This timeline of cosmological theories and discoveries is a chronological record of the development of humanity's understanding of the cosmos over the last two-plus millennia. Modern cosmological ideas follow the development of the scientific discipline of physical cosmology.

For millennia, what today is known to be the Solar System was regarded as the contents of the "whole universe", so advances in the knowledge of both mostly paralleled. Clear distinction was not made until circa mid-17th century. See Timeline of Solar System astronomy for further details on this side.


See also: Cosmogony

Early Hebrew conception of the cosmos.[citation needed] The firmament, Sheol and tehom are depicted.
Geocentric celestial spheres; Peter Apian's Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539)

Middle Ages

Naboth's representation of Martianus Capella's geo-heliocentric astronomical model (1573)


Andreas Cellarius's illustration of the Copernican system, from the Harmonia Macrocosmica

Enlightenment to Victorian Era

William Herschel's model of the Milky Way, 1785
One of Andrew Ainslie Common's 1883 photographs of the Orion nebula, the first to show that a long exposure could record stars and nebulae invisible to the human eye.


The earliest known photograph of the Great Andromeda "Nebula" (with M110 to upper left), by Isaac Roberts, 1899.
Three steps to the Hubble constant[93]


The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico, United States.
The sky at energies above 100 MeV observed by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) satellite (1991–2000).


Cosmic microwave background as measured by the Cosmic Background Imager experiment.

