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Black Chicagoans
2017 Chicago data represents the African American population by Census Tract
Total population
757,971[1] (2021, est.)
Regions with significant populations
Southside Chicago, Westside Chicago, South Suburbs[2]
Inland Northern American English, African-American Vernacular English, African languages
Black Protestant[3]
Related ethnic groups
Black Southerners who migrated to Chicago during the Great Migration, Black Caribbeans, African immigrants
DuSable Museum of African American History in Chicago's Washington Park

The history of African Americans in Chicago or Black Chicagoans dates back to Jean Baptiste Point du Sable's trading activities in the 1780s. Du Sable, the city's founder, was Haitian of African and French descent.[4] Fugitive slaves and freedmen established the city's first black community in the 1840s. By the late 19th century, the first black person had been elected to office.

The Great Migrations from 1910 to 1960 brought hundreds of thousands of Black Americans from the South to Chicago, where they became an urban population. They created churches, community organizations, businesses, music, and literature. African Americans of all classes built a community on the South Side of Chicago for decades before the Civil Rights Movement, as well as on the West Side of Chicago. Residing in segregated communities, almost regardless of income, the Black residents of Chicago aimed to create communities where they could survive, sustain themselves, and have the ability to determine for themselves their own course in the History of Chicago.[5]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, African Americans accounted for 29% of the city's population, or approximately 800,000 people as of the 2020 census. The metro area had nearly 1.6 million African Americans.[6]

The black population in Chicago has been shrinking. Many black Chicagoans have moved to the suburbs or Southern cities such as Atlanta, Dallas, Houston, Birmingham, Memphis, San Antonio and Jackson.[7][8]

Chicago also has a foreign-born black population. Many of the African immigrants in Chicago are from Ethiopia and Nigeria.[9]



Further information: Slavery in Illinois

Jean Baptiste Point du Sable was a Haitian of French and African descent.[10]

Mary Richardson Jones, a prominent member of Chicago's black community, in 1865

Although du Sable's settlement was established in the 1780s, African Americans would only become established as a community in the 1840s, with the population reaching 1,000 by 1860. Much of this population consisted of escaped slaves from the Upper South. Following the end of Reconstruction in 1877, African Americans flowed from the Deep South into Chicago, raising the population from approximately 4,000 in 1870 to 15,000 in 1890.[11]

In 1853, John A. Logan helped pass a law to prohibit all African Americans, including freedmen, from settling in the state. However, in 1865, the state repealed its "Black Laws" and became the first to ratify the 13th Amendment, partly due to the efforts of John and Mary Jones, a prominent and wealthy activist couple.[12]

Especially after the Civil War, Illinois had some of the most progressive anti-discrimination legislation in the nation.[13] School segregation was first outlawed in 1874, and segregation in public accommodations was first outlawed in 1885.[13] In 1870, Illinois extended voting rights to African-American men for the first time, and in 1871, John Jones, a tailor and Underground Railroad station manager who successfully lobbied for the repeal of the state's Black Laws, became the first African-American elected official in the state, serving as a member of the Cook County Commission. By 1879, John W. E. Thomas of Chicago became the first African American elected to the Illinois General Assembly, beginning the longest uninterrupted run of African-American representation in any state legislature in U.S. history. After the Great Chicago Fire, Chicago mayor Joseph Medill appointed the city's first black fire company of nine men and the first black police officer.

Great Migration

Main article: Great Migration (African American)

Chicago was the "Promised Land" to black Southerners. 500,000 African Americans moved to Chicago.[14]

The black population in Chicago significantly increased in the early to mid-1900s, due to the Great Migration out of the South. While African Americans made up less than two percent of the city's population in 1910, by 1960 the city was nearly 25 percent black.

