Depiction of the blinding of Leo Phokas the Elder after his unsuccessful rebellion against Romanos Lekapenos, from the Madrid Skylitzes chronicle

Mutilation was a common method of punishment for criminals in the Byzantine Empire, but it also had a role in the empire's political life.[1] By blinding a rival, one would not only restrict his mobility but also make it almost impossible for him to lead an army into battle, then an important part of taking control of the empire. Castration was also used to eliminate potential opponents. In the Byzantine Empire, for a man to be castrated meant that he was no longer a man—half-dead, "life that was half death".[2] Castration also eliminated any chance of heirs being born to threaten either the emperor's or the emperor's children's place at the throne. Other mutilations were the severing of the nose (rhinotomy), or the amputating of limbs.


The mutilation of political rivals by the emperor was deemed an effective way of side-lining from the line of succession a person who was seen as a threat. Castrated men were not seen as a threat, as no matter how much power they gained they could never take the throne, and numerous eunuchs were entrusted with high and confidential offices in the Byzantine court and administration. In Byzantine culture, the emperor was a reflection of heavenly authority. Since God was perfect, the emperor also had to be unblemished; any mutilation, especially facial wounds, would disqualify an individual from taking the throne.[3] An exception was Justinian II (ὁ Ῥινότμητος, "the slit-nosed"), who had his nose cut off when he was overthrown in 695 but was able to become emperor again in 705.[4]


Blinding as a punishment for political rivals and a recognized penalty for treachery was established in 705, although Phocas used it earlier during his rule as well, becoming common practice from Heraclius onwards.[5] Castration as a punishment for political rivals did not come into use until much later, becoming popular in the 10th and 11th centuries. An example is that of Basil Lekapenos, the illegitimate son of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, who was castrated when young. He gained enough power to become parakoimomenos and effective prime minister for three successive emperors, but could not assume the throne himself.[6][7]

Cases of disfigurement

Victim Date Disfigurement Details Reference
Alexios Philanthropenos 1295 Blinded Governor of the Thracesian Theme, he rose up against Andronikos II Palaiologos, but was captured by loyalist soldiers and blinded [8]
Anastasius of Constantinople 743 Blinded For supporting Artabasdos's usurpation against Constantine V he was blinded [9]
Artabasdos 743 Blinded Artabasdos and his sons Nikephoros and Niketas were blinded for his failed insurrection against Constantine V during the iconoclasm crisis [10]
Sisinnios 743 Blinded Strategos of the Thracesians, he supported Constantine V against Artabasdos but was blinded after the former's victory due to suspicions of conspiring to seize the throne himself [11][12]
Antiochos, David, Theophylact of Iconium, Christopher, Constantine, Theophylact the kandidatos, and 11 others 766 Blinded High-ranking provincial governors and court officials, members of a group of nineteen who conspired against Constantine V. The plot was discovered and its members publicly paraded at the Hippodrome on 25 August 766. The two ringleaders, brothers Constantine and Strategios Podopagouros, were executed, the rest blinded and exiled, and every year imperial agents were sent to deliver 100 lashes. [13]
John Athalarichos 637 Nose and hands amputated Amputation carried out after he tried to overthrow his father, Heraclius; his co-conspirator Theodore who received the same punishment was exiled and also had one leg amputated. [14]
Bardanes Tourkos 803/804 Blinded Led an unsuccessful revolt against Nikephoros I and surrendered. Blinded whilst in confinement in a monastery, likely on Nikephoros' orders. [15]
Bardas Phokas 1026 Blinded Accused of plotting against Constantine VIII [16]
Constantine Diogenes 1095 Blinded Impostor pretender, led a Cuman invasion of Thrace against Alexios I Komnenos [17]
Philippikos Bardanes , Theodore Myakes, George Bouraphos 713 Blinded A rebellion of Opsician troops succeeded in getting a number of men into the city where they were able to blind Philippicus at a bathhouse on June 3, 713. He was followed a week later by the patrikios Theodore Myakes and a week after that by the Count of the Opsicians, the patrikios George Bouraphos [18]
Callinicus I of Constantinople 705 Blinded Supported the overthrow of Justinian II and was blinded when he came back to power in 705 [19]
Constantine VI 797 Blinded Emperor who was blinded by supporters of his mother, Irene of Athens. Constantine died of his injuries shortly thereafter, leading to Irene being crowned the empress regnant.
Constantine , Basil, Gregory and Theodosios 820 Castrated The sons of Leo V the Armenian, who was deposed on Christmas Day, 820, by Michael II the Amorian. They were exiled to Prote, castrated and confined to a monastery as monks. [20]
Leo Phokas 919 Blinded Rose up against the assumption of power by Romanos Lekapenos but was captured and blinded [21]
Constantine Aspietes 1190/1 Blinded Suspected of plotting a revolt against Isaac II Angelos because he distributed delayed pay to his troops [22]
Leo Phokas 971 Blinded Plotted a revolt against John I Tzimiskes[16] [23]
Nikephoros 792 Blinded Uncle of Constantine VI, blinded, while his four brothers had their tongues cut, after the tagmata conspired to put him on the throne in the aftermath of the Battle of Marcellae [24][25]
Alexios Mosele 792 Blinded General of the Armeniacs, blinded because of their refusal to acknowledge Irene of Athens as empress and co-ruler of Constantine VI [24]
Constantine Diogenes 1028–1034[A 1] Blinded The popular general was blinded because of a supposed plot against Romanos III Argyros [26]
Nikephoros Bryennios 1078 Blinded Nikephoros had rebelled against Michael VII in 1077, and continued his rebellion against Nikephoros III Botaneiates. Defeated and captured by Alexios Komnenos at Kalavrye, he was blinded. [27][28]
Nikephoros Diogenes 1094 Blinded Nikephoros was Romanos IV Diogenes's son with Eudokia Makrembolitissa; Emperor Alexios I Komnenos had him blinded after charging him with treason [29]
Romanos IV Diogenes 1072 Blinded Andronikos Doukas had Romanos IV Diogenes blinded after tricking him into stepping down as emperor [30]
Heraklonas, David, Martinus 641 Nose slit Overthrown, disfigured and exiled by supporters of Constans II [31]
Theophylact, Staurakios and Niketas (the future Patriarch Ignatius) 813 Castrated Sons of Michael I Rhangabe, they were castrated after his overthrow by Leo V the Armenian [32]
Justinian II 695 Nose cut off Overthrown, disfigured and exiled by supporters of Leontios [4]
Alexios Komnenos 1182 Blinded, possibly castrated De facto regent for Alexios II Komnenos, overthrown by the usurper Andronikos I Komnenos
John IV Laskaris 1261 Blinded Made emperor at seven years old, he was overthrown and blinded when he was eleven years old [33]
Basil Lekapenos 920–944[A 2] Castrated As an infant he was castrated for being born an illegitimate son to Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos [6]
Martina 641 Tongue cut out Overthrown, disfigured and exiled by supporters of Constans II [31]
Symbatios the Armenian 866/867 One eye gouged out, right arm cut off Rebelled with George Peganes against Michael III's raising Basil the Macedonian as co-emperor [34]
George Peganes 866/867 Blinded, nose cut off Rebelled with Symbatios the Armenian against Michael III's raising Basil the Macedonian as co-emperor [35]
The family of John the Orphanotrophos 1041 Castrated Michael V castrated all male members of John the Orphanotrophos's family [2]
John the Orphanotrophos 1043 Blinded Was seen as a threat so he was blinded by the patriarch of Constantinople Michael Cerularius [26]
Prousianos 1029 Blinded After a supposed plot against Romanos III Argyros, he was blinded [26]
Theodorus 637 Nose, hands and one leg amputated Mutilated for being a co-planner in Athalarichos's attempt to overthrow Heraclius [14]
Isaac II Angelos 1195 Blinded Blinded and deposed by his brother Alexios III Angelos
Leontios 698 Blinded Blinded and deposed by Tiberios III and later killed by Justinian II in 705


