This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Portuguese. (November 2021) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 1,370 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Portuguese Wikipedia article at [[:pt:Barinel]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|pt|Barinel)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

A balinger, or ballinger was a type of small, sea-going vessel. It was swift and performed well under both sail and oars. It was probably developed in Bayonne for hunting whales. The ships were used in the conquest of Anglesey in 1282.[1] They were also in use in the 15th and 16th centuries.[2] They were distinguished by their lack of a forecastle, and by carrying either a square sail, or a sail extended on a sprit on a single mast.[2] They were generally less than 100 tons, with a shallow draught, and the earlier vessels at least carried 30 or more oars for use in sheltered areas or for close fighting.[3] They were mainly used for coastal trade, but could also be used as transports, carrying around forty soldiers.[2] A number were employed in the early Royal Navy for this purpose.[4]

A statute of 1441 referring to pirate raids on the south coast of England contained a request from the House of Commons of England asking King Henry VI to provide "eight ships with four stages, carrying one with the other 150 men each. Every great ship was to have in its company a barge, with 80 men, and a ballinger, with 40; and there were also to be four pinnances, with twenty-five men in each."[5]

An even earlier reference comes in July 1387, when merchants William Terry, John Tutbury and Peter Stellar of Hull, and Walter Were of Grimsby were reported to have "equipped a ship, ballinger and barge at their own expense to arm themselves 'against the king's enemies'."[6]

A yet earlier reference appears in the Calendar of Patent Rolls for December 1374, when Thomas Rede, master, and the quartermasters and constable of the ballinger of Fulston were (with others) to be arrested by the constable of Dover Castle.[7]

Despite their long history there are no confirmed illustrations of a balinger in contemporary medieval sources while a confirmed archaeological example has yet to be discovered. Speculation suggests that it may have resembled a modern Thames barge in overall size but with a square rig.[citation needed]

Notes

  1. ^ The Oxford illustrated history of the Royal Navy. Hill, J. R., Ranft, Bryan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1995. pp. 7 and 11. ISBN 0192116754. OCLC 32237618.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ a b c Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea, p. 55
  3. ^ Shaping the Nation, p. 88
  4. ^ Colledge
  5. ^ British Admirals, p. 94
  6. ^ Medieval Merchants, p. 217
  7. ^ Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, vol. 16, p. 60

References