Thoth
Thoth, in one of his forms as an ibis-headed man
Name in hieroglyphs
G26t
Z4
A40
or[1]
DHwt
Z4
R8
Major cult centerHermopolis
SymbolIbis, moon disk, papyrus scroll, reed pens, writing palette, stylus, baboon, scales
ConsortMa’at,Seshat, Nehmetawy (In some myths)
OffspringSeshat[a]
Equivalents
Greek equivalentHermes
Roman equivalentMercury

Thoth (from Koinē Greek: Θώθ Thṓth, borrowed from Coptic: Ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ Thōout, Egyptian: Ḏḥwtj, the reflex of ḏḥwtj "[he] is like the ibis") is an ancient Egyptian deity. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat, and his wife was Ma'at.[2] He was the god of the Moon, wisdom, knowledge, writing, hieroglyphs, science, magic, art and judgment.

Thoth's chief temple was located in the city of Hermopolis (Ancient Egyptian: ḫmnw /χaˈmaːnaw/, Egyptological pronunciation: "Khemenu", Coptic: Ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Shmun). Later known as el-Ashmunein in Egyptian Arabic, the Temple of Thoth was mostly destroyed before the beginning of the Christian era. Its very large pronaos was still standing in 1826, but was demolished and used as fill for the foundation of a sugar factory by the mid-19th century.[3][4]

Thoth played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology, such as maintaining the universe, and being one of the two deities (the other being Ma'at) who stood on either side of Ra's solar barque.[5] In the later history of ancient Egypt, Thoth became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes,[6] the arts of magic, the system of writing, and the judgment of the dead.[7]

Name

Thoout, Thoth Deux fois Grand, le Second Hermés, N372.2A, Brooklyn Museum

The Egyptian pronunciation of ḏḥwty is not fully known, but may be reconstructed as *ḏiḥautī, perhaps pronounced *[t͡ʃʼi.ˈħau.tʰiː] or *[ci.ˈħau.tʰiː]. This reconstruction is based on the Ancient Greek borrowing Thōth ([tʰɔːtʰ]) or Theut and the fact that the name was transliterated into Sahidic Coptic variously as ⲑⲟⲟⲩⲧ Thoout, ⲑⲱⲑ Thōth, ⲑⲟⲟⲧ Thoot, ⲑⲁⲩⲧ Thaut, Taautos (Τααυτος), Thoor (Θωωρ), as well as Bohairic Coptic ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ Thōout. These spellings reflect known sound changes from earlier Egyptian such as the loss of palatalization and merger of with h i.e. initial ḏḥ > th > tʰ.[8] The loss of pre-Coptic final y/j is also common.[9] Following Egyptological convention, which eschews vowel reconstruction, the consonant skeleton ḏḥwty would be rendered "Djehuti" and the god is sometimes found under this name. However, the Greek form "Thoth" is more common.

According to Theodor Hopfner,[10] Thoth's Egyptian name written as ḏḥwty originated from ḏḥw, claimed to be the oldest known name for the ibis, normally written as hbj. The addition of -ty denotes that he possessed the attributes of the ibis.[11] Hence Thoth's name would mean "He who is like the ibis", according to this interpretation.

Other forms of the name ḏḥwty using older transcriptions include Jehuti, Jehuty, Tahuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Techu, or Tetu. Multiple titles for Thoth, similar to the pharaonic titulary, are also known, including A, Sheps, Lord of Khemennu, Asten, Khenti, Mehi, Hab, and A'an.[12]

In addition, Thoth was also known by specific aspects of himself, for instance the Moon god Iah-Djehuty (j3ḥ-ḏḥw.ty),[13] representing the Moon for the entire month.[14][15] The Greeks related Thoth to their god Hermes due to his similar attributes and functions.[16] One of Thoth's titles, "Thrice great", was translated to the Greek τρισμέγιστος (trismégistos), making Hermes Trismegistus.[17][18]

Depictions

Relief in the Temple of Seti I (Abydos) of Thoth giving the ankh to pharaoh Seti I.