As the 20th century began, southern states succeeded in passing new constitutions and laws that disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites. Deprived of the right to vote, they could not sit on juries or run for office. They were subject to discriminatory laws passed by white legislators, including racial segregation of public facilities. Segregated education for black children and other services were consistently underfunded in a poor, agricultural economy. As white-dominated legislatures passed Jim Crow laws to re-establish white supremacy and create more restrictions in public life, violence against blacks increased, with lynchings used as extrajudicial enforcement. In addition, the boll weevil infestation ruined much of the cotton industry. Voting with their feet, blacks started migrating out of the South to the North, where they could live more freely, get their children educated, and get new jobs.[15]

Industry buildup for World War I pulled thousands of workers to the North, as did the rapid expansion of railroads, and the meatpacking and steel industries. Between 1915 and 1960, hundreds of thousands of black southerners migrated to Chicago to escape violence and segregation, and to seek economic freedom. They went from being a mostly rural population to one that was mostly urban. "The migration of African Americans from the rural south to the urban north became a mass movement."[16] The Great Migration radically transformed Chicago, both politically and culturally.[17]

From 1910 to 1940, most African Americans who migrated north were from rural areas. They had been chiefly sharecroppers and laborers, although some were landowners pushed out by the boll weevil disaster. After years of underfunding of public education for blacks in the South, they tended to be poorly educated, with relatively low skills to apply to urban jobs. Like the European rural immigrants, they had to rapidly adapt to a different urban culture. Many took advantage of better schooling in Chicago and their children learned quickly. After 1940, when the second larger wave of migration started, black migrants tended to be already urbanized, from southern cities and towns. They were the most ambitious, better educated with more urban skills to apply in their new homes.

The masses of new migrants arriving in the cities captured public attention. At one point in the 1940s, 3,000 African Americans were arriving every week in Chicago—stepping off the trains from the South and making their ways to neighborhoods they had learned about from friends and the Chicago Defender.[18] The Great Migration was charted and evaluated. Urban white northerners started to get worried, as their neighborhoods rapidly changed. At the same time, recent and older ethnic immigrants competed for jobs and housing with the new arrivals, especially on the South Side, where the steel and meatpacking industries had the most numerous working-class jobs.

With Chicago's industries steadily expanding, opportunities opened up for new migrants, including Southerners, to find work. The railroad and meatpacking industries recruited black workers. Chicago's African-American newspaper, the Chicago Defender, made the city well known to southerners. It sent bundles of papers south on the Illinois Central trains, and African-American Pullman Porters would drop them off in Black towns. "Chicago was the most accessible northern city for African Americans in Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas."[16] They took the trains north. "Then between 1916 and 1919, 50,000 blacks came to crowd into the burgeoning black belt, to make new demands upon the institutional structure of the South Side."[16]

1919 race riot

The Chicago race riot of 1919 was a violent racial conflict started by white Americans against black Americans that began on the South Side on July 27 and ended on August 3, 1919.[19] During the riot, 38 people died (23 black and 15 white).[20][21] Over the week, injuries attributed to the episodic confrontations stood at 537, with two thirds of the injured being black and one third white, and approximately 1,000 to 2,000, most of whom were black, lost their homes.[22] Due to its sustained violence and widespread economic impact, it is considered the worst of the scores of riots and civil disturbances across the nation during the "Red Summer" of 1919, so named because of the racial and labor violence and fatalities.[23]


Chicago's Black Belt, April 1941

The increasingly large black population in Chicago (40,000 in 1910, and 278,000 in 1940[4]) faced some of the same discrimination as they had in the South.[24] It was hard for many blacks to find jobs and find decent places to live because of the competition for housing among different ethnic groups at a time when the city was expanding in population so dramatically. At the same time that blacks moved from the South in the Great Migration, Chicago had recently received hundreds of thousands of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. The groups competed with each other for working-class wages.

Though other techniques to maintain housing segregation had been used, such as redlining and exclusive zoning to single-family housing, by 1927 the political leaders of Chicago began to adopt racially restrictive covenants.[13] The Chicago Real Estate Board promoted a racially restrictive covenant to YMCAs, churches, women's clubs, parent teacher associations, Kiwanis clubs, chambers of commerce and property owners' associations.[13] At one point, as much as 80% of the city's area was included under restrictive covenants.[13]

The Supreme Court of the United States in Shelley v. Kraemer ruled in 1948 that racially restrictive covenants were unconstitutional, but this did not quickly solve blacks' problems with finding adequate housing.[13] Homeowners' associations discouraged members from selling to black families, thus maintaining residential segregation.[13] European immigrants and their descendants competed with African Americans for limited affordable housing, and those who didn't get the house lived on the streets.

