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Junks in Guangzhou, photograph c. 1880 by Lai Afong

A junk (Chinese: ; pinyin: chuán) is a type of Chinese sailing ship with fully battened sails. Similar junk sails were also adopted by other East Asian countries, most notably Japan, where junks were used as merchant ships to trade goods with China and Southeast Asia. They were found – and in lesser numbers, are still found – throughout Southeast Asia and India, but primarily in China.[1] Historically, a Chinese junk could be one of many types of small coastal or river ships, usually serving as a cargo ship, pleasure boat, or houseboat, but also ranging in size up to large ocean-going vessel. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats. There can be significant regional variations in the type of rig or the layout of the vessel; however, they all employ fully battened sails.

The term "junk" (Portuguese: juenco; Dutch: jonk; and Spanish: junco)[2] was also used in the colonial period to refer to any medium- to large-sized ships of the Austronesian cultures in Island Southeast Asia, with or without the junk rig.[3] Examples include the Indonesian and Malaysian jong, the Philippine karakoa and lanong, and the Moluccan kora kora.[4]

Etymology

A kai-sen of Ryukyu, 19th century

The English word "junk" comes from Portuguese junco from Javanese jong and ultimately from Min Chinese jüng (, "boat; ship").[5]

Construction

The historian Herbert Warington Smyth considered the junk as one of the most efficient ship designs, stating that "As an engine for carrying man and his commerce upon the high and stormy seas as well as on the vast inland waterways, it is doubtful if any class of vessel… is more suited or better adapted to its purpose than the Chinese or Indian junk, and it is certain that for flatness of sail and handiness, the Chinese rig is unsurpassed".[6]

Sails

Main article: Junk rig

Iconographic remains show that Chinese ships before the 12th century used square sails. A ship carving from a stone Buddhist stele shows a ship with square sail from the Liu Sung dynasty or the Liang dynasty (ca. 5th or 6th century). Dunhuang cave temple no. 45 (from the 8th or 9th century) features large sailboats and sampans with inflated square sails. A wide ship with a single sail is depicted in the Xi'an mirror (after the 9th or 12th century).[7][8] Eastern lug sail, which used battens and is commonly known as "junk rig", was likely not Chinese in origin: The oldest depiction of a battened junk sail comes from the Bayon temple at Angkor Thom, Cambodia.[9]: 460–461  From its characteristics and location, it is likely that the ship depicted in Bayon was a Southeast Asian ship.[10]: 188–189  The Chinese themselves may have adopted them around the 12th century CE.[11]: 21 

The full-length battens of the junk sail keep the sail flatter than ideal in all wind conditions. Consequently, their ability to sail close to the wind is poorer than other fore-and-aft rigs.[12][13]

Hull

The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1654–1722) on a tour, seated prominently on the deck of a junk ship

Classic junks were built of softwoods (although after the 17th century teak was used in Guangdong) with the outside shape built first. Then multiple internal compartment/bulkheads accessed by separate hatches and ladders, reminiscent of the interior structure of bamboo, were built in. Traditionally, the hull has a horseshoe-shaped stern supporting a high poop deck. The bottom is flat in a river junk with no keel (similar to a sampan), so that the boat relies on a daggerboard,[14] leeboard or very large rudder to prevent the boat from slipping sideways in the water.[15]

The internal bulkheads are characteristic of junks, providing interior compartments and strengthening the ship. They also controlled flooding in case of holing. Ships built in this manner were written of in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks, published by 1119 during the Song dynasty.[8] Again, this type of construction for Chinese ship hulls was attested to by the Moroccan Muslim Berber traveler Ibn Battuta (1304–1377 CE), who described it in great detail (refer to Technology of the Song dynasty).[16]

Junk near Hong Kong, circa 1880

Benjamin Franklin wrote in a 1787 letter on the project of mail packets between the United States and France:

As these vessels are not to be laden with goods, their holds may without inconvenience be divided into separate apartments, after the Chinese manner, and each of these apartments caulked tight so as to keep out water.

