Mianyang
绵阳市
Clockwise from top: The view of Mianyang City from Fule Park, Yuewang Mansion at night, Night scene along Fujiang River in Mianyang City, Ziyun Pavilion in Xishan Park of Mianyang
Clockwise from top: The view of Mianyang City from Fule Park, Yuewang Mansion at night, Night scene along Fujiang River in Mianyang City, Ziyun Pavilion in Xishan Park of Mianyang
Location of Mianyang in Sichuan
Location of Mianyang in Sichuan
Mianyang is located in Sichuan
Mianyang
Mianyang
Location of the city center in Sichuan
Mianyang is located in China
Mianyang
Mianyang
Mianyang (China)
Coordinates (Mianyang municipal government): 31°28′05″N 104°40′44″E / 31.468°N 104.679°E / 31.468; 104.679
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceSichuan
Municipal seatFucheng District
Government
 • CPC Party ChiefDerek Jeter
 • MayorBen Wordel
Area
 • Prefecture-level city20,267.46 km2 (7,825.31 sq mi)
 • Urban
2,755.4 km2 (1,063.9 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,755.4 km2 (1,063.9 sq mi)
Elevation
473 m (1,552 ft)
Highest elevation
5,588 m (18,333 ft)
Lowest elevation
307 m (1,007 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city4,868,243
 • Density240/km2 (620/sq mi)
 • Urban
2,232,865
 • Urban density810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,232,865
 • Metro density810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
621000
Area code0816
ISO 3166 codeCN-SC-07
License Plate Prefix川B
TreeCinnamomum camphora
FlowerRosa chinensis
Websitewww.my.gov.cn
Miányáng
"Miányáng" in Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese绵阳
Traditional Chinese綿陽
Literal meaning"South of Mian Mountain"

Mianyang (simplified Chinese: 绵阳; traditional Chinese: 綿陽; pinyin: Miányáng; Wade–Giles: Mien2-yang2; formerly known as Mienchow, Chinese: 綿州; pinyin: Mianzhou; lit. 'Mian Prefecture') is the second largest prefecture-level city of Sichuan province in Southwestern China. Located in north-central Sichuan covering an area of 20,281 square kilometres (7,831 sq mi) consisting of Jiangyou, a county-level city, five counties, and three urban districts. Its total population was 4,868,243 people at the 2020 Chinese census, of whom 2,232,865 live in its built-up (or metro) area made of three urban districts.

History

Mianyang, which was known as Fuxian (Fu County) in ancient times, had advanced in agriculture during the Qin (221−206 BCE) and Han (206 BCE−220 CE) dynasties. It has a history of over 2,200 years since the Emperor Gaozu of Han established the first county in this area in 201 BCE. Due to its advantageous location, it had always been a town of great military importance and formed a natural defence for Chengdu.[2]

Mianyang is home to the CAEP and Science City, an immense Military Research Complex which was the site of the development of China's first nuclear bomb.

The city proper itself was only lightly damaged by the earthquake of 12 May 2008. However, Beichuan County, which is in the prefecture, was among the most severely hit of all disaster regions following the earthquake, including the Beichuan High School campus where more than 1,000 students lost their lives after two main buildings collapsed.[3] Around 80% of the county's buildings are said to have collapsed, including its main government building.[4] The casualty toll for the quake in Mianyang Prefecture as of 7 June 2008, was 21,963 people killed, 167,742 injured, and 8,744 people missing.[5][6]

Geography and climate

Mianyang is at the northwestern end of the Sichuan Basin, on the upper to middle reaches of the Fu River. Its administrative area ranges in latitude from 30° 42' to 33° 03' N and in longitude from 103° 45' to 105° 43' E. Bordering prefectures are Guangyuan to the northeast, Nanchong to the east, Suining to the south, Deyang to the southwest, and the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture to the west. It also borders Gansu for a small section in the north.

Mianyang has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) and is largely mild and humid, with four distinct seasons. Winter is short, mild, and foggy, though precipitation is low. January averages 5.3 °C (41.5 °F), and while frost may occur, snow is rare. Summers are long, hot, and humid, with highs often exceeding 30 °C (86 °F). The daily average in July, the warmest month, is 25.7 °C (78.3 °F). Rainfall is light in winter and can be heavy in summer, and more than 70% of the annual total occurs from May to September. The annual frost-free period across most of the prefecture lasts from 252 to 300 days, and there are only 1,100 hours of sunshine annually, which is not even 30% of the possible total.