In a succession common to most cities, many middle and upper-class whites were the first to move out of the city to new housing, aided by new commuter rail lines and the construction of new highway systems. Later arrivals, ethnic whites and African-American families occupied the older housing behind them. The white residents who had been in the city longest were the ones most likely to move to the newer, most expensive housing, as they could afford it. After 1945, the early white residents (many Irish immigrants and their descendants) on the South Side began to move away under pressure of new migrants and with newly expanding housing opportunities. African Americans continued to move into the area, which had become the black capital of the country. The South Side became predominantly black, and the Black Belt was solidified.[25]

Social and economic conditions


Between 1900 and 1910, the African-American population rose rapidly in Chicago. White hostility and population growth combined to create the ghetto on the South Side. Nearby were areas dominated by ethnic Irish, who were especially territorial in defending against incursions into their areas by any other groups.[4] Most of this large population was composed of migrants.[4] In 1910 more than 75 percent of blacks lived in predominantly black sections of the city.[4] The eight or nine neighborhoods that had been set as areas of black settlement in 1900 remained the core of the Chicago African-American community. The Black Belt slowly expanded as African Americans, despite facing violence and restrictive covenants, pushed forward into new neighborhoods.[26] As the population grew, African Americans became more confined to a delineated area, instead of spreading throughout the city. When blacks moved into mixed neighborhoods, ethnic white hostility grew. After fighting over the area, often whites left the area to be dominated by blacks. This is one of the reasons the black belt region started.

The Black Belt of Chicago was the chain of neighborhoods on the South Side of Chicago where three-quarters of the city's African-American population lived by the mid-20th century.[4] In the early 1940s whites within residential blocks formed "restrictive covenants" that served as legal contracts restricting individual owners from renting or selling to black people. The contracts limited the housing available to black tenants, leading to the accumulation of black residents within The Black Belt, one of the few neighborhoods open to black tenants.[27] The Black Belt was an area that stretched 30 blocks along State Street on the South Side and was rarely more than seven blocks wide.[4] With such a large population within this confined area, overcrowding often led to numerous families living in old and dilapidated buildings. The South Side's "black belt" also contained zones related to economic status. The poorest residents lived in the northernmost, oldest section of the black belt, while the elite resided in the southernmost section.[28] In the mid-20th century, as African Americans across the United States struggled against the economic confines created by segregation, black residents within the Black Belt sought to create more economic opportunity in their community through the encouragement of local black businesses and entrepreneurs.[29][4] During this time, Chicago was the capital of Black America. Many African Americans who moved to the Black Belt area of Chicago were from the Southeastern region of the United States.

Immigration to Chicago was another pressure of overcrowding, as primarily lower-class newcomers from rural Europe also sought cheap housing and working class jobs. More and more people tried to fit into converted "kitchenette" and basement apartments. Living conditions in the Black Belt resembled conditions in the West Side ghetto or in the stockyards district.[16] Although there were decent homes in the Negro sections, the core of the Black Belt was a slum. A 1934 census estimated that black households contained 6.8 people on average, whereas white households contained 4.7.[30] Many blacks lived in apartments that lacked plumbing, with only one bathroom for each floor.[30] With the buildings so overcrowded, building inspections and garbage collection were below the minimum mandatory requirements for healthy sanitation. This unhealthiness increased the threat of disease. From 1940 to 1960, the infant death rate in the Black Belt was 16% higher than the rest of the city.[30]

Crime in African-American neighborhoods was a low priority to the police. Associated with problems of poverty and southern culture, rates of violence and homicide were high. Some women resorted to prostitution to survive. Both low life and middle-class strivers were concentrated in a small area.[4]

In 1946, the Chicago Housing Authority (CHA) tried to ease the pressure in the overcrowded ghettos and proposed to put public housing sites in less congested areas in the city. The white residents did not take to this very well, so city politicians forced the CHA to keep the status quo and develop high rise projects in the Black Belt and on the West Side. Some of these became notorious failures. As industrial restructuring in the 1950s and later led to massive job losses, residents changed from working-class families to poor families on welfare.[4]