— Benjamin Franklin, 1787[17]

Similar wet wells were also apparent in Roman small craft of the 5th century CE.[18]

Leeboards and centerboards

Other innovations included the square-pallet bilge pump, which was adopted by the West during the 16th century for work ashore, the western chain pump, which was adopted for shipboard use, being of a different derivation. Junks also relied on the compass for navigational purposes. However, as with almost all vessels of any culture before the late 19th century, the accuracy of magnetic compasses aboard ship, whether from a failure to understand deviation (the magnetism of the ship's iron fastenings) or poor design of the compass card (the standard drypoint compasses were extremely unstable), meant that they did little to contribute to the accuracy of navigation by dead reckoning. Review of the evidence shows that the Chinese embarked magnetic pointer was only sometimes used for navigation or reorientation. The reasoning is simple. Chinese mariners were as capable as any, having undertaken the journey safely for hundreds of years, had they needed a compass as an essential tool to navigate, they would have been aware of the almost random directional qualities when used at sea of the water bowl compass they used. Yet that design remained unchanged for some half a millennium. Western sailors, coming upon a similar water bowl design (no evidence as to how has yet emerged) very rapidly adapted it in a series of significant changes such that within roughly a century the water bowl had given way to the dry pivot, a rotating compass card a century later, a lubberline a generation later and gimbals seventy or eighty years after that.[19]

Steering

Junks employed stern-mounted rudders centuries before their adoption in the West for the simple reason that Western hull forms, with their pointed sterns, obviated a centreline steering system until technical developments in Scandinavia created the first, iron mounted, pintle and gudgeon 'barn door' western examples in the early 12th century CE. A second reason for this slow development was that the side rudders in use were still extremely efficient.[20] Thus the junk rudder's origin, form and construction was completely different in that it was the development of a centrally mounted stern steering oar, examples of which can also be seen in Middle Kingdom (c. 2050–1800 BCE) Egyptian river vessels. It was an innovation which permitted the steering of large ships and due to its design allowed height adjustment according to the depth of the water and to avoid serious damage should the junk ground. A sizable junk can have a rudder that needed up to twenty members of the crew to control in strong weather. In addition to using the sail plan to balance the junk and take the strain off the hard to operate and mechanically weakly attached rudder, some junks were also equipped with leeboards or dagger boards. The world's oldest known depiction of a stern-mounted rudder can be seen on a pottery model of a junk dating from before the 1st century CE.[21]

History

Spring and Autumn period (8th–5th century BCE)

Mariners were sailing between islands to cross the Shandong-Liaodong strait and along the Korean coastline by the 8th century BCE. In 710 BCE, due to a famine in Korea, ships sailed to the state of Lu and Qi in Shandong to purchase grain. In 656 BCE, Qi planned a naval invasion of Chu. River traversal by ship was recorded during the Chu-Wu wars in 603 BCE and 549 BCE. A river battle between the two fleets of Chu and Wu occurred in 525 BCE and lost their flagship Yuhuang.[22] According to a poem by Ma Rong 600 years later, the Yuhuang was equipped with sails: "From the Yuhuang to the small boats, all unfurled sails like clouds and displayed awnings like rainbow."[23] Prior to the 12th century, Chinese sails were commonly made of bamboo mats since cotton did not become common in China until the SongYuan dynasties.[23] There were reports of Chu building fleets in 528 BCE and 518 BCE but Chu was defeated by Wu's fleet in 489 BCE, and their admiral and seven officers were captured.[22] In 485 BCE, Wu's fleet sailed up the coast to attack Qi and was defeated in the first known naval battle in Chinese history. In 478 BCE, Yue's fleet destroyed Wu's navy.[24]

Warring States and Qin period (5th–3rd century BCE)

Because of fables that there were islands to the east that possessed the elixir of immortality, King Wei of Qi (r. 356–320 BCE), King Xuan of Qi (r. 319–301 BCE), and King Zhao of Yan (r. 311–279 BCE) sent naval expeditions to search for them. They failed. In the Qin dynasty, a magician named Xu Shi from the former state of Qi requested help to organize an expedition to seek the immortal islands of Penglai, Fangzhang, and Yingzhou. Three thousand young men and women and "artisans of a hundred trades"[25] set sail from Langya in 219 BCE. No news returned of Xu Shi, so Qin Shi Huang sent another expedition with four magicians in 215 BCE. Only one magician named Scholar Lu came back and he deserted in 212 BCE. In 210 BCE, the emperor met Xu Shi, who had failed to bring back the elixir of immortality. He said that the expedition had been frustrated by dragons and sea monsters. They set out with a squadron of crossbowmen and cruised around the Shandong peninsula, where they killed a large fish at Zhifu.[26]

