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Location of Jinzhou City jurisdiction in Liaoning
Location of Jinzhou City jurisdiction in Liaoning
Jinzhou is located in Liaoning
Location of the city center in Liaoning
Coordinates (Liaoshen campaign memorial): 41°07′44″N 121°08′53″E / 41.129°N 121.148°E / 41.129; 121.148
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Districts and Counties
  • Taihe District
  • Guta District
  • Linghe District
  • Linghai City
  • Beizhen City
  • Heishan County
  • Yi County
 • CPC Party SecretaryLiu Zhiqiang (刘志强)
 • MayorWang Wenquan (王文权)
 • Prefecture-level city9,988.6 km2 (3,856.6 sq mi)
 • Urban
535 km2 (207 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,323.6 km2 (1,283.2 sq mi)
24 m (78 ft)
 (2020 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city2,703,853
 • Density270/km2 (700/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density460/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
 • Prefecture-level cityCN¥ 132.7 billion
US$ 21.3 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 43,207
US$ 6,937
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Area code416
ISO 3166 codeCN-LN-07
License plate辽G
Administrative division code210700

Jinzhou (/ˈɪnˈ/,[3] simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: 錦州; pinyin: Jǐnzhōu), formerly Chinchow, is a coastal prefecture-level city in central-west Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the Liaoxi Corridor, which connects most of the land transports between North China and Northeast China, and is the economic center of western Liaoning. Located on the northern shore of Liaodong Bay, Jinzhou encompasses a coastline of 97.7 km (60.7 mi), with the Port of Jinzhou being China's northernmost seaport.

It is the fifth-most populous city in Liaoning, with a population of 2,703,853 (2020 census), of whom 1,524,362 reside in the built-up (or metro) area encompassing the 3 urban urban districts and Linghai City largely being conurbated. The total area under the jurisdiction of Jinzhou is 9,989 square kilometers (3,857 sq mi), most of which is rural.


Map including Jinzhou (labeled as CHIN-HSIEN 錦縣) (AMS, 1950)

Jinzhou is an ancient city with over a thousand years of history. Originally known as Tuhe (徒河), it was part of Yan in the Warring States period. Under the Qin dynasty, the majority of what is now Jinzhou became part of Liaodong Commandery. It was part of Changli Commandery in the province of Youzhou during the Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms periods, but fell under the jurisdiction of Yingzhou in the Beiwei, Dongwei, and Beiqi periods, before becoming part of Liucheng Commandery and then Yan Prefecture during the Sui dynasty and Tang dynasty. During the Tang, it was the seat of the Andong Protectorate.

The name "Jinzhou" came into use in the Liao dynasty, when it belonged to Zhongjing prefecture. In the Jin dynasty, it was part of Dongjing Prefecture and Beijing Prefecture. It belonged to Liaoyang Xingzhongshu in the Mongol Empire/Yuan dynasty and to Liaodong township in the Ming dynasty. It was ruled by Tianfu during the Qing dynasty, when its name was changed from Jinzhou to Jinxian. It is also known in English as Chinhsien and Chinchow.

People's Liberation Army launches final strike on Jinzhou

During the Republican period, Jinzhou was attached to Liaoning Province. When the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1945, Jinzhou was the site of a major battle between the Communist and Nationalist forces, since it is where the main route from Manchuria through Shanhai Pass enters central China. Its capture on 22 November 1945, by Nationalist forces under Du Yuming forced the Communists to agree to a temporary ceasefire that lasted several months.[4]

During the Liaoshen campaign, in which the People's Liberation Army began to consolidate control of Northeast China, refugees tried to escape to the city to flee further south. The Republic of China Army, under orders from Chiang Kai-shek not to allow refugees to escape the region, shot at them as they tried to cross the Daling River 30 kilometers north of the city. The Communists commanded by Lin Biao captured the city in September 1948.[5]

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoxi Province was founded and Jinzhou became its provincial capital. Jinzhou came back under the administration of Liaoning Province in 1954, when Liaoxi and Liaodong provinces re-merged.[6]

Geography and climate

Jinzhou is located in the southwestern portion of Liaoning, and borders Panjin, Anshan, and Shenyang to the east, and Huludao on the west. The city's southern coast is the Liaodong Bay. On the north are Chaoyang and Fuxin.

Jinzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with four distinct seasons; winters are cold but very dry while summers are hot and humid. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −7.9 °C (17.8 °F) to 24.3 °C (75.7 °F) in July, with the annual mean being 9.50 °C (49.1 °F). The annual average precipitation is between 540 and 640 millimeters (21 and 25 in), the majority of which usually occurs in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 45% in July to 68% in three months, the city receives 2,682 hours of bright sunshine annually, with autumn and winter being especially sunny.

Fossil-bearing rocks are exposed in the city's vicinity, including the Yixian Formation. A genus of Early Cretaceous birds has been named Jinzhouornis in honor of the locality, but it appears to be a junior synonym of Confuciusornis which was found in the same formation some years earlier.

