The characteristics of the ships of the Borobudur temple include: Having outriggers that are not as long as their hulls, bipod or tripod mast with a canted square sail (tanja sail), a bowsprit with a spritsail, rowing gallery (where people row by sitting or standing), deckhouse, have oculi (carved/bossed eyes), and quarter rudders. Some ships are depicted with oars, numbering at least 6, 8, or 9, and some others have none.
There are some common misconceptions about the Borobudur ship:
The ship depicted in the Borobudur temple is an Indian ship. This opinion is supported by Indian and Dutch scholars who attribute the influence of India to the kingdom of the Archipelago ("Indianization"), so the ship depicted in the temple must have come from India. This also stems from the notion that Javanese ships are inferior to Indian ships. This argument has been debunked, the Javanese were experienced navigators and built large ships, as early as the first millennium CE.: 193 : 28–29 The characteristics actually indicate Indonesian origin: The presence of outriggers, the use of canted sails with a lower boom, the use of bipod and tripod mast, and rowing galleries.
The ship was a Srivijayan ship or a Malay ship. In fact, there is absolutely no evidence to support this statement. In the Srivijaya era, the type of watercraft is rarely recorded, the type of Malay boat recorded is the samvau (modern Malay: Sampan) on the Kedukan Bukit inscription (683 AD) in Sumatra. Another recorded watercraft is the lancang, from 2 inscriptions on the northern coast of Bali written in the Old Balinese language dated 896 and 923 AD.: 149–150 Meanwhile, the Borobudur ship is only found in the Borobudur temple, which is a Javanese heritage, not Malay.: 109–110 
The Borobudur ship is a Majapahit ship. In fact, historical accounts of the main ships of Majapahit mention the jong, malangbang, and kelulus,: 290–291 all of which do not have outriggers.: 266–267
Renderings of the five ships with outriggers in the Borobudur bas-reliefs (out of seven ships depicted in total) in Conradus Leemans's Boro-Boedoer (1873). Note that the ships are of different types.
The earliest replica of this ship was made in the Philippines in 1985, based on the Pontian boat structure. It is called Sarimanok (lucky little bird), used to sail to Java and Madagascar.
Borobudur relief serve as the basis for constructing "Spirit of Majapahit", a replica of Majapahit ship. This replica has received criticism from historians, because the ship used by Majapahit is jong while the Borobudur relief ship is an earlier vessel.
^Manguin, Pierre-Yves (1993). "Trading Ships of the South China Sea. Shipbuilding Techniques and Their Role in the History of the Development of Asian Trade Networks". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient: 253–280.
^Manguin, Pierre-Yves (2012). Lancaran, Ghurab and Ghali: Mediterranean impact on war vessels in Early Modern Southeast Asia. In G. Wade & L. Tana (Eds.), Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past (pp. 146–182). Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.
^Kumar, Ann (2012). 'Dominion Over Palm and Pine: Early Indonesia’s Maritime Reach', in Geoff Wade (ed.), Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies), 101–122.
Beale, Philip (2006). "From Indonesia to Africa: Borobudur Ship Expedition". ZIFF Journal. 3: 17–24.
Hornell, James (1946). Water transport: Origins and early Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Inglis, Douglas Andrew (2014). The Borobudur Vessels in Context (Thesis). Texas A&M University.
Pareanom, Yusi Avianto (2005). Cinnamon Route, The Samudraraksa Borobudur Expedition. Yogyakarta: PT Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan & Ratu Boko, Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Republic of Indonesia, Lontar Foundation. ISBN978-979-8083-58-7.
Van Erp, Theodoor (1923). Voorstellingen van vaartuigen op de reliefs van den Boroboedoer. ’S-Gravenhage: Ādi-Poestaka.
Note: The following two links are dead. Could someone help please?