San Quentin Rehabilitation Center
San Quentin State Prison is located in California
San Quentin State Prison
San Quentin State Prison is located in the United States
San Quentin State Prison
LocationSan Quentin, California, U.S.
Coordinates37°56′20″N 122°29′20″W / 37.939°N 122.489°W / 37.939; -122.489
Security classMinimum–maximum
Population3,542 (114.9%) (as of January 31, 2023[1])
OpenedJuly 1852; 171 years ago (July 1852)
Managed byCalifornia Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation
WardenRon Broomfield

San Quentin Rehabilitation Center (SQ), formerly known as San Quentin State Prison[2], is a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation state prison for men, located north of San Francisco in the unincorporated[3] place of San Quentin in Marin County.

Established in 1852, and opening in 1854,[4] San Quentin is the oldest prison in California. The state's only death row for male inmates, the largest in the United States, is located at the prison.[5][6] It has a gas chamber, but since 1996, executions at the prison have been carried out by lethal injection, though the prison has not performed an execution since 2006.[7] The prison has been featured on film, radio drama, video, podcast, and television; is the subject of many books; has hosted concerts; and has housed many notorious inmates.


The correctional complex sits on Point San Quentin, which consists of 432 acres (1.75 square kilometers) on the north side of San Francisco Bay.[8][9][10][11] The prison complex itself occupies 275 acres (1.11 km2), valued in a 2001 study at between $129 million and $664 million.[12]

As of July 31, 2022, San Quentin was incarcerating people at 105% of its design capacity, with 3,239 occupants.[13]

Death row

Men condemned to death in California (with some exceptions) must be held at San Quentin, while condemned women are held at Central California Women's Facility in Chowchilla.[14] As of December 2015, San Quentin held almost 700 male inmates in its Condemned Unit, or "death row."[15] As of 2001, San Quentin's death row was described as "the largest in the Western Hemisphere";[16] as of 2005, it was called "the most populous execution antechamber in the United States."[6] The states of Florida and Texas had fewer death row inmates in 2008 (397 and 451 respectively) than San Quentin.[17]

The death row at San Quentin is divided into three sections: the quiet "North-Segregation" or "North-Seg," built in 1934, for prisoners who "don't cause trouble"; the "East Block," a "crumbling, leaky maze of a place built in 1927"; and the "Adjustment Center" for the "worst of the worst."[6] Most of the prison's death row inmates reside in the East Block. The fourth floor of the North Block was the prison's first death row facility, but additional death row space opened after executions resumed in the U.S. in 1978. The adjustment center received solid doors, preventing "gunning-down" or attacking persons with bodily waste. As of 2016 it housed 81 death row inmates and four non-death row inmates.[18] A dedicated psychiatric facility serves the prisoners. A converted shower bay in the East Block hosts religious services. Many prison programs available for most inmates are unavailable for death row inmates.[15]

Although $395 million was allocated in the 2008–2009 state budget for new death row facilities at San Quentin, in December 2008 two legislators introduced bills to eliminate the funding.[19] The state had planned to build a new death row facility, but Governor Jerry Brown canceled those plans in 2011.[20] In 2015 Brown asked the Legislature for funds for a new death row as the current death row facilities were becoming filled. At the time the non-death row prison population was decreasing, opening room for death row inmates. As of 2015 the San Quentin death row has a capacity of 715 prisoners.[21]


Lethal injection room in San Quentin

All executions in California (male and female) take place at San Quentin.[14] The execution chamber is located in a one-story addition close to the East Block.[18] Women executed in California are transported to San Quentin by bus before being executed.[22]

The methods for execution at San Quentin have changed over time. Prior to 1893, the counties executed convicts. Between 1893 and 1937, 215 people were executed at San Quentin by hanging, after which 196 prisoners died in the gas chamber.[6] In 1995, the use of gas for execution was ruled "cruel and unusual punishment", which led to executions inside the gas chamber by lethal injection.[6] Between 1996 and 2006, eleven people were executed at San Quentin by lethal injection.[23]

In April 2007, staff of the California Legislative Analyst's Office discovered that a new execution chamber was being built at San Quentin; legislators subsequently "accuse[d] the governor of hiding the project from the Legislature and the public."[24] The old lethal injection facility had included an injection room of 43 square feet (4.0 square meters) and a single viewing area; the facility that was being built included an injection chamber of 230 square feet (21 m2) and three viewing areas for family, victim, and press.[25] Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger stopped construction of the facility the next week.[26] The legislature later approved $180,000 to finish the project, and the facility was completed.[27][28]

In addition to state executions, three federal executions have been carried out at San Quentin.[29] Samuel Richard Shockley and Miran Edgar Thompson had been incarcerated at Alcatraz Island federal penitentiary and were executed on December 3, 1948, for the murder of two prison guards during the Battle of Alcatraz.[30] Carlos Romero Ochoa had murdered a federal immigration officer after he was caught smuggling illegal immigrants across the border near El Centro, California. He was executed at San Quentin's gas chamber on December 10, 1948.[30]

On March 13, 2019, after Governor Gavin Newsom ordered a moratorium on the state's death penalty, the state withdrew its current lethal injection protocol, and San Quentin dismantled and indefinitely closed its gas and lethal injection execution chambers.[31]



The sprawling San Quentin prison complex.