Han to Northern and southern dynasties era (2nd–6th century)

The Chinese engaged in cross-ocean expeditions by the 2nd century BCE.[27] In 108 BCE, Yang Pu led a sea-force to Korea.[28] The Book of Han mentions sea-going voyages taking 12 months to reach the furthest country.[29] In 230, Sun Quan sent commanders Wei Wen and Zhuge Zhi with a fleet of 10,000 men to seek the islands of Yizhou and Danzhou. The fleet was away for a year and many of the crew died of disease. It did not reach Danzhou but reached Yizhou and returned with several thousand captives. The contemporary writer Shen Ying stated that Yizhou was 2,000 li southeast of Linhai and appears to have been Taiwan. Danzhou was probably the Ryukyu Islands.[30] In 233 CE, a fleet from Eastern Wu was lost in a storm in the Yellow Sea.[31]

Manguin, Pelliot, Ferrand, Miksic, and Flecker, amongst other, believe that the ships used by Chinese travelers were mostly foreign in origin, and Chinese ships were rarely used on the Southeast Asian voyages until the 9th century CE.[32]: 20–21  Chinese ships did exist – but they're essentially fluvial (riverine) in nature and operation.[11]: 20  Large Austronesian trading ships docking in Chinese seaports with as many as four sails were recorded by scholars as early as the 3rd century CE. They called them the kunlun bo or kunlun po (崑崙舶; 'ship of the Kunlun people'). They were booked by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims for passage to Southern India and Sri Lanka.[33]: 275 [34]: 32–33 [35]: 34–36 

The 3rd century book Strange Things of the South (南州異物志; Nánzhōu Yìwùzhì) by Wan Chen (萬震) describes one of these Austronesian ships as being capable of 600–700 people together with more than 10,000 hu () of cargo (250–1000 tons according to various interpretations—600 tons deadweight according to Manguin).[36]: 262  The ships could be more than 50 meters in length and had a freeboard of 5.2–7.8 meters. When seen from above they resemble covered galleries.[37]: 347  He explains the ships' sail design as follows:

The people beyond the barriers, according the size of their ships, sometimes rig (as many as) four sails which they carry in row from bow to stern. (...) The four sails do not face directly forward, but are set obliquely, and so arranged that they can all be fixed in the same direction, to receive the wind and to spill it. Those sails which are behind the most windward one receiving the pressure of the wind, throw it from one to the other, so that they all profit from its force. If it is violent, (the sailors) diminish or augment the surface of the sails according to the conditions. This oblique rig, which permits the sails to receive from one another the breath of the wind, obviates the anxiety attendant upon having high masts. Thus these ships sail without avoiding strong winds and dashing waves, by the aid of which they can make great speed.

— Wan Chen, Strange Things of the South[38]: 207 [36]: 262 

A 260 CE book by K'ang T'ai (康泰), quoted in Taiping Yulan (982 CE) described ships with seven sails called po or ta po (great ship or great junk) that could travel as far as Syria (大秦Ta-chin, Roman Syria). These ships were used by the Indo-Scythian (月支Yuezhi) traders for transporting horses. He also made reference to monsoon trade between the islands (or archipelago), which took a month and a few days in a large po.[37]: 347 [9]: 602 [39]: 406 

Sui to the rise of Song dynasty (7th century–10th century)

Detail of a ship from Along the River During Qingming Festival, by Zhang Zeduan (1085–145)

In 683 CE, Tang court sent an envoy to Srivijaya, which seems to have been done in foreign ship.[32]: 22  Wang Gungwu stated that there are no records from Tang Dynasty era that mentioned Chinese junks being used for trading with Southern countries (Nanhai).[40]: 107  Wang also noted that the ships used by Chinese pilgrim and travelers were K'un-lun ships or Indian ships.[40]: 73, 103  Chinese and Korean ships sailed to Kyushu for private trade with Japan in the 9th century.[32]: 21 