See also

Physical cosmology

Historical development of hypotheses

Belief systems



  1. ^ Horowitz (1998), p. xii
  2. ^ This is a matter of debate:
    • Cornford, F. M. (1934). "Innumerable Worlds in Presocratic Philosophy". The Classical Quarterly. 28 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1017/S0009838800009897. ISSN 1471-6844. S2CID 170168443.
    • Curd, Patricia; Graham, Daniel W. (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 239–41. ISBN 978-0-19-972244-0.
    • Gregory, Andrew (2016). "7 Anaximander: One Cosmos or Many?". Anaximander: A Re-assessment. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 121–142. ISBN 978-1472506252.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "there are innumerable worlds of different sizes. In some there is neither sun nor moon, in others they are larger than in ours and others have more than one. These worlds are at irregular distances, more in one direction and less in another, and some are flourishing, others declining. Here they come into being, there they die, and they are destroyed by collision with one another. Some of the worlds have no animal or vegetable life nor any water."
  5. ^ "Ancient Greek Astronomy and Cosmology | Modeling the Cosmos | Articles and Essays | Finding Our Place in the Cosmos: From Galileo to Sagan and Beyond | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress. Washington, DC.
  6. ^ Blakemore, Erin. "Christopher Columbus Never Set Out to Prove the Earth was Round".
  7. ^ Aristotle, On the Heavens, ii, 13
  8. ^ "A column of stone", Aetius reports in De Fide (III, 7, 1), or "similar to a pillar-shaped stone", pseudo-Plutarch (III, 10).
  9. ^ Sider, D. (1973). "Anaxagoras on the Size of the Sun". Classical Philology. 68 (2): 128–129. doi:10.1086/365951. JSTOR 269068. S2CID 161940013.
  10. ^ In Refutation, it is reported that the circle of the Sun is twenty-seven times bigger than the Moon.
  11. ^ Aetius, De Fide (II, 15, 6)
  12. ^ Most of Anaximander's model of the Universe comes from pseudo-Plutarch (II, 20–28):
    "[The Sun] is a circle twenty-eight times as big as the Earth, with the outline similar to that of a fire-filled chariot wheel, on which appears a mouth in certain places and through which it exposes its fire, as through the hole on a flute. [...] the Sun is equal to the Earth, but the circle on which it breathes and on which it's borne is twenty-seven times as big as the whole earth. [...] [The eclipse] is when the mouth from which comes the fire heat is closed. [...] [The Moon] is a circle nineteen times as big as the whole earth, all filled with fire, like that of the Sun".
  13. ^  Laërtius, Diogenes (1925). "Others: Parmenides" . Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. Vol. 2:9. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library.
  14. ^ Thurston, Hugh (1994). Early astronomy. New York: Springer-Verlag New York. p. 111. ISBN 0-387-94107-X.
  15. ^ Dreyer, John Louis Emil (1906). History of the planetary systems from Thales to Kepler. p. 42. To complete the number ten, Philolaus created the antichthon, or counter-earth. This tenth planet is always invisible to us, because it is between us and the central fire and always keeps pace with the Earth.
  16. ^ Pedersen, Olaf (1993). Early physics and astronomy. A historical introduction. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40340-5.
  17. ^ "The components from which he made the soul and the way in which he made it were as follows: In between the Being that is indivisible and always changeless, and the one that is divisible and comes to be in the corporeal realm, he mixed a third, intermediate form of being, derived from the other two. Similarly, he made a mixture of the Same, and then one of the Different, in between their indivisible and their corporeal, divisible counterparts. And he took the three mixtures and mixed them together to make a uniform mixture, forcing the Different, which was hard to mix, into conformity with the Same. Now when he had mixed these two with Being, and from the three had made a single mixture, he redivided the whole mixture into as many parts as his task required, each part remaining a mixture of the Same, the Different and Being." (35a-b), translation Donald J. Zeyl
  18. ^ Plato, Timaeus, 36c
  19. ^ Plato, Timaeus, 36d
  20. ^ Plato, Timaeus, 39d
  21. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2019). "heliocentrism | Definition, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  22. ^ Yavetz, Ido (February 1998). "On the Homocentric Spheres of Eudoxus". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 52 (3): 222–225. Bibcode:1998AHES...52..222Y. doi:10.1007/s004070050017. JSTOR 41134047. S2CID 121186044.
  23. ^ Crowe, Michael (2001). Theories of the World from Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution. Mineola, NY: Dover. p. 23. ISBN 0-486-41444-2.
  24. ^ De caelo, 297b31–298a10
  25. ^ Easterling, H (1961). "Homocentric Spheres in De Caelo". Phronesis. 6 (2): 138–141. doi:10.1163/156852861x00161. JSTOR 4181694.