Though numerous towns and localities in the area are named after Roman Catholic saints, and "San Quintín" is Spanish for "Saint Quentin", the prison was not named after the saint. The land on which it is situated, Point Quentin, is named after a Coast Miwok warrior named Quentín, fighting under Chief Marin, who was taken prisoner at that place.[52][53]

In 1851, California's first prison opened; it was a 268-ton wooden ship named the Waban, anchored in San Francisco Bay and outfitted to hold 30 inmates.[54][55] Some of the Waban's timber remains a part of the new hospital structure inside the prison. After a series of speculative land transactions and a legislative scandal,[56] inmates who were housed on the Waban constructed San Quentin which opened its first cell block, nicknamed "the Stones," in 1854. Before being retired altogether, this initial unit would come to be used as a dungeon after newer additions were constructed atop it. The Stones, however, survive to this day and is thought to be California's oldest surviving public work.[57]

In 1928, a woman, Dorothy Mackaye, #440960, served less than ten months of a one- to three-year sentence.[58][59][60][61]

One example of a noteworthy leader at San Quentin was Warden Clinton Duffy from 1940 to 1952. Warden Duffy was a man of contradictions. His public persona was quite positive because of his fresh insights informing the reorganization of the prison structure and reformation of prison management. Prior to Duffy, San Quentin had gone through years of violence, inhumane punishments and civil rights abuses against prisoners. The previous warden was forced to resign.[62] Duffy had the offending prison guards fired and added a librarian, psychiatrists, and several surgeons at San Quentin. Duffy's press agent publicized sweeping reforms; however, San Quentin remained a brutal prison where prisoners continued to be beaten to death.[63] The use of torture as an approved method of interrogation at San Quentin was banned in 1944.[64]

In 1941, the first prison meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous took place at San Quentin; in commemoration of this, the 25-millionth copy of the AA Big Book was presented to Jill Brown, of San Quentin, at the International Convention of Alcoholics Anonymous in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.[65]

In 1947, Warden Duffy recruited Herman Spector to work as assistant warden at San Quentin. Spector turned down the invitation to be assistant warden and chose instead to become senior librarian if he could institute his theories on reading as a program to encourage pro-social behavior. By 1955, Spector was being interviewed in library journals and suggesting the prison library could contribute significantly to rehabilitation.[66]

The dining hall of the prison is adorned by six 20 ft (6.1 m) sepia-toned murals depicting California history. They were painted by Alfredo Santos, one-time convicted heroin dealer and successful artist, during his 1953–1955 incarceration.[67][68] The murals were painted with a thinned, raw sienna oil paint directly to plaster as he was denied use of other colors to paint with.[69]

Lawrence Singleton, who raped a teenaged girl and cut off her forearms, spent a year on parole in a trailer on the grounds of San Quentin between 1987 and 1988 because towns in California would not accept him as a parolee.[70] Between 1992 and 1997, a "boot camp" was held at the prison that was intended to "rehabilitat[e] first-time, nonviolent offenders"; the program was discontinued because it did not reduce recidivism or save money.[71]

A 2005 court-ordered report found that the prison was "old, antiquated, dirty, poorly staffed, poorly maintained with inadequate medical space and equipment and overcrowded."[72] Later that year, the warden was fired for "threaten[ing] disciplinary action against a doctor who spoke with attorneys about problems with health care delivery at the prison."[73] By 2007, a new trauma center had opened at the prison and a new $175 million medical complex was planned.[74]

In 2020, the prison became the center of a COVID-19 outbreak, after a group of prisoners were transferred to San Quentin from the California Institution for Men in Chino, California. Initial reports suggested that San Quentin officials were told that the new inmates had all tested negative; however, few had been tested at all. By June 22, at least 350 inmates and staff had tested positive, in what a federal judge called a "significant failure" of policy.[75]

In March 2023, California Governor Gavin Newsom announced a "historic transformation" of the then-called San Quentin State Prison as part of a project to improve public safety through a greater focus on rehabilitation and education.[76] As part of the project, the prison was renamed San Quentin Rehabilitation Center and an advisory group of rehabilitation and public safety experts was formed to advise the efforts.

Notable inmates


San Quentin up close.
San Quentin prisoners on recreation


Deaths in prison

COVID-19 related deaths

In 2020, 12 death row inmates at San Quentin died in the span of less than two months after a COVID-19 outbreak. All of the inmates were hospitalized before their deaths.[158]


The San Quentin gas chamber originally employed lethal hydrogen cyanide gas for the purpose of carrying out capital punishment. It was later converted to a lethal injection execution chamber but was restored to its original purpose when a new lethal injection chamber was built.