Song dynasty (10th–13th century)

Main articles: Huaguangjiao One, Nanhai One, and Quanzhou ship

In 989 CE the Song court permitted private Chinese ships to trade overseas.[32]: 21  The ships of the Song, both mercantile and military, became the backbone of the navy of the following Yuan dynasty. In particular the Mongol invasions of Japan (1274–1281), as well as the Mongol invasion of Java (1293), essentially relied on recently acquired Song naval capabilities. Worcester estimates that the largest Yuan junks were 36 feet (10.97 m) in width and over 100 feet (30.48 m) long. In general, they had no keel, stempost, or sternpost. They did have centreboards, and a watertight bulkhead to strengthen the hull, which added great weight. This type of vessel may have been common in the 13th century.[41]: 22 [42]: 102  By using the ratio between the number of soldiers and ships, Nugroho concluded that each ship may carry a maximum capacity of 30 or 31 men,[43]: 128  while using data presented by John Man would result in a capacity of 29–44 men per ship.[44]: 306  David Bade estimated a capacity of 20 to 50 men per ship during the Java campaign.[45]: 46 

Joseph Needham's Science and Civilisation in China provided descriptions of the Junk ship during this era. "The second oldest colophon described by Chin scholar in 1190, took the form of a poem:

Through the streets carts and horses are rumbling and thronging-We are back in a year of the Hsüan-Ho reign-period. One day a Han-Lin scholar presented this painting, Worthy of handing down the ways and works of a peaceful time. Going east from the Water-gate one comes to the Canal of the Sui, The streets and the fields are alike incomparable (But Lao Tzu formerly warned against prosperity And today we know it has all become waste-land). Yet the vessels that sail ten thousand li on their voyages. With rudders of timber from Chhu and their masts from Wu, Fine scenery north of the bridge and south of the bridge, Recall for a time the dream of halcyon days, One can hear the flutes and drums; the towers seem close at hand."[46]: 464 

"A decade later in 1178, the Guangzhou customs officer Zhou Qufei, wrote in Lingwai Daida about the sea-going ships of the Southern China again:

The ships which sail the southern sea and south of it are like giant houses. When their sails are spread they are like great clouds in the sky. Their rudders are several tens of feet long. A single ship carries several hundred men, and has in the stores a year's supply of grain. Pigs are fed and wine is fermented on board. There is no account of dead or living, no going back to the mainland when once the people have set forth upon the cerulean sea. At daybreak, when the gong sounds aboard the ship, the animals can drink their fill, and crew and passengers alike forget all dangers. To those on board, everything is hidden and lost in space, mountains, landmarks, and the countries of foreigners. The shipmaster may say "To make such and such a country, with a favorable wind, in so many days, we should sight such and such a mountain, (then) the ship must steer in such and such a direction". But suddenly the wind may fall, and may not be strong enough to allow for the sighting of the mountain on the given day; in such a case, bearings may have to be changed. And the ship (on the other hand) may be carried far beyond (the landmark) and may lose its bearings. A gale may spring up, the ship may be blown hither and thither, it may meet with shoals or be driven upon hidden rocks, then it may be broken to the very roofs (of its deckhouses). A great ship with heavy cargo has nothing to fear from the high seas, but rather in shallow water it will come to grief."[46]: 464 

Yuan dynasty (14th century)

Main article: Shinan ship

Yuan dynasty ships carry on the tradition of Song, the Yuan navy is essentially Song navy.[47] Both Song and Yuan employed large trading junks. The large ships (up to 5,000 liao or 1520–1860 tons burden) would carry 500–600 men, and the second class (1,000–2,000 liao) would carry 200–300 men.[48] Unlike Ming treasure ships, Song and Yuan great junks are propelled by oars, and have with them smaller junks, probably for maneuvering aids.[49] The largest junks (5,000 liao) may have a hull length twice that of Quanzhou ship (1,000 liao),[50] that is 68 metres (223.1 ft).[48] However, the usual Chinese trading junks pre-1500 was around 20–30 metres (65.6–98.4 ft) long, with the length of 30 metres (98.4 ft) only becoming the norm after 1500 CE. Large size could be a disadvantage for shallow harbors of southern seas, and the presence of numerous reefs exacerbates this.[51]