Climate data for Jinzhou (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1939–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.3
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.6
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −11.3
Record low °C (°F) −24.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.5
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.8 1.7 2.4 5.0 7.3 10.9 10.8 9.3 5.9 4.9 3.2 1.5 64.7
Average snowy days 2.8 2.8 2.3 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 2.6 3.0 14.8
Average relative humidity (%) 49 47 44 45 51 66 75 73 63 55 52 51 56
Mean monthly sunshine hours 205.1 209.8 249.8 249.7 274.5 231.3 207.9 230.6 241.7 226.0 188.4 188.7 2,703.5
Percent possible sunshine 69 69 67 62 61 51 46 55 65 67 64 66 62
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[7][8]
Source 2: Weather China[9]


Jinzhou has eight immediate sub-municipal divisions:

# Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2003 est.)
Area (km2) Density
1 Taihe District 太和区 Tàihé Qū 210,000 459 458
2 Guta District 古塔区 Gǔtǎ Qū 240,000 28 8,571
3 Linghe District 凌河区 Línghé Qū 420,000 48 8,750
4 Linghai City 凌海市 Línghǎi Shì 600,000 2,862 210
5 Beizhen City 北镇市 Běizhèn Shì 530,000 1,782 297
6 Heishan County 黑山县 Hēishān Xiàn 630,000 2,436 259
7 Yi County 义县 Yì Xiàn 440,000 2,496 176
8 Jinzhou Economic and
Technical Development Zone
Jǐnzhōu Jīngjì
Jìshù Kāifā Qū

The above eight are subdivided into 43 towns, 69 townships, and 1680 villages.


Jinzhou has a wide range of industries. Major traditional industries include petrochemistry, metallurgy, textiles, pharmacy and building materials.

Jinzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone  : The Jinzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone was established in 1992. It is among the first province-level development zones approved by Liaoning Province. The development zone enjoys convenient transportation with easy access to Jinzhou Seaport, Jinzhou airport and several state highways.

Shopping and Services : Within the city, some western franchises have set up shop, most notably KFC, which has a long established foothold in Chinese markets. RT-Mart, New-Mart and Do-Do Express are major food and sundries retailers. Bank of Jinzhou (Jinzhou Yinhang) is the only bank in Jinzhou upon this writing with native English speaking staff, while Western Union, Bank of China and many other banking service are also present in the city. Visa and MasterCard are not accepted in Jinzhou, aside from a few large bank branches with access to these networks.

Photograph of a shopping mall in Jinzhou city.


Jinzhou Jinzhouwan Airport provides air transport to major airports in China. There are two railway stations in the city, one designated for long trips and one for shorter routes. The most popular way to get around Jinzhou is on foot or by bicycle. Taxis crowd the streets and start at 6 RMB per trip. Bus routes also blanket the city and provide the most economical means of transportation, but are not always reliable.


Jinzhou is headquarters of the 40th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Shenyang Military Region responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia and North Korea.


The Liaoshen Campaign Memorial (traditional Chinese: 遼沈戰役紀念館; simplified Chinese: 辽沈战役纪念馆) commemorates the Liaoshen Campaign of 1948. It is a large museum that holds and displays over 16,000 pieces of equipment used during the campaign, including rifles, machine guns, mortars, cannons, and tanks. It also holds thousands of pictures and documents. The best known exhibit inside the museum is the Panoramic Picture Hall, which reproduces the complete Battle of Jinzhou on a rotating circular screen.

Yiwulü Mountain is located in the west of Beizhen City of Jinzhou. It is one of the three sacred mountains in Northeast China. Wanghai Mountain is the main peak, with a height of 867 meters above the sea level, and tourist spots such as Beizhen Temple, Shenshui Bridge, Fish Pool, Guanyin Pavilion, Sijiao Pavilion, Kuangguang Pavilion, Lotus Stone, Cloud Pass and Wanghai Temple are scattered throughout the mountain range.

Mount Bijia is an island in the Bohai Sea south of Jinzhou on which is located a Chinese Buddhist temple. During most of the day, Mount Bijia can only be accessed by boat, but when the tide wanes, a natural causeway connects Mount Bijia to the mainland. People can walk to Mount Bijia from the seafront on foot and local people have named this natural wonder Tian Qiao, (lit: Sky Bridge). On the top of the mountain there is a tall stone pavilion, which resembles a gigantic pen resting on a pen holder, hence the name "Bijiashan", meaning the "Pen Holder Mountain".

Photograph of Mount Bijia at high tide.

Guangji Pagoda (traditional Chinese: 廣濟寺塔; simplified Chinese: 广济寺塔): The Guangji Pagoda is located in Guta Park situated at the heart of Jinzhou. The 72-meter-tall tower is an example of beautiful Liao-style architecture, with thirteen levels in an octagonal shape. A quiet temple beneath completes the ancient Chinese setting. Visitors will see locals gather for early morning rituals, exercise and various other activities. There is no fee for admission to the temple grounds.


One of the bestselling nonfiction novels of the 1990s, "Wild Swans:Three Daughters of China", provides some detailed descriptions of Jinzhou both before and after the "1949 Liberation of China".

Notable people

Colleges and Universities

Sister cities

Jinzhou has one sister city, as designated by Sister Cities International.


  1. ^ "China: Liáoníng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ 辽宁省统计局、国家统计局辽宁调查总队 (October 2016). 《辽宁统计年鉴-2016》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7900-8. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  3. ^ "Jinzhou pronunciation". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  4. ^ Lew, Christopher R. The Third Chinese Revolutionary War, 1945-1949: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership. The USA and Canada: Routelage. 2009. ISBN 0-415-77730-5. pp.28-30
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  6. ^ Du, Wenwen (15 October 2020). "战史今日10月15日:解放军攻克锦州" [en:War History Today, October 15: PLA Takes Jinzhou]. zh:中国军网 (in Chinese). Retrieved 22 March 2024. "锦州战役是国共内战中中国人民解放军与国民党军之间的一场战役,它是在东北的其中一场决定性战役,是辽沈战役的一个组成部分。"
  7. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  8. ^ "Experience Template" 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  9. ^ 锦州城市介绍以及气候背景分析. Weather China (in Chinese). 中国气象局公共气象服务中心. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  10. ^ Chan, Minnie; "Chongqing Party boss defends his crackdown", South China Morning Post, 2009 Oct 18 The Xia's made famous by the publication of the book, Wild Swans by Jung Chang.
  11. ^ "辽宁工业大学".
  12. ^ "渤海大学".
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