In media

This section may contain irrelevant references to popular culture. Please remove the content or add citations to reliable and independent sources. (November 2018)


Performances and music videos


Fiction, literature and publications

Gang-pulp author Margie Harris wrote a story on San Quentin for the short-lived pulp magazine Prison Stories. The story, titled "Big House Boomerang," appeared in the March 1931 issue. It used San Quentin's brutal jute mill as its setting. Harris' knowledge of the prison came from her days as a newspaper reporter in the Bay Area, and her acquaintance with famous San Quentin prisoner Ed Morrell.[219]

The 1915 novel The Star Rover by Jack London was based in San Quentin. A framing story is told in the first person by Darrell Standing, a university professor serving life imprisonment in San Quentin State Prison for murder. Prison officials try to break his spirit by means of a torture device called "the jacket," a canvas jacket which can be tightly laced so as to compress the whole body, inducing angina. Standing discovers how to withstand the torture by entering a kind of trance state, in which he walks among the stars and experiences portions of past lives.


See also


  1. ^ "California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation: Monthly Report of Population As of Midnight January 31, 2023" (PDF). California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Internal Oversight and Research. January 31, 2023. Retrieved September 21, 2023.
  2. ^,rehabilitation%20and%20public%20safety%20experts.
  3. ^ "2020 CENSUS - CENSUS BLOCK MAP: Marin County, CA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 39 (PDF p. 40/46). Retrieved 2022-08-13. San Quentin State Prison
  4. ^ a b Bookspan, Shelley (1991). A germ of goodness: the California state prison system, 1851-1944. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8032-1216-9.
  5. ^ San Quentin State Prison (SQ) (2009). "Mission Statement". California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Fimrite, Peter (20 November 2005). "Inside death row. At San Quentin, 647 condemned killers wait to die in the most populous execution antechamber in the United States". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  7. ^ Hu, Hattie (August 5, 2017). "Death row inmates sentenced in Sacramento region have waited an average of 21 years". Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on August 5, 2017.
  8. ^ a b Gould, Pam (November 2, 2009). "Does San Quentin need a new Death Row?". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 15, 2010.
  9. ^ "Sell San Quentin". Los Angeles Times. June 1, 2009. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012.
  10. ^ "Editorial: "Sell San Quentin" | News | CCPOA California Correctional Peace Officers Association". Archived from the original on July 20, 2011.
  11. ^ "County of Marin – Community Development Agency" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-03-16. Retrieved 2011-01-23.
  12. ^ Department of General Services (June 2001). "Preliminary Analysis of Potential Reuse and Relocation of San Quentin Prison" (PDF). State of California. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2008-12-31. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ "California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation: Monthly Report of Population As of Midnight July 31, 2022" (PDF). California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Internal Oversight and Research. July 31, 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 5, 2022. Retrieved September 5, 2022.
  14. ^ a b Legislative Counsel of California. Penal Code section 3600-3607 Archived 2009-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed January 13, 2009. "The judgment of death shall be executed within the walls of the California State Prison at San Quentin." and "Upon the affirmance of her appeal, the female person sentenced to death shall thereafter be delivered to the warden of the California state prison designated by the department for the execution of the death penalty,[...]"
  15. ^ a b St. John, Paige. "A rare peek at San Quentin's death row, and conversations with inmates awaiting their fates as political battles swirl Archived 2016-03-29 at the Wayback Machine." Los Angeles Times. December 29, 2015. Retrieved on March 22, 2016.
  16. ^ Nieves, Evelyn. Rash of violence disrupts San Quentin's death row. New York Times, May 22, 2001. Accessed January 13, 2009.
  17. ^ The death penalty in 2008: year end report. Archived 2008-12-21 at the Wayback Machine Washington, DC: Death Penalty Information Center, December 2008. Accessed January 13, 2009.
  18. ^ a b St. John, Paige. "A revealing look at California's death row Archived 2016-03-16 at the Wayback Machine." Los Angeles Times. January 5, 2016. Retrieved on March 22, 2016.
  19. ^ Egelko, Bob. 2 lawmakers team up to oppose new Death Row. Archived 2009-01-03 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, December 17, 2008. Accessed January 13, 2009.
  20. ^ Riley, Charles. "California cancels new San Quentin death row Archived 2012-05-08 at the Wayback Machine." CNN. April 28, 2011. Retrieved on May 9, 2012.
  21. ^ "California's death row, with no executions in sight, runs out of room Archived 2016-03-30 at the Wayback Machine." Los Angeles Times. March 30, 2015. Retrieved on March 22, 2016.
  22. ^ Corwin, Miles. "Death's Door : State's Only Condemned Woman Awaits Her Fate Archived 2016-08-18 at the Wayback Machine." Los Angeles Times. April 19, 1992. Retrieved on March 22, 2016.