The enormous dimensions of the Chinese ships of the Medieval period are described in Chinese sources, and are confirmed by Western travelers to the east, such as Marco Polo, Ibn Battuta and Niccolò da Conti. According to Ibn Battuta, who visited China in 1347:

…We stopped in the port of Calicut, in which there were at the time thirteen Chinese vessels, and disembarked. On the China Sea traveling is done in Chinese ships only, so we shall describe their arrangements. The Chinese vessels are of three kinds; large ships called chunks (junks), middle sized ones called zaws (dhows) and the small ones kakams. The large ships have anything from twelve down to three sails, which are made of bamboo rods plaited into mats. They are never lowered, but turned according to the direction of the wind; at anchor they are left floating in the wind. A ship carries a complement of a thousand men, six hundred of whom are sailors and four hundred men-at-arms, including archers, men with shields and crossbows, who throw naphtha. Three smaller ones, the "half", the "third" and the "quarter", accompany each large vessel. These vessels are built in the towns of Zaytun (today's Quanzhou) and Sin-Kalan. The vessel has four decks and contains rooms, cabins, and saloons for merchants; a cabin has chambers and a lavatory, and can be locked by its occupants. This is the manner after which they are made; two (parallel) walls of very thick wooden (planking) are raised and across the space between them are placed very thick planks (the bulkheads) secured longitudinally and transversely by means of large nails, each three ells in length. When these walls have thus been built the lower deck is fitted in and the ship is launched before the upper works are finished.[52]
Ibn Battuta

Ming dynasty (15th–17th century)

Expedition of Zheng He

Main article: Chinese treasure ship

A large four masted junk from Longjiang Shipyard, c. 1553
Chinese woodblock print of Zheng He ships from early 1600s

The largest junks ever built were possibly those of Admiral Zheng He, for his expeditions in the Indian Ocean (1405 to 1433), although this is disputed as no contemporary records of the sizes of Zheng He's ships are known. Instead the dimensions are based on Sanbao Taijian Xia Xiyang Ji Tongsu Yanyi (Eunuch Sanbao Western Records Popular Romance, published 1597), a romanticized version of the voyages written by Luo Maodeng [zh] nearly two centuries later.[53] Maodeng's novel describes Zheng He's ships as follows:[54][55]

Manuel Godinho de Erédia depicting Malayan lanchara and Chinese junk (bottom).

Louise Levathes suggests that the actual length of the biggest treasure ships may have been between 390–408 feet (119–124 m) long and 160–166 feet (49–51 m) wide.[56] Modern scholars have argued on engineering grounds that it is highly unlikely that Zheng He's ship was 450 ft in length,[57] Guan Jincheng (1947) proposed a much more modest size of 20 zhang long by 2.4 zhang wide (204 ft by 25.5 ft or 62.2 m by 7.8 m)[58] while Xin Yuan'ou (2002) put them as 61–76 m (200–250 feet) in length.[59] Zhao Zhigang claimed that he has solved the debate of the size difference, and stated that Zheng He's largest ship was about 70 m (230 ft) in length.[60]

Comparing to other Ming records, the Chinese seem to have exaggerated their dimensions. European East Indiamen and galleons were said to be 30, 40, 50, and 60 zhang (90, 120, 150, and 180 m) in length.[61][62] It was not until the mid to late 19th century that the length of the largest western wooden ship began to exceed 100 meters, even this was done using modern industrial tools and iron parts.[63][64][65]

International Commerce

Duarte Barbosa reported that the traders in Bengal owned large ships of the same build as those of Mekkah, but others of the Chinese build which they called Jungos, which were very large and carried a very considerable cargo. With these ships they navigated to Cholmender, Malabar, Cambay, Peigu, Tarnasari, Sumatra, Ceylon, and Malacca; and they trade in all kinds of goods.[66]: 179  He also described the Chinese as "great navigators in very large ships of two masts, of a different make from ours, the sails are of matting, and so also the cordage. There are great corsairs and robbers amongst those islands and ports of China. They go with all these goods to Malacca, where they also carry much iron, saltpetre and many other things, and for the return voyage they ship there Sumatra and Malabar pepper, of which they use a great deal in China."[66]: 206 

Sea ban

Main article: Haijin

From the mid-15th to early 16th century, all Chinese maritime trading was banned under the Ming Dynasty. The shipping and shipbuilding knowledge acquired during the Song and Yuan dynasties gradually declined during this period.[67]

Accounts of medieval travellers

Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map. Chinese junks are described as very large, three or four-masted ships.