  26. ^ Thurston, Hugh (1994). Early astronomy. New York: Springer-Verlag New York. p. 118. ISBN 0-387-94107-X.
  27. ^ Sorabji, Richard (2005). The Philosophy of the Commentators, 200–600 AD: Physics. Cornell University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-8014-8988-4.
  28. ^ Aristotle; Forster, E. S. (Edward Seymour); Dobson, J. F. (John Frederic) (1914). De Mundo. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. p. 2.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ Simplicius (2003). "Physics 2". On Aristotle's. Translated by Fleet, Barries. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 48.
  30. ^ Eastwood, Bruce (1992). "Heraclides and Heliocentrism: Texts, Diagrams, and Interpretations". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 23 (4): 253. Bibcode:1992JHA....23..233E. doi:10.1177/002182869202300401. S2CID 118643709.
  31. ^ D., J. L. E. (July 1913). "Aristarchus of Samos: The Ancient Copernicus". Nature. 91 (2281): 499–500. Bibcode:1913Natur..91..499J. doi:10.1038/091499a0. ISSN 1476-4687. S2CID 3942458.
  32. ^ Russell, Bertrand — History of Western Philosophy (2004) – p. 215
  33. ^ Carrol, Bradley and Ostlie, Dale, An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2007. pp. 4
  34. ^ Russo, Lucio (2004). The forgotten revolution : how science was born in 300 BC and why it had to be reborn. Berlin: Springer. p. 68. ISBN 3-540-20396-6. OCLC 52945835.
  35. ^ G. J. Toomer, "Hipparchus on the distances of the sun and moon," Archive for History of Exact Sciences 14 (1974), 126–142.
  36. ^ Alexander Jones "Ptolemy in Perspective: Use and Criticism of his Work from Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century, Springer, 2010, p.36.
  37. ^ "Mahattattva, Mahat-tattva: 5 definitions". Wisdom Library. February 10, 2021. Mahattattva (महत्तत्त्व) or simply Mahat refers to a primordial principle of the nature of both pradhāna and puruṣa, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—[...] From the disturbed prakṛti and the puruṣa sprang up the seed of mahat, which is of the nature of both pradhāna and puruṣa. The mahattattva is then covered by the pradhāna and being so covered it differentiates itself as the sāttvika, rājasa and tāmasa-mahat. The pradhāna covers the mahat just as a seed is covered by the skin. Being so covered there spring from the three fold mahat the threefold ahaṃkāra called vaikārika, taijasa and bhūtādi or tāmasa.
  38. ^ Gupta, S. V. (2010). "Ch. 1.2.4 Time Measurements". In Hull, Robert; Osgood, Richard M. Jr.; Parisi, Jurgen; Warlimont, Hans (eds.). Units of Measurement: Past, Present and Future. International System of Units. Springer Series in Materials Science: 122. Springer. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9783642007378.
  39. ^ Penprase, Bryan E. (2017). The Power of Stars (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 182. ISBN 9783319525976.
  40. ^ Johnson, W.J. (2009). A Dictionary of Hinduism. Oxford University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-19-861025-0.
  41. ^ Fernandez, Elizabeth. "The Multiverse And Eastern Philosophy". Forbes.
  42. ^
  43. ^ North, John (1995). The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology. New York: W.W.Norton & Company, Inc. p. 115. ISBN 0-393-03656-1.
  44. ^ jones, prudence (2011-01-01), Akyeampong, Emmanuel K; Gates, Henry Louis (eds.), "Ptolemy", Dictionary of African Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195382075.001.0001, ISBN 978-0-19-538207-5, retrieved 2022-11-09
  45. ^ Swerdlow, N. M. (February 2021). "The Almagest in the Manner of Euclid". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 52 (1): 104–107. Bibcode:2021JHA....52..104S. doi:10.1177/0021828620977214. ISSN 0021-8286. S2CID 231875934.
  46. ^ Jackson, Roger; Makransky, John (2013). Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars. Routledge. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-136-83012-9.
  47. ^ Reat, N. Ross; Perry, Edmund F. (1991). A World Theology: The Central Spiritual Reality of Humankind. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-521-33159-3.
  48. ^ Ansari, S.M.R. (March 1977). "Aryabhata I, His Life and His Contributions". Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India. 5 (1): 10–18. Bibcode:1977BASI....5...10A. hdl:2248/502.
  49. ^ Bruce S. Eastwood, Ordering the Heavens: Roman Astronomy and Cosmology in the Carolingian Renaissance (Leiden: Brill, 2007), pp. 238-9.
  50. ^ Adi Setia (2004). "Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi on Physics and the Nature of the Physical World: A Preliminary Survey". Islam & Science. 2. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
  51. ^ Lewis, Neil (2021), "Robert Grosseteste", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2021 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2022-11-05