  1. ^ Lost his eyes sometime in the reign of Emperor Romanos III Argyros (November 15, 1028 – April 11, 1034)
  2. ^ Basil Lekapenos was castrated as an infant sometime during Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos's rule (920–944). However, there is no date on either the castration or on when he was born.


  1. ^ Rautman 2006, p. 30
  2. ^ a b Ringrose 2003, p. 62
  3. ^ Longworth 1997, p. 321
  4. ^ a b Ostrogorski 1957, p. 124
  5. ^ ODB, "Blinding" (A. Kazhdan), pp. 297–298
  6. ^ a b Norwich 1993, p. 167
  7. ^ Talbot & Sullivan 2005, p. 143
  8. ^ Nicol 1993, p. 124
  9. ^ Milman 1867, p. 370
  10. ^ Garland 2006, p. 9
  11. ^ Rochow 1994, p. 30
  12. ^ Mango & Scott 1997, p. 581
  13. ^ Mango & Scott 1997, p. 605
  14. ^ a b Nicephorus 1990, p. 73.
  15. ^ Kountoura-Galaki 1983, pp. 213–214
  16. ^ a b ODB, "Phokas" (A. Kazhdan), pp. 1665–1666
  17. ^ Skoulatos 1980, pp. 75–77
  18. ^ Mango & Scott 1997, p. 533
  19. ^ Kiminas 2009, p. 44
  20. ^ Treadgold 1988, p. 224
  21. ^ Treadgold 1997, pp. 474–476
  22. ^ Savvides 1991, p. 77
  23. ^ Treadgold 1997, pp. 507–508
  24. ^ a b Garland 1999, p. 83
  25. ^ Mango & Scott 1997, p. 643
  26. ^ a b c Garland 1999, p. 162
  27. ^ ODB, "Bryennios, Nikephoros" (A. Kazhdan), pp. 330–331
  28. ^ Skoulatos 1980, pp. 222–223
  29. ^ Holmes 2005, p. 222
  30. ^ Norwich 1993, p. 357
  31. ^ a b Theophanes 1982, p. 41.
  32. ^ Treadgold 1988, pp. 188–189
  33. ^ Hackel 2001, p. 71
  34. ^ PmbZ, Symbatios (#7169).
  35. ^ PmbZ, Georgios Peganes (#2263).