Zhoukou
周口市
Chowkow
Shaying River near downtown of Zhoukou City
Zhoukou in Henan
Zhoukou
Zhoukou
Location in China
Coordinates (Zhoukou municipal government): 33°38′12″N 114°42′05″E / 33.6367°N 114.7014°E / 33.6367; 114.7014Coordinates: 33°38′12″N 114°42′05″E / 33.6367°N 114.7014°E / 33.6367; 114.7014
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHenan
Area
 • Prefecture-level city11,959 km2 (4,617 sq mi)
 • Urban
141 km2 (54 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,454 km2 (561 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 census for total, 2010 otherwise)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city9,026,015
 • Density750/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
721,300
 • Urban density5,100/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,601,300
 • Metro density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
466000
Area code(s)0394
ISO 3166 codeCN-HA-16
Vehicle registration豫P
GDP(2009)CNY 111.17 billion[3]
Major NationalitiesHan
County-level divisions9
Township-level divisions1
Websitewww.zhoukou.gov.cn
Chuanhui District, Zhoukou

Zhoukou (Chinese: 周口; pinyin: Zhōukǒu; Wade–Giles: Chou-k’ou; postal: Chowkow) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, China. It borders Zhumadian to the southwest, Xuchang and Luohe to the west, Kaifeng to the northwest, Shangqiu to the northeast, and the province of Anhui on all other sides. As of the 2020 census, its population was 9,026,015 inhabitants. However, as of the 2010 census, 1,445,963 lived in the built-up (or metro) made up of Chuanhui district and the northern part of Shangshui county.[2]

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Zhoukou administers 2 districts, 1 county-level city and 7 counties.

Map

Geography

Climate data for Zhoukou (Chuanhui District, 1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
9.6
(49.3)
14.7
(58.5)
21.7
(71.1)
27.1
(80.8)
31.6
(88.9)
32.1
(89.8)
30.9
(87.6)
27.3
(81.1)
22.2
(72.0)
15.0
(59.0)
8.4
(47.1)
20.6
(69.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
4.3
(39.7)
9.2
(48.6)
15.9
(60.6)
21.3
(70.3)
25.9
(78.6)
27.5
(81.5)
26.5
(79.7)
22.0
(71.6)
16.3
(61.3)
9.2
(48.6)
3.3
(37.9)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
0.2
(32.4)
4.6
(40.3)
10.7
(51.3)
16.0
(60.8)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
22.9
(73.2)
17.9
(64.2)
11.8
(53.2)
5.0
(41.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
10.9
(51.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.0
(0.67)
20.3
(0.80)
38.9
(1.53)
34.4
(1.35)
74.3
(2.93)
102.4
(4.03)
217.9
(8.58)
136.0
(5.35)
82.1
(3.23)
51.0
(2.01)
31.4
(1.24)
16.2
(0.64)
821.9
(32.36)
Average relative humidity (%) 68 66 67 68 70 69 80 82 77 73 72 69 72
Source: China Meteorological Administration[4]

History

Further information: Chenzhou (modern Henan)

For thousands of years, Chen (now at Huaiyang) had been the center of this area and a nationally well-known city. The ancient city site founded at Pingliangtai (near Huaiyang) is over 4600 years old, which is one of the oldest cities in China.[5] According to the legend, Fu Xi, the first of the Three Sovereigns of ancient China, died in the city. During the Spring and Autumn period, Chen was the capital of Chen State and then annexed by Chu. Therefore, the area was usually referred to as "Chen Chu" in ancient times. The leaders of the first Chinese peasant uprising (the Dazexiang uprising) established the government at Chen.

The city's name "Zhoukou" is short for "Zhoujiakou", which literally means "Zhou's ferry". Located at the intersection of Jialu River and Shaying River, it started to develop as a river harbor of China's Inland Water Transport System in the early Ming dynasty. By the end of the 18th century, two towns along the rivers merged into one big town with several tens of thousand permanent residents. From the port, cargo could either be shipped south to the Yangtze River or north to the Yellow River. However, after the "sea ban" was canceled, sea transport began to play a major role on the trade between Jiangnan and North China, which diminished the utility of inland waterways. The cost of maintaining the river channels kept increasing because of the ever-rising river bed. The appearance of railways and modern roads in the early 20th century lead to a recession in the water transport business nearby. Finally, in the 1970s, a dam was built on the Shaying River, which cut the city's last waterway.

In 2000, the government of the Zhoukou prefecture-level city was founded. The old county-level city and its suburban area became Chuanhui District.

Economy

Zhoukou is a major agricultural producer in the province of Henan. Its economy is mainly based on the trade of agricultural products, such as grain, cotton, oil, meat and tobacco. In particular, Zhoukou is famous for the skin of the Huai Goat, a local breed of goat.

Transportation

Railways

Expressways

Highways

Education

Universities and Colleges

Schools[6]

Notable people

Sister cities

References

  1. ^ 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b "China: Hénán (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  3. ^ 2009年周口市经济运行情况分析. Ha.ststs.gov.cn (in Chinese).
  4. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  5. ^ 平粮台古城遗址. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011.
  6. ^ 首批河南示范性高中名单. Zgxwyjy.cn.