  52. ^ Kennedy, E. S. (1986-06-01). "The Astronomy of Levi ben Gerson (1288–1344): A Critical Edition of Chapters 1–20 with Translation and Commentary. Levi ben Gerson, Bernard R. Goldstein". Isis. 77 (2): 371–372. doi:10.1086/354184. ISSN 0021-1753.
  53. ^ Kirschner, Stefan (2021), "Nicole Oresme", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2021 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2022-11-09
  54. ^ "Episode 11: The Legacy of Ptolemy's Almagest". 2022-09-28. Retrieved 2022-11-09.
  55. ^ Hagen, J. (1911). "Nicholas of Cusa". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
  56. ^ Dick, Steven J. Plurality of Worlds: The Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Democritus to Kant. Cambridge University Press (June 29, 1984). pgs 35-42.
  57. ^ George G. Joseph (2000). The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics, p. 408. Princeton University Press.
  58. ^ "Nicolaus Copernicus - University of Bologna". Retrieved 2022-11-09.
  59. ^ Hellyer, Marcus, ed. (2008). The Scientific Revolution: The Essential Readings. Blackwell Essential Readings in History. Vol. 7. John Wiley & Sons. p. 63. ISBN 9780470754771. The Puritan Thomas Digges (1546–1595?) was the earliest Englishman to offer a defense of the Copernican theory. ... Accompanying Digges's account is a diagram of the universe portraying the heliocentric system surrounded by the orb of fixed stars, described by Digges as infinitely extended in all dimensions.
  60. ^ Bruno, Giordano. "Third Dialogue". On the infinite universe and worlds. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012.
  61. ^ Hatch, Robert. "Early Geo-Heliocentric models". The Scientific Revolution. Dr. Robert A. Hatch. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  62. ^ Gilbert, William (1893). "Book 6, Chapter III". De Magnete. Translated by Mottelay, P. Fleury. (Facsimile). New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-26761-X.
  63. ^ Taton, René; Wilson, Curtis (1989). Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24254-1. OCLC 769917781.
  64. ^ Galileo Galilei, Sidereus Nuncius (Venice, (Italy): Thomas Baglioni, 1610), pages 15 and 16. Archived March 16, 2016, at the Wayback Machine English translation: Galileo Galilei with Edward Stafford Carlos, trans., The Sidereal Messenger (London: Rivingtons, 1880), pages 42 and 43. Archived December 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ Christian Frisch, ed., Joannis Kepleri Astronomi Opera Omnia, vol. 6 (Frankfurt-am-Main, (Germany): Heyder & Zimmer, 1866), page 361.)
  66. ^ Goldstein, S.J. (1985). "Christiaan Huygens' measurement of the distance to the Sun". Observatory. 105: 32–33.
  67. ^ ""Astronomical Unit," or Earth-Sun Distance, Gets an Overhaul". Scientific American.
  68. ^ Bobis, Laurence; Lequeux, James (2008). "Cassini, Rømer and the velocity of light". J. Astron. Hist. Herit. 11 (2): 97–105. Bibcode:2008JAHH...11...97B. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1440-2807.2008.02.02. S2CID 115455540.
  69. ^ Bartusiak, Marcia (2004). Archives of the universe : a treasury of astronomy's historic works of discovery (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42170-X. OCLC 54966424.
  70. ^ "solar (adj.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  71. ^ Otto Neugebauer (1975). A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. Birkhäuser. p. 1084. ISBN 978-3-540-06995-9.
  72. ^ Bradley, James (1727–1728). "A Letter from the Reverend Mr. James Bradley Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, and F.R.S. to Dr.Edmond Halley Astronom. Reg. &c. Giving an Account of a New Discovered Motion of the Fix'd Stars". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 35 (406): 637–661. Bibcode:1727RSPT...35..637B. doi:10.1098/rstl.1727.0064.
  73. ^ "Original Messier Catalog of 1781". Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. 10 November 2007.
  74. ^ a b Berendzen, Richard (1975). "Geocentric to heliocentric to galactocentric to acentric: the continuing assault to the egocentric". Vistas in Astronomy. 17 (1): 65–83. Bibcode:1975VA.....17...65B. doi:10.1016/0083-6656(75)90049-5.
  75. ^ Owen, T. C. (2001) "Solar system: origin of the solar system", Encyclopædia Britannica, Deluxe CDROM edition
  76. ^ Henderson, Thomas (1839). "On the Parallax of α Centauri". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 4 (19): 168–170. Bibcode:1839MNRAS...4..168H. doi:10.1093/mnras/4.19.168.
  77. ^ Bessel, F. W. (1838b). "On the parallax of 61 Cygni". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 4 (17): 152–161. Bibcode:1838MNRAS...4..152B. doi:10.1093/mnras/4.17.152.
  78. ^ Alec Eden The search for Christian Doppler, Springer-Verlag, Wien 1992. Contains a facsimile edition with an English translation.
  79. ^ Fizeau: "Acoustique et optique". Lecture, Société Philomathique de Paris, 29 December 1848. According to Becker(pg. 109), this was never published, but recounted by M. Moigno(1850): "Répertoire d'optique moderne" (in French), vol 3. pp 1165–1203 and later in full by Fizeau, "Des effets du mouvement sur le ton des vibrations sonores et sur la longeur d'onde des rayons de lumière"; [Paris, 1870]. Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 19, 211–221.
