Rashid Sunyaev
Sunyaev in 2010
Born (1943-03-01) 1 March 1943 (age 81)
NationalityRussian, German
Alma materMoscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MS),
Moscow State University (Ph.D)
Known forCosmic microwave background radiation
AwardsKing Faisal International Prize for Physics (2009),
Heineman Prize (2003),
Crafoord Prize (2008),
Kyoto Prize (2011),
Dirac Medal, ICTP (2019),
Max Planck Medal (2023)
Scientific career
InstitutionsRussian Academy of Sciences, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Institute for Advanced Study

Rashid Alievich Sunyaev (Tatar: Рәшит Гали улы Сөнәев, Russian: Раши́д Али́евич Сюня́ев; born 1 March 1943 in Tashkent, USSR) is a German, Soviet, and Russian astrophysicist of Tatar descent.[1] He got his MS degree from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) in 1966. He became a professor at MIPT in 1974. Sunyaev was the head of the High Energy Astrophysics Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and has been chief scientist of the Academy's Space Research Institute since 1992. He has also been a director of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching, Germany since 1996, and Maureen and John Hendricks Distinguished Visiting Professor in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton since 2010.[2]


Sunyaev and Yakov B. Zeldovich developed the theory for the evolution of density fluctuations in the early universe. They predicted the pattern of acoustic fluctuations that have been clearly seen by WMAP and other CMB experiments in the microwave sky and in the large-scale distribution of galaxies. Sunyaev and Zeldovich stated in their 1970 paper, "A detailed investigation of the spectrum of fluctuations may, in principle, lead to an understanding of the nature of initial density perturbations since a distinct periodic dependence of the spectral density of perturbations on wavelength (mass) is peculiar to adiabatic perturbations." CMB experiments have now seen this distinctive scale in temperature and polarization measurements. Large-scale structure observations have seen this scale in galaxy clustering measurements.

With Yakov B. Zeldovich, at the Moscow Institute of Applied Mathematics, he proposed what is known as the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, which is due to electrons associated with gas in galaxy clusters scattering the cosmic microwave background radiation.[3][4][5][6]

Sunyaev and Nikolay I. Shakura developed a model of accretion onto black holes, from a disk,[7] and he has proposed a signature for X-radiation from matter spiraling into a black hole. He has collaborated in important studies of the early universe, including the recombination of hydrogen and the formation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. He led the team which operated the X-ray observatory attached to the Kvant-1 module of the Mir space station and also the GRANAT orbiting X-ray observatory. Kvant made the first detection of X-rays from a supernova in 1987. His team is currently preparing the Spectrum-X-Gamma International Astrophysical Project and is working with INTEGRAL spacecraft data. At Garching he is working in the fields of theoretical high energy astrophysics and physical cosmology and participates in the data interpretation of the ESA Planck spacecraft mission.

Honors and awards


See also


  1. ^ Timur Rakhmatullin (17 August 2017). "Rashid Syunyaev: "I do not believe in a cosmic catastrophe in the near future..."". Realnoe Vremya.
  2. ^ "Rashid Sunyaev". Institute for Advanced Study. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  3. ^ Sunyaev RA; Zel'dovich YB (1969). "The interaction of matter and radiation in a hot-model universe". Astrophys. Space Sci. 4 (3): 301–16. Bibcode:1969Ap&SS...4..301Z. doi:10.1007/BF00661821. S2CID 118207102.
  4. ^ Sunyaev RA; Zel'dovich YB (1970). "Small-scale fluctuations of relic radiation". Astrophys. Space Sci. 7 (1): 3–19. Bibcode:1970Ap&SS...7....3S. doi:10.1007/BF00653471. S2CID 117050217.
  5. ^ Sunyaev RA; Zel'dovich YB (1972). "The observations of relic radiation as a test of the nature of X-ray radiation from the clusters of galaxies". Comm. Astrophys. Space Phys. 4: 173. Bibcode:1972CoASP...4..173S.
  6. ^ Sunyaev RA; Zel'dovich YB (1980). "Microwave background radiation as a probe of the contemporary structure and history of the universe". Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 18 (1): 537–60. Bibcode:1980ARA&A..18..537S. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.18.090180.002541.
  7. ^ Shakura NI; Syunyaev RA (1973). "Black holes in binary systems. Observational appearance". Astron. Astrophys. 24: 337–55. Bibcode:1973A&A....24..337S.
  8. ^ HEAD AAS Rossi Prize Winners Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Winners of the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society Archived 22 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "The Bruce Medalists: Rashid Sunyaev". www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  11. ^ "2000 ASP Annual Award Winners". www.astrosociety.org. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  12. ^ a b Awards and best publications. ICR RAS
  13. ^ Dannie Heineman Prize for Astrophysics Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "The Gruber Foundation Homepage – The Gruber Foundation". www.gruberprizes.org. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  15. ^ "Rashid Sunyaev". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  16. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Crafoord Prize". www.crafoordprize.se. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  18. ^ Henry Norris Russell Lectureship Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Recipients of the Karl Schwarzschild Medal". Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2008.
  20. ^ Kyoto Prize for Russian astronomer
  21. ^ "Benjamin Franklin Medal in Physics". Franklin Institute. 2012. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  22. ^ "Rashid Syunyaev awarded with Order of Merit for the Republic of Tatarstan". Tatarstan President's Press Service. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  23. ^ "Золотой медалью АН РТ "За достижения в науке" награждены" (in Russian). Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  24. ^ Dirac Medal 2019, ICTP
  25. ^ "Nick Kylafis Lectureship | Institute of Astrophysics". www.ia.forth.gr. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  26. ^ Max Planck Medal 2023