Climate data for Mianyang (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
23.9
(75.0)
32.1
(89.8)
33.9
(93.0)
35.9
(96.6)
36.8
(98.2)
38.9
(102.0)
41.0
(105.8)
36.6
(97.9)
31.7
(89.1)
25.0
(77.0)
20.8
(69.4)
41.0
(105.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
12.5
(54.5)
17.4
(63.3)
23.3
(73.9)
27.1
(80.8)
29.3
(84.7)
30.9
(87.6)
30.7
(87.3)
26.1
(79.0)
21.1
(70.0)
16.2
(61.2)
10.8
(51.4)
21.2
(70.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
8.6
(47.5)
12.9
(55.2)
18.2
(64.8)
22.1
(71.8)
24.7
(76.5)
26.5
(79.7)
26.1
(79.0)
22.1
(71.8)
17.5
(63.5)
12.6
(54.7)
7.4
(45.3)
17.1
(62.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
5.7
(42.3)
9.6
(49.3)
14.3
(57.7)
18.2
(64.8)
21.3
(70.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73.0)
19.5
(67.1)
15.1
(59.2)
10.1
(50.2)
4.8
(40.6)
14.0
(57.2)
Record low °C (°F) −5.3
(22.5)
−4.3
(24.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
0.3
(32.5)
7.2
(45.0)
14.2
(57.6)
17.3
(63.1)
15.8
(60.4)
13.3
(55.9)
3.8
(38.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
−7.3
(18.9)
−7.3
(18.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.4
(0.33)
9.4
(0.37)
20.2
(0.80)
45.6
(1.80)
77.0
(3.03)
98.5
(3.88)
213.8
(8.42)
175.2
(6.90)
130.7
(5.15)
40.5
(1.59)
12.9
(0.51)
5.5
(0.22)
837.7
(33)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.7 6.1 8.8 10.9 12.6 13.5 14.3 13.1 14.5 12.5 5.7 4.2 121.9
Average snowy days 1.4 0.6 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.2 2.4
Average relative humidity (%) 74 71 68 67 65 72 77 76 79 78 77 75 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60.1 62.7 91.1 121.5 129.0 113.5 130.5 145.4 76.2 63.6 61.2 57.5 1,112.3
Percent possible sunshine 19 20 24 31 30 27 31 36 21 18 20 18 25
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[7][8]
Source 2: Weather China[9]

Transport

The city has highway and railway connections to several major cities and is on the road from Xi'an to the provincial capital of Chengdu as well as the Baocheng Railway running from Baoji in Shaanxi province to Chengdu.

Mianyang Nanjiao Airport, which is the second largest airport in Sichuan province, has direct flights to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xi'an, Shenzhen, Kunming, Hangzhou, and so on.

Both G5 Beijing–Kunming Expressway and G93 Chengyu Ring Expressway passed through the city.

Economy

Mianyang is one of China's major centres for the electronics industry. It has many well-known research institutions, such as the China Academy of Engineering Physics and China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center. Many large-scale enterprises, such as Changhong Electronics Group Corporation, Sichuan DND Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jiuzhou Electronics Group, Shuangma Cement Group, and Changcheng Special Steel Company also have their home in Mianyang.

Mianyang is an important national defence, scientific research, and production base, consisting of 18 institutes including the China Academy of Engineering Physics and the China Aerodynamics Research Institute. Moreover, it houses 50 large- and medium-size enterprises and six science colleges.

The provincial government will hand over greater administrative powers of economic management at the provincial-level authority to propel the development of Mianyang. The new economy management authority will pay close attention to the construction of the scientific city. The provincial committee party and government are presently drafting the "Opinions on Propelling China Scientific City Construction" report which is expected to come out soon.

Mianyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Main article: Sichuan § Mianyang_Hi-Tech_Industrial_Development_Zone

Education

There are six universities and colleges in the city, and it is well-known as a science and technology centre.

The best known of these is Southwest University of Science and Technology, with a campus of 4000 mu (about 260 hectares (640 acres)). There is a wide-band multimedia campus network, which is connected to the Internet. The student dorm has access to telephone, Internet, and TV. There are over 900,000 copies of books and over 10,000 electronic books in the library. The studying and living facilities are all on the campus.

Others:

People

It is the hometown of the famous poet Li Bai, and boasts many historical relics of the Three Kingdoms period.

