Set of pyramidal right n-gonal frustums | |
---|---|

Faces | n isosceles trapezoids, 2 regular n-gons |

Edges | 3n |

Vertices | 2n |

Symmetry group | C_{nv}, [1,n], (*nn) |

Dual polyhedron | convex asymmetric right n-gonal bipyramid |

Properties | convex |

Net | |

Example: net of right trigonal frustum (n = 3) |

In geometry, a **frustum** (Latin for 'morsel');^{[a]} PL **frusta** or **frustums**) is the portion of a solid (normally a pyramid or a cone) that lies between two parallel planes cutting this solid. In the case of a pyramid, the base faces are polygonal and the side faces are trapezoidal. A **right** frustum is a right pyramid or a right cone truncated perpendicularly to its axis;^{[3]} otherwise, it is an **oblique** frustum.

If all its edges are forced to become of the same length, then a frustum becomes a prism (possibly oblique or/and with irregular bases).

In computer graphics, the viewing frustum is the three-dimensional region which is visible on the screen. It is formed by a clipped pyramid; in particular, *frustum culling* is a method of hidden-surface determination.

In the aerospace industry, a frustum is the fairing between two stages of a multistage rocket (such as the Saturn V), which is shaped like a truncated cone.

The formula for the volume of a pyramidal square frustum was introduced by the ancient Egyptian mathematics in what is called the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, written in the 13th dynasty (c. 1850 BC):

where a and b are the base and top side lengths, and h is the height.

The Egyptians knew the correct formula for the volume of such a truncated square pyramid, but no proof of this equation is given in the Moscow papyrus.

The volume of a conical or pyramidal frustum is the volume of the solid before slicing its "apex" off, minus the volume of this "apex":

where *B*_{1} and *B*_{2} are the base and top areas, and *h*_{1} and *h*_{2} are the perpendicular heights from the apex to the base and top planes.

Considering that

the formula for the volume can be expressed as the third of the product of this proportionality, , and of the difference of the cubes of the heights *h*_{1} and *h*_{2} only:

By using the identity *a*^{3} − *b*^{3} = (*a* − *b*)(*a*^{2} + *ab* + *b*^{2}), one gets:

where *h*_{1} − *h*_{2} = *h* is the height of the frustum.

Distributing and substituting from its definition, the Heronian mean of areas *B*_{1} and *B*_{2} is obtained:

the alternative formula is therefore:

Heron of Alexandria is noted for deriving this formula, and with it, encountering the imaginary unit: the square root of negative one.^{[4]}

In particular:

- The volume of a circular cone frustum is:

- where
*r*_{1}and*r*_{2}are the base and top radii.

- The volume of a pyramidal frustum whose bases are regular n-gons is:

- where
*a*_{1}and*a*_{2}are the base and top side lengths.

For a right circular conical frustum^{[5]}^{[6]}

and

where *r*_{1} and *r*_{2} are the base and top radii respectively, and *s* is the slant height of the frustum.

The surface area of a right frustum whose bases are similar regular *n*-sided polygons is

where *a*_{1} and *a*_{2} are the sides of the two bases.

- On the back (the reverse) of a United States one-dollar bill, a pyramidal frustum appears on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States, surmounted by the Eye of Providence.
- Ziggurats, step pyramids, and certain ancient Native American mounds also form the frustum of one or more pyramids, with additional features such as stairs added.
- Chinese pyramids.
- The John Hancock Center in Chicago, Illinois is a frustum whose bases are rectangles.
- The Washington Monument is a narrow square-based pyramidal frustum topped by a small pyramid.
- The viewing frustum in 3D computer graphics is a virtual photographic or video camera's usable field of view modeled as a pyramidal frustum.
- In the English translation of Stanislaw Lem's short-story collection
*The Cyberiad*, the poem*Love and tensor algebra*claims that "every frustum longs to be a cone". - Buckets and typical lampshades are everyday examples of conical frustums.
- Drinking glasses and some space capsules are also some examples.
- Garsų Gaudyklė wooden structure or statue in Lithuania.
- Valençay cheese
- Rolo candies