Thoth has been depicted in many ways depending on the era and on the aspect the artist wished to convey. Usually, he is depicted in his human form with the head of a green ibis.[19] In this form, he can be represented as the reckoner of times and seasons by a headdress of the lunar disk sitting on top of a crescent moon resting on his head. When depicted as a form of Shu or Ankher, he was depicted to be wearing the respective god's headdress. Sometimes he was also seen in art to be wearing the Atef crown or the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.[11] When not depicted in this common form, he sometimes takes the form of the ibis directly.[19]

He also appears as a dog-faced baboon or a man with the head of a baboon when he is A'an, the god of equilibrium.[20] In the form of A'ah-Djehuty, he took a more human-looking form.[21] These forms are all symbolic and are metaphors for Thoth's attributes. Thoth is often depicted holding an ankh, the Egyptian symbol for life.

Thoth depicted with a book and stylus, and a moon crown.

Attributes

Thoth depicted with the moon-disk on his head in (KV9) Tomb of Ramesses V.

Thoth's roles in Egyptian mythology were many. He served as scribe of the gods,[22] credited with the invention of writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs.[23] In the underworld, Duat, he appeared as an ape, Aani, the god of equilibrium, who reported when the scales weighing the deceased's heart against the feather, representing the principle of Maat, was exactly even.[24]

The ancient Egyptians regarded Thoth as One, self-begotten, and self-produced.[19] He was the master of both physical and moral (i.e. divine) law,[19] making proper use of Ma'at.[25] He is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens, stars, Earth,[26] and everything in them.[25]

The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science, religion, philosophy, and magic.[27] The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy, astrology, the science of numbers, mathematics, geometry, surveying, medicine, botany, theology, civilized government, the alphabet, reading, writing, and oratory. They further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge, human and divine.[23]

Mythology

Egyptian mythology credits Thoth with the creation of the 365-day calendar. Originally, according to the myth, the year was only 360 days long and Nut was sterile during these days, unable to bear children. Thoth gambled with the Moon for 1/72nd of its light (360/72 = 5), or 5 days, and won. During these 5 days, Nut and Geb gave birth to Osiris, Set, Isis, and Nephthys.[28][29][30]

In the central Osiris myth, Thoth gives Isis the words to restore her husband, allowing the pair to conceive Horus. Following a battle between Horus and Set, Thoth offers counsel and provides wisdom.

History

Detail from the Papyrus of Hunefer (c. 1275 BC) depicts the jackal-headed Anubis weighing a heart against the feather of truth on the scale of Maat, while ibis-headed Thoth records the result. Having a heart equal to the weight of the feather allows passage to the afterlife, whereas an imbalance results in a meal for Ammit, the chimera of crocodile, lion, and hippopotamus.

Thoth was a Moon god. The Moon not only provides light at night, allowing time to still be measured without the Sun, but its phases and prominence gave it a significant importance in early astrology/astronomy. The perceived cycles of the Moon also organized much of Egyptian society's rituals and events, both civil and religious. Consequently, Thoth gradually became seen as a god of wisdom, magic, and the measurement and regulation of events and of time.[31] He was thus said to be the secretary and counselor of the Sun god Ra, and with Ma'at (truth/order) stood next to Ra on the nightly voyage across the sky.

Thoth became credited by the ancient Egyptians as the inventor of writing (hieroglyphs),[32] and was also considered to have been the scribe of the underworld. For this reason, Thoth was universally worshipped by ancient Egyptian scribes. Many scribes had a painting or a picture of Thoth in their "office". Likewise, one of the symbols for scribes was that of the ibis.

In art, Thoth was usually depicted with the head of an ibis, possibly because the Egyptians saw the curve of the ibis' beak as a symbol of the crescent moon.[33] Sometimes, he was depicted as a baboon holding up a crescent moon.