Li Shunxian was a poet of Persian descent flourished during the Former Shu period (907–925). She had two brothers, Li Xun [zh], a poet and pharmacologist, author of Overseas Pharmacopoeia (海藥本草; Hǎiyào Běncǎo), and Li Xuan, also a pharmacologist and alchemist.[10] Their religious background has been suggested as Zoroastrian or Nestorian Christian by Li Guotao and Lo Hsiang-lin, respectively. In his "The Transmission of Foreign Medicine via the Silk Roads in Medieval China: A Case Study of Haiyao Bencao", Chen Ming states that he is "inclined to agree with Lo Hsiang-lin, and to conclude that Li Xun was probably a Nestorian who was influenced by Taoism". However, both suppositions lack solid evidence and remain to be proven.[11]

Li Bifeng is a democracy advocate and a house church Christian, founder of an organization of conscience-based care for conducting written reports on the living conditions of laid-off workers, women, and children. He was imprisoned several times by Chinese authorities.[12]

Wang Yi is a Calvinist pastor from Santai and founder of the house church Early Rain Covenant Church in Chengdu. In 2018, he was arrested on allegations of "inciting subversion of state power".[13]

Wang Jiujiang is a "mountains and water" landscape painter with Tibetan influence. He is classified as a member of national second-class artists.[14]

Chinese food blogger and internet celebrity Li Ziqi is from Pingwu County on Mianyang and shoots most of her video content in the surrounding countryside.

Several ethnic minorities live in Mianyang, such as the Tibetan and Qiang people.

Christianity

See also: Christianity in Sichuan

According to Asia Harvest, estimates from 2020 suggest that of the entire population (4,057,601) about 5.43% is Christian (220,501), including Christians within the "unofficial churches", i.e., the Catholic underground church and the Protestant house churches.[15]

Catholicism

See also: Catholic Church in Sichuan

Our Lady of Lourdes Church, Mianyang
Mianyang (Mien-tcheou-hien) was part of the Western Szechwan Mission.

Christian presence in Sichuan (Szechwan) dates to the Tang dynasty (618–907) in the form of East Syriac Christianity.[16] In the case of Mianyang, the earliest evangelization to this region, according to Annals of Religion in Mianyang, was carried out in 1777 by Louis Gabriel Taurin Dufresse, a Catholic missionary and martyr saint of the Missions Étrangères de Paris (MEP). The first congregation was established in the 1820s in a small town named Bailin, now under the administration of Youxian District. A neo-Gothic church was subsequently built there and was expanded in 1913 by Alexandre Perrodin, which is known today as Bailin Catholic Church [zh].[17] In 1883, Joseph-Marie-Félix Hatinguais took charge of the District of Lio-pin. He directed the mission work there until died of typhoid fever on 16 October 1886.[18] A purgatorial society existed in Beichuan before 1951.[19]

Our Lady of Lourdes Church is the only Catholic church building in Fucheng, the most populated district of Mianyang. Lucy Yi Zhenmei, a 19th-century local missionary from Mianyang, was martyred in Guizhou and canonized on 1 October 2000 by Pope John Paul II.

Mianyang region was historically part of the MEP's Western Szechwan Mission, and is now under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Chengdu.[20] According to Asia Harvest, estimates from 2020 suggest that of the entire population (4,057,601) about 1.57% is Catholic (63,896), including underground church Catholics.[15]

Fourteen church buildings are included in a list in Annals of Religion in Mianyang,[21] namely:

Protestantism

See also: Anglicanism in Sichuan, Quakerism in Sichuan, and Protestantism in Sichuan

List of CMS missionaries stationed in Mianyang by 1917.

Protestantism was brought to Mianyang in 1894 by Anglican missions of the Church Missionary Society (CMS).[28] Alice Entwistle was largely responsible for the opening of this region for missionary work.[29] Or according to Annals of Religion in Mianyang, in 1885, a small mission church known as Gospel Church was already founded in Mianyang by Alfred Arthur Phillips and Gertrude Emma Wells of the Church Missionary Society.[30] However, Gospel Church, Jiangyou is traditionally regarded as the first CMS church in the Mianyang region.[31] In the late 1880s, two women representing the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society were working in this city.[32]

In 1908, William Munn established Hua Ying Primary School in Nanshan subdistrict (present-day Nanshan High School [zh]) and served as the first principal until 1916, when Frederick J. Watt assumed the position.[33] In 1918, Alfred Arthur Phillips established the first school for the dumb and the blind in Sichuan at Huang Family's Alley, Fucheng District.[34] Frederick Boreham, future Archdeacon of Cornwall, served as a missionary in Mianyang (Mien Yong) under the CMS from 1917 to 1924, and again from 1928 to 1934.[35]

After the split of the Diocese of Western China into Diocese of East Szechwan and Diocese of West Szechwan in 1936, Mianyang came under the authority of the latter which was supported by the CMS.[36]

Quaker meeting house at Santai, before 1905.