  23. ^ Zimmers, Teresa A.; Sheldon, Jonathan; Lubarsky, David A.; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Waterman, Linda; Weisman, Richard; Koniaris, Leonidas G. (2007). "Lethal Injection for Execution: Chemical Asphyxiation?". PLOS Medicine. 4 (4): e156. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040156. PMC 1876417. PMID 17455994.
  24. ^ Martin, Mark. "New execution chamber infuriates lawmakers. Facility at San Quentin was built quietly" Archived 2009-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. San Francisco Chronicle, April 14, 2007. Accessed January 12, 2009.
  25. ^ State of California lethal injection protocol Archived 2008-12-08 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed January 16, 2009.
  26. ^ Gov. Schwarzenegger stops construction of lethal injection facility Archived 2008-10-26 at the Wayback Machine. April 20, 2007. Accessed January 16, 2009.
  27. ^ Chorneau, Tom. "Death chamber delayed by budget standoff, may miss Oct. 1 deadline" Archived 2009-06-10 at the Wayback Machine. San Francisco Chronicle, August 7, 2007. Accessed January 16, 2009.
  28. ^ Mintz, Howard. State decides to seek public input on execution plan Archived 2012-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. San Jose Mercury News, January 6, 2009. Accessed January 16, 2009.
  29. ^ "Executions of Federal Prisoners (since 1927) Archived 2013-02-15 at the Wayback Machine." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  30. ^ a b,1017239[permanent dead link]
  31. ^ Bollag, Sophia. "'Ineffective, irreversible and immoral:' Gavin Newsom halts death penalty for 737 inmates". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  32. ^ "Home".
  33. ^ "Veterans Group San Quentin". Archived from the original on 2015-03-21. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
  34. ^ 'San Quentin Prison Demo Day Gives Entrepreneurs Behind Bars A Second Chance'. Archived 2017-06-16 at the Wayback Machine Techcrunch, Feb, 22, 2013.
  35. ^ Berton, Justin. When 'Waiting for Godot' played San Quentin. Archived 2009-04-14 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, December 23, 2008. Accessed January 10, 2009.
  36. ^ City Youth Now. Programs. SQUIRES. Archived 2008-08-11 at the Wayback Machine Accessed January 10, 2009.
  37. ^ a b c Lewis, Roy V. Scared Straight – California style: evaluation of the San Quentin Squires Program. Archived 2009-05-15 at the Wayback Machine Criminal Justice and Behavior, vol. 10, no. 2, June 1983, pages 209–226.
  38. ^ Squires of San Quentin at IMDb
  39. ^ Hindery, Robin. Lessons through life. Daily Democrat (Woodland, CA), February 24, 2008.
  40. ^ a b c d Kosa, Frank. Prison baseball team gives inmates a focus beyond their cells. Archived 2008-09-06 at the Wayback Machine Christian Science Monitor, July 2, 2008.
  41. ^ a b Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel. Episode 111. Story 2: A Game of Years. Archived 2008-10-16 at the Wayback Machine June 20, 2006. Accessed January 2, 2009.
  42. ^ a b The 700 Club. "San Quentin's Death Row Chaplain". Christian Broadcasting Network. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.((cite news)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  43. ^ a b c Souders, Travis. San Quentin baseball offers local team, inmates perspective. Archived 2009-01-08 at the Wayback Machine Chico Enterprise-Record, August 10, 2008. Accessed January 2, 2009.
  44. ^ Ross, Tommy Shakur (October 30, 2014). "The San Quentin All-Stars and their field of dreams". KALW. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  45. ^ MacLaren, Becca. "San Quentin inmates get diplomas, set goals." Archived 2008-10-12 at the Wayback Machine Marin Independent Journal, June 29, 2007. Accessed January 10, 2009.
  46. ^ Prison University Project. History and background. Archived 2008-10-01 at the Wayback Machine Accessed January 10, 2009.
  47. ^ No More Tears. No More Tears Program Archived 2013-12-19 at the Wayback Machine Accessed November 15, 2009.
  48. ^ Moody, Shelah. California Reentry Program gives ex-cons a second chance. Archived 2009-02-01 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, December 9, 2007. Accessed January 12, 2009.
  49. ^ Taylor, Michael (28 March 2009). "San Quentin inmate newspaper fills need to know". SF Gate. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
  50. ^ "San Quentin News – Prison Media Project". Yahoo. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
  51. ^ Pishko, Jessica (29 Jan 2014). "The News from San Quentin, Part 1". Gunerica. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014. The San Quentin News staff produce a 20-page paper that matches any outside publication in quality and depth of reporting although, unlike most publications, the subject matter focuses on the world within the walls of San Quentin: sports rivalries, notable staff retirements, and the success of rehabilitative programs
  52. ^ Sliney, Edgar M. (Ted). "A History of Mission San Rafael, Archangel." Archived 2010-03-13 at the Wayback Machine Marin County Historical Society Magazine. vol. XV, no. 1, 1989, pp. 4–13.
  53. ^ Gudde, Erwin G. California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. ISBN 0-520-24217-3.
  54. ^ California Department of Justice. "California Criminal Justice Time Line 1822–2000." Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine Accessed January 8, 2008.
  55. ^ Ewell, Miranda. "San Quentin Sets Its History Free. Famed Prison To Detail Its Past In New Museum." San Jose Mercury News. May 27, 1991.