Niccolò da Conti in relating his travels in Asia between 1419 and 1444, describes huge junks of about 2,000 tons in weight:

They build some ships much larger than ours, capable of containing 2,000 tons in size, with five sails and as many masts. The lower part is constructed with of three planks, in order to withstand the force of the tempest to which they are much exposed. But some ships are built in compartments, that should one part is shattered, the other portion remaining intact to accomplish the voyage.[68]

Also, in 1456, the Fra Mauro map described the presence of junks in the Indian Ocean as well as their construction:

The ships called junks (lit. "Zonchi") that navigate these seas carry four masts or more, some of which can be raised or lowered, and have 40 to 60 cabins for the merchants and only one tiller. They can navigate without a compass, because they have an astrologer, who stands on the side and, with an astrolabe in hand, gives orders to the navigator.

— Text from the Fra Mauro map, 09-P25, [72]

Fra Mauro further explains that one of these junks rounded the Cape of Good Hope and travelled far into the Atlantic Ocean, in 1420:

About the year of Our Lord 1420 a ship, what is called an Indian Zoncho, on a crossing of the Sea of India towards the "Isle of Men and Women", was diverted beyond the "Cape of Diab" (Shown as the Cape of Good Hope on the map), through the "Green Isles" (lit. "isole uerde", Cabo Verde Islands), out into the "Sea of Darkness" (Atlantic Ocean) on a way west and southwest. Nothing but air and water was seen for 40 days and by their reckoning they ran 2,000 miles and fortune deserted them. When the stress of the weather had subsided they made the return to the said "Cape of Diab" in 70 days and drawing near to the shore to supply their wants the sailors saw the egg of a bird called roc, which egg is as big as an amphora.

— Text from Fra Mauro map, 10-A13, [73]

Capture of Taiwan

In 1661, a naval fleet of 400 junks and 25,000 men led by the Ming loyalist Koxinga (pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Wade–Giles: Chêng4 Chʻêng2-kung1), arrived in Taiwan to oust the Dutch from Zeelandia. Following a nine-month siege, Cheng captured the Dutch fortress Fort Zeelandia. A peace treaty between Koxinga and the Dutch Government was signed at Castle Zeelandia on February 1, 1662, and Taiwan became Koxinga's base for the Kingdom of Tungning.

Qing dynasty (19th century)

Chinese Trading Junk, Guangzhou, 1823

Large, ocean-going junks played a key role in Asian trade until the 19th century. One of these junks, Keying, sailed from China around the Cape of Good Hope to the United States and England between 1846 and 1848. Many junks were fitted out with carronades and other weapons for naval or piratical uses. These vessels were typically called "war junks" or "armed junks" by Western navies which began entering the region more frequently in the 18th century. The British, Americans and French fought several naval battles with war junks in the 19th century, during the First Opium War, Second Opium War and in between.

At sea, junk sailors co-operated with their Western counterparts. For example, in 1870 survivors of the English barque Humberstone shipwrecked off Formosa, were rescued by a junk and landed safely in Macao.[74]

Modern period (20th century)

A junk Sin Tong Heng and a lorcha Tek Hwa Seng in the Dutch East Indies (1936)

In 1938, E. Allen Petersen escaped the advancing Japanese armies by sailing a 36-foot (11 m) junk, Hummel Hummel, from Shanghai to California with his wife Tani and two White Russians (Tsar loyalists).[75]