As of May 2016 violence within some Chicago neighborhoods prompted black middle-class people to move to the suburbs.[31]


Between 1916 and 1920, almost 50,000 Black Southerners moved to Chicago,[16] which profoundly shaped the city's development. Growth increased even more rapidly after 1940. In particular, the new citizens caused the growth of local churches, businesses and community organizations. A new musical culture arose, fed by all the traditions along the Mississippi River. The population continued to increase with new migrants, with the most arriving after 1940.

The black arts community in Chicago was especially vibrant. Early Vaudeville performers and entrepreneurs like the Griffin Sisters created and managed venues for Black performers in the 1910s. The Pekin Theater, built in 1905, was called "The Cradle of Negro Drama in the United States."[32] The 1920s were the height of the Jazz Age, but music continued as the heart of the community for decades. Nationally renowned musicians rose within the Chicago world. Along the Stroll, a bright-light district on State Street, jazz greats like Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Bessie Smith and Ethel Waters headlined at nightspots including the Deluxe Cafe.

The literary creation of Black Chicago residents from 1925 to 1950 was also prolific, and the city's Black Renaissance rivaled that of the Harlem Renaissance. Prominent writers included Richard Wright, Willard Motley, William Attaway, Frank Marshall Davis, St. Clair Drake, Horace R. Cayton, Jr., and Margaret Walker. Chicago was home to writer and poet Gwendolyn Brooks, known for her portrayals of Black working-class life in crowded tenements of Bronzeville. These writers expressed the changes and conflicts blacks found in urban life and the struggles of creating new worlds. In Chicago, black writers turned away from the folk traditions embraced by Harlem Renaissance writers, instead adopting a grittier style of "literary naturalism" to depict life in the urban ghetto. The classic Black Metropolis, written by St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton, Jr., exemplified the style of the Chicago writers. Today it remains the most detailed portrayal of Black Chicago in the 1930s and 1940s.

From 2008 to the present, the West Side Historical Society under the guidance of Rickie P. Brown Sr. began to document the rich history of the West Side of Chicago. Their research provided proof of the Austin community having the largest population of Blacks in the city of Chicago. This proved that the largest population of blacks are on its west side, when factoring in the Near West Side, North Lawndale, West Humboldt Park, Garfield Park, and Austin communities as well. Their efforts to build a museum on the west side and continuing to bring awareness to Juneteenth as a national holiday was rewarded with a proclamation in 2011 by Governor Pat Quinn.[33]


Chicago's black population developed a class structure, composed of a large number of domestic workers and other manual labourers, along with a small, but growing, contingent of middle-and-upper-class business and professional elites. In 1929, black Chicagoans gained access to city jobs, and expanded their professional class. Fighting job discrimination was a constant battle for African Americans in Chicago, as foremen in various companies restricted the advancement of black workers, which often kept them from earning higher wages.[28] In the mid-20th century, blacks began slowly moving up to better positions in the work force.[4]

The migration expanded the market for African-American business. "The most notable breakthrough in black business came in the insurance field."[16] There were four major insurance companies founded in Chicago. Then, in the early 20th century, service establishments took over.[clarification needed] The African-American market on State Street during this time consisted of barber shops, restaurants, pool rooms, saloons, and beauty salons. African Americans used these trades to build their own communities. These shops gave the blacks a chance to establish their families, earn money, and become an active part of the community.


President Barack Obama in 2012

With a growing base and strong leadership in machine politics, Blacks began to win elective office in local and state government. The first blacks had been elected to office in Chicago in the late 19th century, decades before the Great Migrations.[4] Chicago elected the first post-Reconstruction African-American member of Congress. He was Republican Oscar Stanton De Priest, in Illinois's 1st congressional district (1929-1935). The district has continuously elected African-Americans to the office ever since. The Chicago area has elected 18 African Americans to the House of Representatives, more than any state. William L. Dawson represented the Black Belt in Congress from 1943 to his death in office in 1970. He started as a Republican but switched to the Democrats like most of his constituents in the late 1930s. In 1949, he became the first African American to chair a congressional committee.[34]

Chicago is home to three of eight African-American United States senators who have served since Reconstruction, who are all Democrats: Carol Moseley Braun (1993–1999), Barack Obama (2005–2008), and Roland Burris (2009–2010).