  56. ^ "San Quentin Prison: The Origins of the California "Corrections" System - FoundSF". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  57. ^ Brown, Patricia Leigh. San Quentin journal. Prison makes way for future, but preserves past. Archived 2015-10-19 at the Wayback Machine New York Times, January 18, 2008. Accessed January 7, 2009.
  58. ^ "Dorothy Mackaye Released from Prison". Delaware County Daily Times. Upper Darby, Pennsylvania. January 2, 1929. Archived from the original on April 7, 2019 – via open access
  59. ^ Gene Coughlin, "Tragedies of the Stage", Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph (September 12, 1948), p. American Weekly, p. 7.
  60. ^ "Dorothy Mackaye". Deranged LA Crimes. November 22, 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  61. ^ "Convict No.44,960". The Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh, PA. March 2, 1928. p. 3. Retrieved 6 April 2022. via Google News Archive
  62. ^ Petersilia, J. California's correctional paradox of excess and deprivation., in M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime & Justice: A review of research (2008). page 207
  63. ^ Cummings, Earl. The Rise and Fall of California's Radical Prison Movement, |date=1994. page 27
  64. ^ a b Reed, Dan. "Killer Location May Doom San Quentin Prison." San Jose Mercury News. August 20, 2001.
  65. ^ "Alcoholics Anonymous : Press Releases". Archived from the original on 2013-09-03. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  66. ^ Spector, Herman. Library program of the California state department of corrections, |date=1957.Special Libraries, 48,7.
  67. ^ Russell, Ron. "Hidden Treasure: Half a century ago, ex-heroin dealer Alfredo Santos created an epic work of art inside San Quentin." Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine SF Weekly. July 23, 2003.
  68. ^ Hall, Christopher. A prisoner with a paintbrush, a legacy at risk. Archived 2017-03-12 at the Wayback Machine New York Times, August 19, 2007. Accessed January 3, 2009.
  69. ^ Hall, Christopher (2007-08-19). "A Prisoner With a Paintbrush, a Legacy at Risk". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-11-26.
  70. ^ Taylor, Michael. Lawrence Singleton, despised rapist, dies. He chopped off teenager's arms in 1978. Archived 2009-07-03 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, January 1, 2002. Accessed January 14, 2009.
  71. ^ Doyle, Jim. Boot camp inmates' final salute. Alternative prison program to end as its effectiveness is debated. Archived 2009-06-10 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, July 29, 1997, Accessed January 13, 2009.
  72. ^ Gladstone, Mark. San Quentin 'decrepit' – medical experts decry state of facility inspectors find 'cruelty and neglect,' say health care mandate is ignored investigating state prisons. San Jose Mercury News, April 14, 2005.
  73. ^ Martin, Mark. San Quentin warden fired over health care. State's investigation led to dismissal, says corrections official. Archived 2009-06-10 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, July 8, 2005. Accessed January 9, 2009.
  74. ^ Whitaker, Tad. Trauma center unveiled at San Quentin. Marin Independent Journal, June 15, 2007.
  75. ^ Cassidy, Megan; Fagone, Jason (June 22, 2020). "Federal judge: San Quentin COVID-19 outbreak result of 'significant failure'". San Francisco Chronicle.
  76. ^ "Governor Newsom Announces Historic Transformation of San Quentin State Prison". California Governor. 2023-03-17. Retrieved 2023-12-06.
  77. ^ "Cuándo será ejecutado Isauro Aguirre, el asesino del niño Gabriel Fernandez".
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Division of Adult Operations. "Death Row Tracking System Condemned Inmate List (Secure)" (PDF). California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-06-30. Retrieved 2019-06-30. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  79. ^ "San Quentin inmate loses bid to have death penalty sentence overturned". 4 May 2016.
  80. ^ "Local crime".
  81. ^ "Murderer's execution blocked by state high". 2010-09-30.
  82. ^ "Deadman Talking". Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  83. ^ "Man Found Guilty of Poisoning Wife with Paraquat".
  84. ^ "People v. Clark (1992) 3 C4th 41".
  85. ^ United Press International. Killer of four sentenced to die. Daily News of Los Angeles, May 1, 1986.
  86. ^ Pence, Angelica (July 27, 2000). "Death row inmates' breakout thwarted. San Quentin guards see big safety problems". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on June 10, 2009. Retrieved January 8, 2009.
  87. ^ "Jonathan Daniel d'Arcy – California Death Row". Archived from the original on 2015-04-23. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
  88. ^ "Man Gets Death Sentence for Killing Cellmate". Los Angeles Times. 4 April 1993. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  89. ^ "Skylar Deleon gets death sentence in Newport Beach yacht murders". 10 April 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  90. ^ "Gang member sentenced to die in star athlete's killing". Los Angeles Times. 2 November 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  91. ^ Hernandez, Greg (September 6, 1997). "Killer Who Froze Body Sentenced to Die". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  92. ^ "In The News: John Joseph Famalaro". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  93. ^ "Man gets death sentence in 2003 forest fire that killed 5 people". 28 September 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  94. ^ "Michael Gargiulo, the 'Hollywood Ripper' Serial Killer, Sentenced to Death".