  80. ^ Pohle, J. (1913). "Angelo Secchi" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. [...][his] theory of the unity of the world and of the identity of the fixed stars and the sun received most profound scientific demonstration and confirmation.
  81. ^ Michelson, Albert A.; Morley, Edward W. (1887). "On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether" . American Journal of Science. 34 (203): 333–345. Bibcode:1887AmJS...34..333M. doi:10.2475/ajs.s3-34.203.333. S2CID 124333204.
  82. ^ Arabatzis, T. (2006). Representing Electrons: A Biographical Approach to Theoretical Entities. University of Chicago Press. pp. 70–74, 96. ISBN 978-0-226-02421-9. Archived from the original on 2021-01-07. Retrieved 2020-08-25.
  83. ^ Thomson, William (1862). "On the Age of the Sun's Heat". Macmillan's Magazine. Vol. 5. pp. 388–393.
  84. ^ England, P.; Molnar, P.; Righter, F. (January 2007). "John Perry's neglected critique of Kelvin's age for the Earth: A missed opportunity in geodynamics". GSA Today. Vol. 17, no. 1. pp. 4–9. doi:10.1130/GSAT01701A.1.
  85. ^ Bohr, N. (July 1913). "I. On the constitution of atoms and molecules". The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. 26 (151): 1–25. doi:10.1080/14786441308634955.
  86. ^ Glass, I.S. (2008). Proxima, the Nearest Star (other than the Sun). Cape Town: Mons Mensa.
  87. ^ Dyson, F.W.; Eddington, A.S.; Davidson, C.R. (1920). "A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 220 (571–581): 291–333. Bibcode:1920RSPTA.220..291D. doi:10.1098/rsta.1920.0009.
  88. ^ Evans, Ben (April 25, 2020). "The Great Debate - 100 years later". Retrieved 2020-09-10.
  89. ^ Feynman, R., QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Penguin 1990 Edition, p. 84.
  90. ^ Davisson, C. J.; Germer, L. H. (1928). "Reflection of Electrons by a Crystal of Nickel". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 14 (4): 317–322. Bibcode:1928PNAS...14..317D. doi:10.1073/pnas.14.4.317. PMC 1085484. PMID 16587341.
  91. ^ Dirac, P. A. M. (1928). "The Quantum Theory of the Electron". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 117 (778): 610–624. Bibcode:1928RSPSA.117..610D. doi:10.1098/rspa.1928.0023. JSTOR 94981.
  92. ^ Anderson, C. D. (1933). "The Positive Electron". Physical Review. 43 (6): 491–494. Bibcode:1933PhRv...43..491A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.43.491.
  93. ^ "Three steps to the Hubble constant". Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  94. ^ Karl Jansky (Oct 1933). "Electrical Disturbances Apparently of Extraterrestrial Origin". Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers. 21 (10): 1387–1398. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1933.227458. See also Karl Jansky (Jul 8, 1933). "Radio Waves from Outside the Solar System" (PDF). Nature. 132 (3323): 66. Bibcode:1933Natur.132...66J. doi:10.1038/132066a0. S2CID 4063838.
  95. ^ Bethe, H.; Critchfield, C. (1938). "On the Formation of Deuterons by Proton Combination". Physical Review. 54 (10): 862. Bibcode:1938PhRv...54Q.862B. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.54.862.2.
  96. ^ Bethe, H. (1939). "Energy Production in Stars". Physical Review. 55 (1): 434–456. Bibcode:1939PhRv...55..434B. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.55.434. PMID 17835673. S2CID 36146598.
  97. ^ "STS-31". NASA. Archived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
  98. ^ Wolszczan, A.; Frail, D. (1992). "A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257 + 12". Nature. 355 (6356): 145–147. Bibcode:1992Natur.355..145W. doi:10.1038/355145a0. S2CID 4260368.
  99. ^ Mayor, Michael; Queloz, Didier (1995). "A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star". Nature. 378 (6555): 355–359. Bibcode:1995Natur.378..355M. doi:10.1038/378355a0. S2CID 4339201.
  100. ^ "Voyager 1 Sees Solar Wind Decline". NASA. December 13, 2010. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
  101. ^ Staff (March 17, 2014). "BICEP2 2014 Results Release". National Science Foundation. Retrieved March 18, 2014.
  102. ^ Clavin, Whitney (March 17, 2014). "NASA Technology Views Birth of the Universe". NASA. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
  103. ^ Overbye, Dennis (March 17, 2014). "Space Ripples Reveal Big Bang's Smoking Gun". The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
  104. ^ Overbye, Dennis (March 24, 2014). "Ripples From the Big Bang". New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
  105. ^ a b Ade, P.A.R.; BICEP2 Collaboration (June 19, 2014). "Detection of B-Mode Polarization at Degree Angular Scales by BICEP2". Physical Review Letters. 112 (24): 241101. arXiv:1403.3985. Bibcode:2014PhRvL.112x1101B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.241101. PMID 24996078. S2CID 22780831.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  106. ^ "BICEP2 News | Not Even Wrong".