Barack Obama moved from the Senate to the White House in 2008.[35]

Electing a Black mayor in 1983

Main article: 1983 Chicago mayoral election

In the February 22, 1983, the democrats were split three ways. On the North and Northwest Sides, the incumbent mayor Jane Byrne led and future mayor Richard M. Daley, son of the late Mayor Richard J. Daley, finished a close second. the Black leader Harold Washington had massive majorities on the South and West Sides. Southwest Side voters overwhelmingly supported Daley. Washington won with 37% of the vote, versus 33% for Byrne and 30% for Daley. Although winning the Democratic primary was normally considered tantamount to election in heavily Democratic Chicago, after his primary victory Washington found that his Republican opponent, former state legislator Bernard Epton was supported by many high-ranking Democrats and their ward organizations.[36]

Epton's campaign referred to, among other things, Washington's conviction for failure to file income tax returns (he had paid the taxes, but had not filed a return). Washington, on the other hand, stressed reforming the Chicago patronage system and the need for a jobs program in a tight economy. In the April 12, 1983, mayoral general election, Washington defeated Epton by 3.7%, 51.7% to 48.0%, to become mayor of Chicago.[37] Washington was sworn in as mayor on April 29, 1983, and resigned his Congressional seat the following day.[38]


In the early 20th century many prominent African Americans were Chicago residents, including Republican and later Democratic congressman William L. Dawson (America's most powerful black politician[4]) and boxing champion Joe Louis. America's most widely read black newspaper,[4] the Chicago Defender, was published there and circulated in the South as well.

After long efforts, in the late 1930s, workers organized across racial lines to form the United Meatpacking Workers of America. By then, the majority of workers in Chicago's plants were black, but they succeeded in creating an interracial organizing committee. It succeeded in organizing unions both in Chicago and Omaha, Nebraska, the city with the second largest meatpacking industry. This union belonged to the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which was more progressive than the American Federation of Labor. They succeeded in lifting segregation of job positions. For a time, workers achieved living wages and other benefits, leading to blue collar middle-class life for decades. Some blacks were also able to move up the ranks to supervisory and management positions. The CIO also succeeded in organizing Chicago's steel industry.[39]

Recent decline

A 2021 report from the Chicago Tribune said thousands of black families have left Chicago in the past decade, lowering the black population by about 10%.[40] Politico reported that Chicago's once wealthy black community has dramatically declined with the shuttering of many black-owned companies.[41] Many blacks leaving Chicago are now recently moving to cities in the U.S. South, including Atlanta, Charlotte, Dallas, Houston, Little Rock, New Orleans, Memphis and San Antonio.[42]


See also: Crime in Chicago

Black people in Chicago are more likely to be victims of homicide.[43]

Foreign-born blacks

Foreign born blacks makeup 4% of Chicago's black population.[44]


Around 4,500 Ethiopians lived in Chicago in 2000.[45]


Nigerian people constitute the city's largest African community.[46]

Notable people

Chief Keef was born in Chicago. He achieved fame in 2012 when he released his single “Love Sosa”.
Kanye West
Barack Obama
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See also


