 (8): eaap9815. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aap9815. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 6082652. PMID 30101188.
  94. ^ Meyer, Robinson (August 10, 2018). "Dude, She's (Exactly 25 Percent) Out of Your League". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 25, 2023. Across the four cities and the thousands of users, consistent patterns around age, race, and education level emerge. White men and Asian women are consistently more desired than other users, while black women rank anomalously lower.
  95. ^ Chow, Kat; Hu, Elise (November 30, 2013). "Odds Favor White Men, Asian Women On Dating App". NPR. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  96. ^ "Dating while Black: Online, but Invisible". UC Press. February 14, 2021. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  97. ^ "Black Trans Women Are Being Murdered in the Streets. Now the Trump Administration Wants to Turn Us Away From Shelters and Health Care. | ACLU". May 24, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  98. ^ "Breaking Down the Stereotypes: Celebrating The Black Woman | The Women's Network". www.thewomens.network. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  99. ^ "The Jezebel Stereotype - Anti-black Imagery - Jim Crow Museum". jimcrowmuseum.ferris.edu. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  100. ^ Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci (September 1, 2016). "Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 40 (3): 414–427. doi:10.1177/0361684315627459. PMC 5096656. PMID 27821904.

Further reading