|Died||1 May 1521|
|Occupation(s)||Writer, scrivener, explorer|
Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480 – 1 May 1521) was a Portuguese writer and officer from Portuguese India (between 1500 and 1516). He was a Christian pastor and scrivener in a feitoria in Kochi, and an interpreter of the local language, Malayalam. Barbosa wrote the Book of Duarte Barbosa (Portuguese: Livro de Duarte Barbosa) c. 1516, making it one of the earliest examples of Portuguese travel literature.
In 1519, Barbosa embarked on the first expedition to circumnavigate the world, led by his brother-in-law Ferdinand Magellan. Barbosa was killed in 1521, at a banquet held by Rajah Humabon in the Philippines, a few days after the Battle of Mactan on Cebu Island.
Barbosa's father was Diogo Barbosa. Diogo was a servant of Álvaro of Braganza, and in 1501 he went to India in a joint venture with Álvaro, Bartholomeu Marchionni, and the 3rd Portuguese India Armada (captained by João da Nova). While Diogo was away, Barbosa remained in Kochi with his uncle, Gonçalo Gil Barbosa, who worked as a factor. (Earlier, Gonçalo had travelled with the 1500 fleet of Pedro Álvares Cabral).
In 1502, Gonçalo was transferred to Cannanore, and Barbosa went with him. There, Barbosa learned Malayalam, the local language. Barbosa served as the interpreter for Alfonso de Albuquerque's contact with the Rajah of Cannanore the next year (1503). In 1513, Barbosa signed a letter to King Manuel I of Portugal as Clerk of Cannanore, claiming the position of master-clerk, and the year after that (1514), Afonso de Albuquerque used Barbosa's position as an interpreter to attempt to convert the King of Kochi.
In 1515, Albuquerque sent Barbosa to Kozhikode to oversee the construction of two ships that would serve on an expedition to the Red Sea under the new governor. Barbosa returned to Portugal and completed his manuscript, Book of Duarte Barbosa. According to Italian writer Giovanni Battista Ramusio's preface, Barbosa completed his manuscript in 1516 with detailed accounts of foreign cultures. Previously known only through the testimony of Ramusio, the original manuscript was discovered and published in the early nineteenth century in Lisbon, Portugal.