Sebiumeker
Sebiumeker God in the Carlsberg Museum.jpg
Sebiumeker statue in the Carlsberg Glyptotek museum 1st century BCE
Major cult centerMeroe, Kush
Personal information
SiblingsArensnuphis ?

Sebiumeker was a major supreme god of procreation and fertility in Meroe, Kush, in present-day Sudan. He is sometimes thought of as a guardian of gateways as his statues are sometimes found near doorways. He has many similarities with Atum, but has Nubian characteristics, and is also considered the god of agriculture.

Etymology

His Meroitic name was probably Sabomakal, which became Sebiumeker in the ancient Egyptian language.[1]

Role in ancient Kush

Sebiumeker was a major supreme god of procreation and fertility in Meroe, Kush (present-day Sudan).[2][3]

He was referred to as Lord of Musawwarat. His statues have often been found near doorways at the Nubian sites Tabo (Nubia) and Musawwarat es-Sufra,[4] giving rise to the interpretation that he was a guardian god.[2] But another interpretation is that he represented transformation which is why he was placed at the doorways of temples.[2]

Though certainly a Nubian god, he has many Egyptian symbols and legends.[5]

Family

His partner (or maybe brother) was Arensnuphis.[5] This close association with Arensnuphis is similar to the relationship with Set and Osiris.[5]

Image

He wore the ancient double crown with a beard and uraeus and had big ears, a mark of importance. With his double crown, false beard, kilt, and tunic,[5] he resembles Atum.[2][6][7]

A sandstone head without inscription stands in Meroe. It also has the double crown with uraeus. It has several Egyptian looking features, but also has the formal broad Nubian unmodeled planes.[8]

In popular culture

His worship is invoked in the Gifts of the Nile scenario in the strategy video game Civilization VI.

References

  1. ^ Scholz, Piotr O. (2006). Nubien: Geheimnisvolles Goldland der Ägypter. p. 153. ISBN 978-3-8062-1885-5.
  2. ^ a b c d Mark, Joshua J. "Egyptian Gods - The Complete List". World History Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  3. ^ Fisher, Marjorie M.; Lacovara, Peter; Ikram, Salima; d'Auria, Sue (2012). Ancient Nubia: African Kingdoms on the Nile. p. 134. ISBN 978-977-416-478-1.
  4. ^ Török, László (2002). The Image of the Ordered World in Ancient Nubian Art: The Construction of the Kushite Mind, 800 Bc-300 Ad. p. 302. ISBN 978-9004123069.
  5. ^ a b c d Richard A Lobban JR (9 December 2003). Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. pp. 343–344. ISBN 9780810865785.
  6. ^ Wildung, Dietrich; Kuckertz, Josephine (1996). Sudan: Antike Königreiche am Nil ; Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, München, 2. Oktober 1996 - 6. Januar 1997 ... Reiss-Museum, Mannheim, 14. Juni - 20. September 1998 ; [eine Ausstellung des Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris und der Kunsthalle der Hypo-Stiftung, München]. p. 267. ISBN 978-3-8030-3084-9.
  7. ^ "Rival to Egypt, the Nubian kingdom of Kush exuded power and gold". National Geographic. 15 November 2016. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  8. ^ Bianchi, Robert Steven (2004). Daily Life of the Nubians. p. 237. ISBN 9780313325014.