Worshipper before two ibises of Thoth. (early 19th Dynasty)

During the Late Period of ancient Egypt, a cult of Thoth gained prominence due to its main center, Khmun (Hermopolis Magna), also becoming the capital. Millions of dead ibis were mummified and buried in his honor.[34]

Thoth was inserted in many tales as the wise counselor and persuader, and his association with learning and measurement led him to be connected with Seshat, the earlier deification of wisdom, who was said to be his daughter, or variably his wife. Thoth's qualities also led to him being identified by the Greeks with their closest matching god Hermes, with whom Thoth was eventually combined as Hermes Trismegistus,[18] leading to the Greeks' naming Thoth's cult center as Hermopolis, meaning city of Hermes.

In the Papyrus of Ani copy of the Egyptian Book of the Dead the scribe proclaims "I am thy writing palette, O Thoth, and I have brought unto thee thine ink-jar. I am not of those who work iniquity in their secret places; let not evil happen unto me."[35] Plate XXIX Chapter CLXXV (Budge) of the Book of the Dead is the oldest tradition said to be the work of Thoth himself.[36]

There was also an Egyptian pharaoh of the Sixteenth dynasty named Djehuty (Thoth) after him, and who reigned for three years.

Modern impression of an Achaemenid cylinder seal from Iran, with king holding two lion griffins at bay and Egyptian hieroglyphs reading "Thoth is a protection over me". (c. 6th–5th century BC).[37]

Plato mentions Thoth (as Theuth) in his dialogue Phaedrus. He uses the myth of Thoth to demonstrate that writing leads to laziness and forgetfulness. In the story, Thoth remarks to King Thamus of Egypt that writing is a wonderful substitute for memory. Thamus remarks that it is a remedy for reminding, not remembering, with the appearance but not the reality of wisdom. Future generations will hear much without being properly taught and will appear wise but not be so.[38]

Artapanus of Alexandria, an Egyptian Jew who lived in the third or second century BC, euhemerized Thoth-Hermes as a historical human being and claimed he was the same person as Moses, based primarily on their shared roles as authors of texts and creators of laws. Artapanus's biography of Moses conflates traditions about Moses and Thoth and invents many details.[39] Many later authors, from late antiquity to the Renaissance, either identified Hermes Trismegistus with Moses or regarded them as contemporaries who expounded similar beliefs.[40]

Archaeology

Egypt’s Minister of Tourism and Antiquities announced the discovery of the collective graves of senior officials and high clergies of the god Thoth in Tuna el-Gebel in Minya in January 2020. An archaeological mission headed by Mostafa Waziri reported that 20 sarcophagi and coffins of various shapes and sizes, including five anthropoid sarcophagi made of limestone and carved with hieroglyphic texts, as well as 16 tombs and five well-preserved wooden coffins were unearthed by their team.[41][42]

Modern cultural references

Thoth has been seen as a god of wisdom and has been used in modern literature, especially since the early 20th century when ancient Egyptian ideas were quite popular.

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Also said to be his consort in rare accounts.