  107. ^ Overbye, Dennis (June 19, 2014). "Astronomers Hedge on Big Bang Detection Claim". New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  108. ^ Amos, Jonathan (June 19, 2014). "Cosmic inflation: Confidence lowered for Big Bang signal". BBC News. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  109. ^ Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P. (2016-02-11). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters. 116 (6): 061102. arXiv:1602.03837. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 26918975. S2CID 124959784.
  110. ^ Castelvecchi, Davide; Witze, Alexandra (11 February 2016). "Einstein's gravitational waves found at last". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19361. S2CID 182916902. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  111. ^ Blum, Alexander; Lalli, Roberto; Renn, Jürgen (12 February 2016). "The long road towards evidence". Max Planck Society. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  112. ^ Abbott, B. P.; et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (15 June 2016). "GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence". Physical Review Letters. 116 (24): 241103. arXiv:1606.04855. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116x1103A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241103. PMID 27367379. S2CID 118651851.
  113. ^ Commissariat, Tushna (15 June 2016). "LIGO detects second black-hole merger". Physics World. Institute of Physics. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  114. ^ "First-ever Image of a Black Hole Published by the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration". Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  115. ^ "The first picture of a black hole opens a new era of astrophysics". Science News. 2019-04-10. Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  116. ^ "How Does the Event Horizon Telescope Work?". Sky & Telescope. 2019-04-15. Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  117. ^ University of Geneva (10 March 2020). "Solved: The mystery of the expansion of the universe". Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  118. ^ Lombriser, Lucas (10 April 2020). "Consistency of the local Hubble constant with the cosmic microwave background". Physics Letters B. 803: 135303. arXiv:1906.12347. Bibcode:2020PhLB..80335303L. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2020.135303. S2CID 195750638.
  119. ^ "Rethinking cosmology: Universe expansion may not be uniform (Update)". Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  120. ^ "Nasa study challenges one of our most basic ideas about the universe". The Independent. 8 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  121. ^ "Parts of the universe may be expanding faster than others". New Atlas. 9 April 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  122. ^ "Doubts about basic assumption for the universe". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  123. ^ Migkas, K.; Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.; Pacaud, F.; Ramos-Ceja, M. E.; Lovisari, L. (8 April 2020). "Probing cosmic isotropy with a new X-ray galaxy cluster sample through the LX–T scaling relation". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 636: A15. arXiv:2004.03305. Bibcode:2020A&A...636A..15M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936602. ISSN 0004-6361. S2CID 215238834. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  124. ^ "The laws of physics may break down at the edge of the universe". Futurism. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  125. ^ "New findings suggest laws of nature 'downright weird,' not as constant as previously thought". Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  126. ^ Field, David (28 April 2020). "New Tests Suggest a Fundamental Constant of Physics Isn't The Same Across The Universe". Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  127. ^ Wilczynska, Michael R.; Webb, John K.; Bainbridge, Matthew; Barrow, John D.; Bosman, Sarah E. I.; Carswell, Robert F.; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Dumont, Vincent; Lee, Chung-Chi; Leite, Ana Catarina; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Liske, Jochen; Marosek, Konrad; Martins, Carlos J. A. P.; Milaković, Dinko; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca (1 April 2020). "Four direct measurements of the fine-structure constant 13 billion years ago". Science Advances. 6 (17): eaay9672. arXiv:2003.07627. Bibcode:2020SciA....6.9672W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aay9672. PMC 7182409. PMID 32426462.
  128. ^ "Ariane 5 goes down in history with successful launch of Webb". Arianespace (Press release). 25 December 2021. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  129. ^ Frank, Adam; Gleiser, Marcelo (2 September 2023). "The Story of Our Universe May Be Starting to Unravel". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 3 September 2023.