  95. ^ "Convicted Serial Killer Jose Guerrero Going to Death Row". KFSN-TV. June 23, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2022.
  96. ^ "Justin Helzer hangs himself in prison". 15 April 2013.
  97. ^ "60 Slayer sentenced to death". 21 March 2007.
  98. ^ "Inmate accused of murder in deaths of four women over 7-year span - Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
  99. ^ "INT: Verdicts read in Murrieta murders". Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  100. ^ "Local Death Row Convicts from San Gabriel Valley". 17 July 2014.
  101. ^ "Death penalty upheld in O.C. hate killing". Los Angeles Times. 30 August 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  102. ^ "L.A. gang leader called 'monster,' sentenced to death". Los Angeles Times. 10 January 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  103. ^ "Charles Merritt Sentenced to Death for Killing McStay Family, Burying Their Bodies in Mojave Desert". 21 January 2020.
  104. ^ "State Supreme Court upholds cop killer's death sentence".
  105. ^ "Marin judge sentences Joseph Naso to death row for murders of six women". 22 November 2013.
  106. ^ Kelly, David (June 5, 2009). "Oyler sentenced to death for starting Esperanza fire". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  107. ^ "Man Sentenced to Death in Killings". Los Angeles Times. 22 January 1999. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  108. ^ "Scott Peterson, convicted of killing pregnant wife, Laci Peterson, resentenced to life in prison". NBC News. 8 December 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  109. ^ "The Tuscaloosa News - Google News Archive Search".
  110. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court turns down killer David Allen Raley's appeal". October 2007.
  111. ^ "Killer of 7 Gets Penalty of Death". The New York Times. 1990-11-17. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  112. ^ Wilson, Tracy (November 5, 2003). "Sanchez Receives Death Sentence". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  113. ^ "'Speed freak killer' hints at 14 bodies near Clear Lake". 25 July 2012.
  114. ^ "Dunkle gets life in prison". SFGate. Hearst Newspapers. January 6, 1995. Retrieved 10 February 2023.
  115. ^ "The Artist's Journey – a prisoner's path to redemption". Transcript of comments made by Bobby in an interview with Plethora magazine, Copenhagen. Bobby BeauSoleil website. Accessed December 21, 2017.
  116. ^ Bunker, Edward. The animal factory. New York: Viking Press, 1977. ISBN 0-670-12709-4.
  117. ^ "Murderer turned stock picker is 'Oracle of San Quentin'".
  118. ^ Cummins, Eric. The rise and fall of California's radical prison movement. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994. Pages 95–96. ISBN 0-8047-2232-3.
  119. ^ "Prosecutor Concludes Southside Slayer Case". Los Angeles Times. 19 April 1989. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  120. ^ Dudden, Alexis (2004). Japan's Colonization of Korea: Discourse and Power. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 81–83. ISBN 978-0-8248-2829-5.
  121. ^ "Chol Soo Lee, famed for murder conviction and release, dies at 62". 17 December 2014.
  122. ^ Glover, Scott and Lait, Matt, "Lisker's 'surreal' return to society" "Los Angeles Times," August 23, 2009
  123. ^ "Guerilla – The Taking of Patty Hearst". Sydney Morning Herald. 24 March 2005. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  124. ^ Lhotka, William C. (April 27, 1984). "Killer Favors California Death Row". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 6. Retrieved November 14, 2021 – via
  125. ^ "State executes man convicted of murder". The Springfield News-Leader. January 13, 1999. p. 14. Retrieved November 14, 2021 – via
  126. ^ Lopez, Pablo. "Charles Manson Transferred to Corcoran Prison." Fresno Bee, March 16, 1989.
  127. ^ "Blood In, Blood Out: The Violent Empire of the Aryan Brotherhood" Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, by John Lee Brook. Crime Magazine, September 12, 2009. Accessed December 29, 2017.
  128. ^ Sward, Susan. Porn king Jim Mitchell walks out of prison today. Served three years for killing his brother. Archived 2009-06-15 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, October 3, 1997. Accessed January 12, 2009.
  129. ^ "Five Years in the Solitary Dungeon", by Jack Jungmeyer, The San Francisco Sunday Call, February 14, 1909.
  130. ^ The Encyclopedia of American Prisons, Carl Sifakis, Facts on File, Inc., 2003.
  131. ^ "Virginia executes serial killer Alfredo Prieto after appeals fail". 2 October 2015.
  132. ^ Webber, Dawn. Ramirez gets death sentence for 13 murders. Daily News of Los Angeles, November 8, 1989.
  133. ^ Lee, Henry K. Reiser seeks to appeal – says lawyer 'hates me'. Archived 2009-08-13 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, November 19, 2008. Accessed January 8, 2009.
  134. ^ Reiser, Hans. Declaration of service by mail. Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine Superior Court of California, County of Alameda, case RG08406864, April 11, 2009. Accessed April 22, 2009.
  135. ^ "For paralyzed meth addict, worst is over". 4 December 2009.
  136. ^ "Daytona Beach Morning Journal".
  137. ^ "Death of infamous inmate triggers California prison riot: Who was Hugo Pinell?". Christian Science Monitor. 13 August 2015.