In 1955, six young men sailed a Ming dynasty-style junk from Taiwan to San Francisco. The four-month journey aboard the Free China was captured on film and their arrival into San Francisco made international front-page news. The five Chinese-born friends saw an advertisement for an international trans-Atlantic yacht race, and jumped at the opportunity for adventure. They were joined by the then US Vice-Consul to China, who was tasked with capturing the journey on film. Enduring typhoons and mishaps, the crew, having never sailed a century-old junk before, learned along the way. The crew included Reno Chen, Paul Chow, Loo-chi Hu, Benny Hsu, Calvin Mehlert and were led by skipper Marco Chung. After a journey of 6,000 miles (9,700 km), the Free China and her crew arrived in San Francisco Bay in fog on August 8, 1955. Shortly afterward the footage was featured on ABC television's Bold Journey travelogue. Hosted by John Stephenson and narrated by ship's navigator Paul Chow, the program highlighted the adventures and challenges of the junk's sailing across the Pacific, as well as some humorous moments aboard ship.[76]

A modern junk in La Rochelle in 2009

In 1959 a group of Catalan men, led by Jose Maria Tey, sailed from Hong Kong to Barcelona on a junk named Rubia. After their successful journey this junk was anchored as a tourist attraction at one end of Barcelona harbor, close to where La Rambla meets the sea. Permanently moored along with it was a reproduction of Columbus' caravel Santa Maria during the 1960s and part of the 1970s.[77]

In 1981, Christoph Swoboda had a 65 feet (LoA) Bedar built by the boatyard of Che Ali bin Ngah on Duyong island in the estuary of the Terengganu river on the east coast of Malaysia. The Bedar is one of the two types of Malay junk schooners traditionally built there. He sailed this junk with his family and one friend to the Mediterranean and then continued with changing crew to finally finish a circumnavigation in 1998. He sold this vessel in 2000 and in 2004 he started to build a new junk in Duyong with the same craftsmen: the Pinas (or Pinis) Naga Pelangi, in order to help keep this ancient boat building tradition alive. This boat finished to be fitted out in 2010 and is working as a charter boat in the Andaman and the South China Sea.[78]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See definition of butt https://gizmodo.com/butt-is-an-actual-unit-of-measurement-1622427091.  Until the 17th century, ton referred to both the unit of weight and the unit of volume – see https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/ton Archived 2019-03-29 at the Wayback Machine. A tun is 252 gallons, which weighs 2092 lbs, which is around a ton.

References

  1. ^ Crossley, Pamela Kyle, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, and David Northrup. "Song Dynasty." The Earth and Its Peoples. By Richard W. Bulliet. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. 279–80. Print.
  2. ^ Real Academia Española (2020). "junco". «Diccionario de la lengua española» - Edición del Tricentenario (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-13.
  3. ^ Julia Jones The Salt-stained book, Golden Duck, 2011, p127
  4. ^ Emma Helen Blair & James Alexander Robertson, ed. (1906). The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898.
  5. ^ "Junk". Oxford English Dictionary.
  6. ^ Smyth, Herbert W (1906). Mast and Sail in Europe and Asia. New York: E.P. Dutton. p. 397.
  7. ^ Needham 1986, pp. 456–457.
  8. ^ a b See also plates CDIII, CDIV, CDV, CDVI  in Needham, Volume 4, Part 3.
  9. ^ a b Needham, Joseph (1971). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Cambridge University Press.
  10. ^ Burningham, Nick (2019). "Chapter 6: Shipping of the Indian Ocean World". In Schottenhammer, Angela (ed.). Early Global Interconnectivity across the Indian Ocean World, Volume II: Exchange of Ideas, Religions, and Technologies. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 141–201.
  11. ^ a b Pham, Charlotte Minh-Hà L. (2012). "Unit 14: Asian Shipbuilding (Training Manual for the UNESCO Foundation Course on the Protection and Management of the Underwater Cultural Heritage)". Training Manual for the UNESCO Foundation Course on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage in Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. ISBN 978-92-9223-414-0.
  12. ^ Dix, President Dudley (2013-09-23). Shaped by Wind & Wave: Musings of a Boat Designer. Lulu Press, Inc. ISBN 9781105651120.
  13. ^ Mudie, Rosemary; Mudie, Colin (1975), The history of the sailing ship, Arco Publishing Co., p. 152, ISBN 9780668037808
  14. ^ Platt, Brian (2001). "The Chinese Sail". friend.ly.net. Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 13 August 2009. The masts, hull and standing rigging" section, paragraph 2
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Works cited