  1. ^ "Explore Census Data". Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  2. ^ "Chicago Black Population -". Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  3. ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "African Americans". Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  5. ^ "Great Migration". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  6. ^ "Explore Census Data". Retrieved 2023-10-22.
  7. ^ "Chicago Black Population".
  8. ^ O'Hare, By Peggy (August 13, 2021). "Latinos, Blacks Show Strong Growth in San Antonio as White Population Declines". San Antonio Express-News.
  9. ^ "How is Chicago a welcoming city for African immigrants? | Immigrant Connect".
  10. ^ "Jean Baptiste".
  11. ^ Reed, Christopher Robert (2015). "The Early African American Settlement of Chicago, 1833-1870". Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. 108 (3–4): 211–265. doi:10.5406/jillistathistsoc.108.3-4.0211. ISSN 1522-1067. JSTOR 10.5406/jillistathistsoc.108.3-4.0211.
  12. ^ Smith, Jessie (2017-11-27). Encyclopedia of African American Business: Updated and Revised Edition, 2nd Edition [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-5028-8.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g "Jim Crow Laws: Illinois". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved May 2, 2007.
  14. ^ "The Great Migration".
  15. ^ Great Migration | State Historical Society of Iowa
  16. ^ a b c d e f Allen H. Spear, Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto (1890–1920).
  17. ^ "Frommer's". Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  18. ^ Nicholas Lemann, The Great Migration.
  19. ^ Lee, William (July 19, 2019). "'Ready to Explode': How a Black Boy's Drifting Raft Triggered a Deadly Week of Riots 100 Years Ago in Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  20. ^ Essig, Steven (2005). "Race Riots". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society.
  21. ^ William M. Tuttle, Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919. (1970).
  22. ^ "Editorial: Chicago's race riots of 1919 and the epilogue that resonates today". Chicago Tribune. The Editorial Board. June 19, 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-21.((cite news)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. ^ "Chicago Race Riot of 1919". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
  24. ^ St. Clair Drake, and Horace Cayton, Black Metropolis: A Study in Negro Life in a Northern City (1945)
  25. ^ Harold F. Gosnell, "The Chicago 'Black belt' as a political battleground." American Journal of Sociology 39.3 (1933): 329-341.
  26. ^ Will Cooley, "Moving On Out: Black Pioneering in Chicago, 1915–1950," Journal of Urban History 36:4 (July 2010), 485–506.
  27. ^ "Housing and Race in Chicago". Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  28. ^ a b "Chicago: Destination for the Great Migration", The African-American Mosaic, Library of Congress.
  29. ^ Defender, Chicago (July 23, 2010). "Chicago: Destination for the Great Migration - The African-American Mosaic Exhibition - Exhibitions (Library of Congress)". Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  30. ^ a b c Hirsch, Arnold Richard (1998). Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940–1960. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226342443.
  31. ^ "Chicago's high murder rates drive exodus of black middle class." PBS NewsHour, May 15, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  32. ^ "Du Sable to Obama: Chicago's Black Theater". WTTW. Retrieved January 28, 2024.
  33. ^ "Westside Historical Society continues making history". Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  34. ^ Christopher Manning, William L. Dawson and the Limits of Black Electoral Leadership (2009).
  35. ^ Ted McClelland, Young Mr. Obama : Chicago and the making of a Black president (2010) online
  36. ^ Davis, Robert (April 12, 1983). "The election of Harold Washington the first black mayor of Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2008.
  37. ^ "Election Results for 1983 General Election, Mayor, Chicago, IL".
  38. ^ Paul Kleppner, Chicago divided: The making of a black mayor (Northern Illinois University Press, 1985).
  39. ^ Paul Street, Paul. "The 'Best Union Members': Class, Race, Culture, and Black Worker Militancy in Chicago's Stockyards during the 1930s." Journal of American Ethnic History (2000): 18-49.
  40. ^ "As the Black population continues to drop in Chicago and Illinois, few regret their move: 'I have peace'". Chicago Tribune. 22 November 2021.
  41. ^ "The Demise of America's Onetime Capital of Black Wealth". Politico. 7 December 2021.
  42. ^ "The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965-2000". Brookings. Retrieved 2024-02-10.
  43. ^ contributor, Glenn Minnis | The Center Square (2023-10-18). "Chicago's homicide rate up; Black residents are 77% of victims". The Center Square. Retrieved 2024-02-10. ((cite web)): |last= has generic name (help)
  44. ^ Anderson, Monica (2015-04-09). "Chapter 1: Statistical Portrait of the U.S. Black Immigrant Population". Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project. Retrieved 2024-02-10.
  45. ^ "Ethiopians". Retrieved 2024-02-10.
  46. ^ "Nigerians". Retrieved 2024-02-10.

Further reading

Primary sources