  138. ^ "Thomas Silverstein, America's Most Isolated Prisoner, Dead at 67".
  139. ^ "Early Release Set for Man Who Cut Off Arms of Girl He Raped". Los Angeles Times. 16 October 1986. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  140. ^ "Sirhan Transferred to San Quentin in Secret Night Flight." Los Angeles Times, May 24, 1969.
  141. ^ Gorney, Cynthia. "Sirhan Sirhan Feels 10 Years Is Long Enough in Prison." Los Angeles Times. September 23, 1979.
  142. ^ Beard, David. "Earlonne Woods made an amazing podcast—and it won him His Freedom". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2019-10-16.
  143. ^ "San Jose News - Google News Archive Search".
  144. ^ "Bangor Daily News - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  145. ^ Notorious galleries. Richard Chase. The "Vampire Killer." Archived 2009-08-27 at the Wayback Machine Sacramento Bee. Accessed January 10, 2009.
  146. ^ Relf, Ken (Winter 2012). "James Mitose's Prison Years" (PDF). Kosho-Ryu Kenpo Newsletter. Mitose's International Kosho-Ryu Kenpo Association (M.I.K.K.A.). 1 (1): 1–4 – via Google Scholar.
  147. ^ "Death row inmate hangs self". United Press International. 15 September 1995. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  148. ^ "SAN QUENTIN / Sausage king dies in his cell on Death Row / Cause of death not known for man who murdered 3". 28 December 2005.
  149. ^ "Correction: Death Row Suicide story". 2017-01-17. Retrieved 2021-06-09.
  150. ^ Stickney, Rebecca; Krueger, Paul (2011-11-17). "O'side Restroom Killer Commits Suicide". NBC 7 San Diego. Retrieved 2021-06-09.
  151. ^ "Infamous 'Zebra killer' found dead in San Quentin cell". 14 March 2015.
  152. ^ "Convicted SoCal killers Andrew Urdiales, Virendra Govin found dead in San Quentin". 6 November 2018.
  153. ^ "Alameda County Serial Killer Dies on San Quentin's Death Row". 18 October 2019.
  154. ^ Hernandez, Miriam (August 10, 2016). "Convicted serial killer Lonnie Franklin Jr., also known as the 'Grim Sleeper,' was formally sentenced to death". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  155. ^ "'Grim Sleeper' serial killer Lonnie Franklin dies on death row at San Quentin". Los Angeles Times. 29 March 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  156. ^ "Ex-Police Officer Convicted Of Six Murders". Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  157. ^ "Condemned Incarcerated Person Anthony J. Sully Dies of Natural Causes". California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. September 11, 2023. Archived from the original on September 12, 2023.
  158. ^ "Coronavirus: These killers died on San Quentin's Death Row". The Mercury News. 2020-07-29. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  159. ^ "Condemned Inmate Richard Eugene Stitely Dies". News Releases. 2020-06-25. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  160. ^ "Condemned Inmate Joseph Safarino Cordova Dies". News Releases. 2020-07-02. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  161. ^ "Condemned Inmates Scott Erskine and Manuel Alvarez Die". News Releases. 2020-07-03. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  162. ^ "Condemned Inmate Dewayne Carey Dies". News Releases. 2020-07-04. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  163. ^ "Condemned Inmate David Reed Dies". News Releases. 2020-07-08. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  164. ^ "Condemned Inmate Jeffrey Hawkins Dies". News Releases. 2020-07-15. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  165. ^ "Condemned Inmate Troy Ashmus Dies". News Releases. 2020-07-20. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  166. ^ "Condemned Inmate John Beames Dies". News Releases. 2020-07-22. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  167. ^ "Condemned Inmate Johnny Avila Jr. Dies". News Releases. 2020-07-26. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  168. ^ "Condemned Inmate Orlando Romero Dies". News Releases. 2020-08-03. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  169. ^ "Condemned Inmate Pedro Arias Dies (corrected)". News Releases. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  170. ^ Durrant dies. Los Angeles Times, January 8, 1898.
  171. ^ "The Tribune from San Luis Obispo, California on December 6, 1912 · 1". 6 December 1912.
  172. ^ "Los Angeles Herald 21 July 1916 — California Digital Newspaper Collection".
  173. ^ "South Bend news-times. (South Bend, Ind.) 1913-1938, July 24, 1920, Morning Edition, Image 1". 24 July 1920.
  174. ^ Healey, Floyd J. Fiend pays with life. Hickman faints on gallows. Los Angeles Times, October 20, 1928.
  175. ^ Healey, Floyd J. Northcott executed. Confusing notes left behind. Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1930.
  176. ^ Espy, M. Watt (September 5, 1941). "Summary of the execution of William Johansen". University at Albany Archives. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  177. ^ "WOMAN EXECUTED IN GAS CHAMBER; Gang-Leading Grandmother, 52, First of Sex Legally Put to Death in California". The New York Times. 1941-11-22.
  178. ^ James pays with life in wife killing. Former barber hanged at San Quentin for 'rattlesnake murder.' Los Angeles Times, May 2, 1942.
  179. ^ Two Alcatraz convicts die in gas chamber. Los Angeles Times, December 4, 1948.
  180. ^ Sherman, Gene. Louise Peete meets doom, calm till end. Smile of farewell given to warden from gas chamber. Los Angeles Times, April 12, 1947.
  181. ^ Cook, slayer of six, dies in gas chamber. Los Angeles Times, December 13, 1952.