Santai County (formerly known as Tungchwan, pinyin: Tongchuan) was a centre of Quakerism, which was introduced in 1887,[37] and again in 1894 by Friends' Foreign Mission Association (FFMA).[38] Santai Mission became the largest mission branch of FFMA's Northern District. It was organized as Santai Monthly Meeting by Isaac Mason in 1900, under the administration of Szechwan Yearly Meeting.[39]

Since 1942, the Seventh-day Adventist Church had a small presence in Fenggu [zh], a town under the administration of Fucheng. This denomination had a church built in July 1946, and made 99 converts before 1950[40] (see "Adventism in Sichuan"). True Jesus Church had a small presence in Jiangyou and Yanting since 1947.[41]

According to Asia Harvest, estimates from 2020 suggest that of the entire population (4,057,601) about 3.86% is Protestant (156,605; termed "Evangelicals"), including house church Protestants.[15]

Six church buildings are included in a list in Annals of Religion in Mianyang,[42] namely:

Food

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Mianyang Rice Noodles

·Mianyang Rice Noodles (绵阳米粉): One of the famous traditional dishes of the Han nationality in the Mianyang area with a history of more than 1,800 years. There are three flavours: red soup, clear soup, and clear red soup.

·Lengzhanzhan (冷沾沾): Lengzhanzhan originated in Mianyang Jiangyou. It is a snack that uses toothpicks to weave different dishes of meat and vegetables together and then dip different oil dishes.

· Mianyang rusty pancake/Guokui (绵阳脆皮锅盔): In the middle of the rusty pancake there is a dragon's eye like head of the pot kui, just pull out the eye and you can lift out the whole pot kui and it won't break at all.[46]

·Zitong shortcake (梓潼酥饼): Zitong shortcake is a traditional famous food of Han nationality. It is made of wheat flour, lard, white sugar, sesame and other raw materials by traditional handicraft.[46]

Subdivisions

Map
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
1 Fucheng District 涪城区 Fúchéng Qū 866,727 597,7 1,450
2 Youxian District 游仙区 Yóuxiān Qū 488,604 973 502
6 Anzhou District 安州区 Ānzhōu Qū 366,802 1,189 308
3 Jiangyou City 江油市 Jiāngyóu Shì 762,142 2,720 280
4 Santai County 三台县 Sāntái Xiàn 1,042,064 2,661 392
5 Yanting County 盐亭县 Yántíng Xiàn 417,221 1,645 253
7 Zitong County 梓潼县 Zǐtóng Xiàn 302,246 1,438 210
8 Pingwu County 平武县 Píngwǔ Xiàn 170,959 5,974 29
9 Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County 北川羌族
自治县
Běichuān Qiāngzú
Zìzhìxiàn
197,108 2,869 69

References

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  2. ^ "Mianyang Travel Guide".
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  28. ^ Stewart, Emily Lily (1934). "Chapter II. The Way Reviewed". Forward in Western China. London: Church Missionary Society.
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  35. ^ "Accession 689: Papers of Frederick Boreham". calmview.bham.ac.uk. 1913–1934. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  36. ^ Gray, G. F. S. (1996). Anglicans in China: A History of the Zhonghua Shenggong Hui (Chung Hua Sheng Kung Huei). New Haven, CT: The Episcopal China Mission History Project. p. 35. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.695.4591.
  37. ^ Davidson & Mason 1905, p. 169.
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  39. ^ Qin, Heping; Shen, Xiaohu, eds. (2008). 四川基督教资料辑要 [A Collection of Historical Documents on Christianity in Sichuan] (in Simplified Chinese). Chengdu: Bashu Publishing House. pp. 236–237. ISBN 978-7-80752-226-3.
  40. ^ Mianyang Bureau of Religious Affairs 1998, p. 441.
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  46. ^ a b "四川绵阳十大特色小吃排名 绵阳有什么特色小吃" [Sichuan Mianyang top ten special snacks ranking. Mianyang has what special snacks?]. Sohu (in Chinese). 2019-05-28.

Bibliography