References

  1. ^ Hieroglyphs verified, in part, in Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Vol. 1, p. 402, and Collier and Manley, p. 161
  2. ^ Eric H Cline, David O'Connor (January 5, 2006), Thutmose III: A New Biography, University of Michigan Press, p. 127
  3. ^ Verner, Miroslav (2013). Temple of the World: Sanctuaries, Cults, and Mysteries of Ancient Egypt. American University in Cairo Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-977-416-563-4.
  4. ^ "Destruction of Egyptian Monuments" . Littell's Living Age – via Wikisource.
  5. ^ Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Vol. 1, p. 400
  6. ^ Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Vol. 1, p. 405
  7. ^ Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, p. 403
  8. ^ Allen, James P. (11 July 2013). The Ancient Egyptian Language: An Historical Study. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107032460.
  9. ^ Allen, James P. (11 July 2013). The Ancient Egyptian Language: An Historical Study. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107032460.
  10. ^ Hopfner, Theodor, b. 1886. Der tierkult der alten Agypter nach den griechisch-romischen berichten und den wichtigeren denkmalern. Wien, In kommission bei A. Holder, 1913. Call#= 060 VPD v.57
  11. ^ a b (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 402)
  12. ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 402–403)
  13. ^ Also transliterated "Aah Te-Huti" or "Aah-Tehuti."
  14. ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 412–413)
  15. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (4 July 2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-135-96397-2. Aah Te-Huti Aah-Tehuti [...] (Egypt): A manifestation of Thoth, this moon god is represented by an ibis head surmounted by a crescent and a disk.
  16. ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians p. 402)
  17. ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 415)
  18. ^ a b A survey of the literary and archaeological evidence for the background of Hermes Trismegistus in the Greek Hermes and the Egyptian Thoth may be found in Bull, Christian H. 2018. The Tradition of Hermes Trismegistus: The Egyptian Priestly Figure as a Teacher of Hellenized Wisdom. Leiden: Brill, pp. 33–96.
  19. ^ a b c d (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 401)
  20. ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 403)
  21. ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 plate between pp. 408–409)
  22. ^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 408)
  23. ^ a b (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 414)
  24. ^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 403)
  25. ^ a b (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 407)
  26. ^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 401)
  27. ^ (Hall The Hermetic Marriage p. 224)
  28. ^ Hart, George (15 August 1990). Egyptian Myths. University of Texas Press. pp. 40−41. ISBN 0-292-72076-9.
  29. ^ Hart, George (15 August 1990). A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. University of Texas Press. pp. 144−145. ISBN 9780292720763.
  30. ^ Plutarch. Isis and Osiris. Loeb Classics. pp. LCL 306: 30−31.
  31. ^ Assmann, Jan, The Search for God in Ancient Egypt, 2001, pp. 80–81
  32. ^ Littleton, C.Scott (2002). Mythology. The illustrated anthology of world myth & storytelling. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. pp. 24. ISBN 9781903296370.
  33. ^ Wilkinson, Richard H., The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, 2003, p. 217
  34. ^ Wasef, Sally; Subramanian, Sankar; O'Rorke, Richard; Huynen, Leon; El-Marghani, Samia; Curtis, Caitlin; Popinga, Alex; Holland, Barbara; Ikram, Salima; Millar, Craig; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David (2019). "Mitogenomic diversity in Sacred Ibis Mummies sheds light on early Egyptian practices". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0223964. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1423964W. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0223964. PMC 6853290. PMID 31721774.
  35. ^ The Book of the Dead by E. A. Wallis Budge, 1895, Gramercy, 1999, p. 562, ISBN 0-517-12283-9
  36. ^ The Book of the Dead by E. A. Wallis Budge, 1895, Gramercy, 1999, p. 282, ISBN 0-517-12283-9
  37. ^ "Museum item, accession number: 36.106.2". www.metmuseum.org. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  38. ^ The Dialogues of Plato, Benjamin Jowett translation (1892), vol. 2, p. 153
  39. ^ Mussies, Gerald (1982), "The Interpretatio Judaica of Thot-Hermes", in van Voss, Heerma, et al. (eds.) Studies in Egyptian Religion Dedicated to Professor Jan Zandee, pp. 91, 97, 99–100
  40. ^ Mussies (1982), pp. 118–120
  41. ^ "In photos: Communal tombs for high priests uncovered Upper Egypt – Ancient Egypt – Heritage". Ahram Online. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  42. ^ "Tombs of High Priests Discovered in Upper Egypt – Archaeology Magazine". www.archaeology.org. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  43. ^ Steadman, John L. (1 September 2015). H. P. Lovecraft and the Black Magickal Tradition: The Master of Horror's Influence on Modern Occultism. Weiser Books. ISBN 9781633410008.
  44. ^ Lee, Benjamin (13 November 2015). "Gods of Egypt posters spark anger with 'whitewashed' cast". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  45. ^ Sawan, Amer (14 June 2021). "God of War: Kratos Comes Face to Face With Brand New Pantheon". CBR.com. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  46. ^ "The Minor Gods: Egyptian". Age of Mythology Wiki Guide. IGN. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  47. ^ Age of Mythology (game manual). Microsoft Game Studios. 2002 – via Internet Archive.
  48. ^ "Gods". Smite. Retrieved 1 October 2021.

Bibliography