  182. ^ "Itinerant Farm Laborer Executed". Petaluma Argus-Courier. October 16, 1953. p. 4. Retrieved November 11, 2021 – via
  183. ^ Babs, Santo, Perkins gassed after delays. Los Angeles Times, June 4, 1955.
  184. ^ Gov. Knight call late to halt Abbott death; telephoned reprieve for kidnap-slayer comes as pellets fall. Los Angeles Times, March 16, 1957.
  185. ^ "Killer Goes To Death in Gas Chamber". The Press Democrat. May 29, 1959.
  186. ^ Models' killer Glatman dies. Los Angeles Times, September 19, 1959.
  187. ^ Chessman denies guilt as he dies. Los Angeles Times, May 3, 1960.
  188. ^ "noirish Los Angeles - Page 406 - SkyscraperPage Forum". Retrieved 2022-01-31.
  189. ^ "A Mother's Love Was the Death of Her Daughter-in-Law". Los Angeles Times. 20 January 2002. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  190. ^ "Crime: Stirrings on Death Row". Time. 21 April 1967.
  191. ^ Morrison, Patt. Final legal war troubling to both sides. Reaction: Most remain firm in views on capital punishment. But many agree that chaotic court wrangling added an aura of inhumanity to the proceedings. Los Angeles Times, April 22, 1992.
  192. ^ Killers are executed in Texas and California. New York Times, August 25, 1993. Accessed January 4, 2009.
  193. ^ Chiang, Harriet, Kevin Fagan, and Henry K. Lee. 'Freeway Killer' put to death. Bonin loses last-ditch appeals. Archived 2009-06-15 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, February 23, 1996. Accessed January 4, 2009.
  194. ^ "Executed Inmate Summary – Keith Daniel Williams". California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Retrieved December 19, 2021.
  195. ^ "Inmate Said Goodbyes, Then Died". Los Angeles Times. July 15, 1998. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  196. ^ "Executed Inmate Summary – Jaturun Siripongs". California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Retrieved December 19, 2021.
  197. ^ Brooks, Clark. War hero's life ends in death chamber. San Diego Union-Tribune, May 5, 1999.
  198. ^ "Executed Inmate Summary - Darrell Keith Rich".
  199. ^ "Executed Inmate Summary – Robert Lee Massie". California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Retrieved October 23, 2021.
  200. ^ Grenda, Tim, and Robert T. Garrett. Killer of Inland woman dies: Executed: Stephen Wayne Anderson murdered a Bloomington piano teacher in 1980. Press-Enterprise (Riverside, CA), January 29, 2002.
  201. ^ Fagan, Kevin, Bob Egelko and Peter Fimrite. Donald Beardslee executed. Killer put to death at San Quentin. Archived 2008-10-11 at the Wayback MachineSan Francisco Chronicle, January 19, 2005. Accessed January 4, 2009.
  202. ^ Williams, Stanley Tookie, and Barbara Cottman Becnel. Life in prison. New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1998. ISBN 0-688-15589-8.
  203. ^ Kershaw, Sarah. Crips gang co-founder is executed. Archived 2012-06-26 at the Wayback Machine New York Times, December 13, 2005. Accessed January 4, 2009.
  204. ^ Doyle, Jim, Bob Egelko, and Stacy Finz. Ailing killer executed at age 76. Condemned for 3 slayings, Allen is oldest ever put to death in state. Archived 2009-06-10 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle, January 17, 2006. Accessed January 4, 2009.
  205. ^ Dowd, Katie (13 August 2019). "The San Quentin prison doctor who performed over 10,000 human experiments". SFGATE. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  206. ^ "Lockup: San Quentin Extended Stay". NBC News. 10 September 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
  207. ^ Attributed to Larkin, Colin, The Encyclopedia of Popular Music; 'Licensed by Muze'. "Merle Haggard Biography". Oldies Biography. Oldies. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2012.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  208. ^ Black, C. Clifton. The man in the black: Johnny Cash. Christian Century, October 4, 2003. Accessed January 2, 2009.
  209. ^ And The Winner Of The Grammy Is... Archived 2009-06-25 at the Wayback Machine Seattle Times, February 21, 1991. Accessed January 2, 2009.
  210. ^ Berton, Justin (23 December 2008). "When 'Waiting for Godot' played San Quentin". Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  211. ^ Men of San Quentin (1942). Archived 2013-05-15 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times. Accessed January 11, 2009.
  212. ^ Crowther, Bosley. Movie review. Dark Passage (1947). New York Times, September 6, 1947. Accessed January 12, 2009.
  213. ^ Duffy of San Quentin (1954). Archived 2009-06-10 at the Wayback Machine New York Times. Accessed January 11, 2009.
  214. ^ Blake, Gene. Famed warden Duffy of San Quentin dead at 84. Los Angeles Times, October 14, 1982.
  215. ^ Nixon, Rob. Behind the camera on Take the Money and Run. Archived 2009-06-09 at the Wayback Machine TCM This Month. Accessed January 12, 2009.
  216. ^ "10 THINGS I HATE ABOUT YOU". Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  217. ^ Alexander, Bryan (July 10, 2013). "Octavia Spencer: The help behind 'Fruitvale Station'". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 18, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  218. ^ "Venom Credits Scene Explained: What to Know About Carnage". Time. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  219. ^ Locke, John; editor. City of Numbered Men: The Best of Prison Stories, Off-Trail Publications, 2010. ISBN 978-1-935031-11-6.
  220. ^ Larson, Sarah (August 16, 2017). ""Ear Hustle": The Podcast Made Inside San Quentin". The New Yorker.

Further reading