This is a timeline of the civil rights movement in the United States, a nonviolent mid-20th century freedom movement to gain legal equality and the enforcement of constitutional rights for people of color. The goals of the movement included securing equal protection under the law, ending legally institutionalized racial discrimination, and gaining equal access to public facilities, education reform, fair housing, and the ability to vote.

1947–1953

1947

1948

1950

1951

1952

1954–1959

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960–1968

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

The Edmund Pettus Bridge on "Bloody Sunday" in 1965.
The Edmund Pettus Bridge on "Bloody Sunday" in 1965.

1965

1966

1967

1968

See also

References

  1. ^ Allsup, V. Carl. [2010] 2019. "Delgado v Bastrop I.S.D." Handbook of Texas Online. Austin: Texas State Historical Association.
  2. ^ "Miss America, People & Events: Breaking the Color Line at the Pageant". PBS.
  3. ^ Shirley Jennifer Lim (2007). A Feeling of Belonging: Asian-American Women's Popular Culture, 1930–1960. NYU Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-0-8147-5193-0.
  4. ^ Daniel, G. Reginald (2006). Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States: Converging Paths?. Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 978-0-271-04554-2. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
  5. ^ Student Strike at Moton High ~ Civil Rights Movement Archive
  6. ^ Students & Parents Challenge School Segregation ~ Civil Rights Movement Archive
  7. ^ "Private Academy Backlash | A Shaky Truce : Starkville Civil Rights, 1960-1980". Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  8. ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009, pp.154-55.
  9. ^ Staff, Times; Reports, Wire (April 28, 2005). "J.B. Stoner, 81; White Supremacist Bombed Black Church". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  10. ^ "The Virginia Center for Digital History". Vcdh.virginia.edu. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  11. ^ Clayborne Carson (1998). The autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Grand Central Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-446-52412-4.
  12. ^ a b c d The King Center, The Chronology of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. "1961". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
  13. ^ Catsam, Derek Charles (2009). Freedom's Main Line: The Journey of Reconciliation and the Freedom Rides. Civil Rights and the Struggle for Black Equality in the Twentieth Century. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813138862.
  14. ^ Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Oxford Univ. Press. p. 439. ISBN 0-19-513674-8.
  15. ^ a b c d Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. pp. 527–530. ISBN 978-0-671-68742-7.
  16. ^ Branch, pp.533–535
  17. ^ Branch, pp. 555–556
  18. ^ Rubin, R. E. (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd edn). New York: Neal-Schuman, p.294
  19. ^ "Race, religion, nationality no longer barrier to PGA". Milwaukee Journal. Associated Press. November 10, 1961. p. 18, part 2.
  20. ^ "PGA group abolishes 'Caucasian'". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Florida. Associated Press. November 10, 1961. p. 22.
  21. ^ Branch, pp. 756–765
  22. ^ Branch, pp. 786–791
  23. ^ The United States of America and Interstate Commerce Commission v. The City of Jackson, Mississippi, Allen Thompson, Douglas L. Lucky, and Thomas B. Marshall, Commissioners of the City of Jackson, and W.D. Rayfield, Chief of Police of the City of Jackson, United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit, May 13, 1963.
  24. ^ "Northern City Site of Most Violent Negro Demonstrations". Rome News-Tribune (CWS). May 30, 1963.
  25. ^ "Tear Gas Used to Stall Florida Negroes, Drive Continues". Evening News (AP). May 31, 1963.
  26. ^ "Medgar Evers". Olemiss.edu. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  27. ^ The Dirksen Congressional Center. "Proposed Civil Rights Act". Archived from the original on August 23, 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  28. ^ "March on Washington". Abbeville.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  29. ^ Cook, Karen (2008). Freedom Libraries in the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer Project: A History.
  30. ^ Bobrow, Jerry (2005). Barron's How to Prepare for the LSAT, Law School Admission Test. Barron's Educational Series. p. 587. ISBN 978-0-7641-2412-9. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
  31. ^ "Call Her Miss". Time. April 10, 1964. Archived from the original on July 19, 2005. Retrieved July 13, 2013. (Subscription required.)
  32. ^ "Hamilton v. Alabama, 376 US 650 - Supreme Court 1964 - Google Scholar".
  33. ^ "RIOTS MAR PEACE IN CHESTER, PA.; Negro Protests Continue - School Policy at Issue". The New York Times. April 26, 1964. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  34. ^ a b "Civil Rights Act of 1964Zwebsite=Finduslaw.com". Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  35. ^ Loevy, Robert. "A Brief History of the Civil Rights Act of 1964". Retrieved December 31, 2007.
  36. ^ "Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  37. ^ Branch, Taylor (2006). At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68. Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, pp. 75-77.
  38. ^ "Reeb, James". June 21, 2017.
  39. ^ a b Gavin, Philip. "The History Place, Great Speeches Collection, Lyndon B. Johnson, "We Shall Overcome"". Historyplace.com. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
  40. ^ "James L. Bevel The Strategist of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement" by Randall Kryn, published in David Garrow's 1989 book We Shall Overcome, Volume II, Carlson Publishing Company
  41. ^ "Randy Kryn: Movement Revision Research Summary Regarding James Bevel - Chicago Freedom Movement". Cfm40.middlebury.edu. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  42. ^ James R. Ralph, Jr. Northern Protest: Martin Luther King, Jr., Chicago, and the Civil Rights Movement (1993) Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-62687-7
  43. ^ Patrick D. Jones (2009). The Selma of the North: Civil Rights Insurgency in Milwaukee. Harvard University Press. pp. 1–6, 169ff. ISBN 978-0-674-03135-7.

Further reading