This is a list of the wars or external conflicts fought during the history of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire (395–1453). For internal conflicts see the list of Byzantine revolts and civil wars.

For conflicts of the Ancient Roman Kingdom, Republic and Empire see the: List of Roman wars and battles.

5th century and earlier

Main article: List of Roman wars and battles

6th century

The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (its vassals in pink)

7th century

By 650 the Empire had lost all its southern provinces, except the Exarchate of Africa, to the Rashidun Caliphate. At the same time the Slavs invaded and settled in the Balkans. The losses continued in the next century

The Eastern Roman emperor Heraclius adopted the Greek language as official language in 610. Constantinople's territorial control shrunk to Greece and Anatolia, because of Persian, Avar and finally Arab invasions. Due to these changing circumstances, the reign of Heraclius is often regarded as the turning point from which historiography stops calling it the "Eastern Roman Empire", and starts speaking of the "Byzantine Empire".[1]

8th century

9th century

10th century

11th century

12th century

13th century

14th century

15th century

See also


  1. ^ a b "zevende eeuw". Encarta Encyclopedie Winkler Prins (in Dutch). Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. 2002.
  2. ^ Ziemann, Daniel. (2019) Das erste Bulgarische Reich: Eine frühmittelalterliche Großmacht zwischen Byzanz und dem Abendland. In: Handbuch zur Geschichte Südosteuropas v. 1, p. 601-638.