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This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

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Individual message boxes: Biographies of living persons
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((BLP IMDb refimprove))
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This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification, as it includes attribution to IMDb. IMDb may not be a reliable source for biographical information. Please help by adding additional, reliable sources for verification. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((BLP primary sources))
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This biography of a living person relies too much on references to primary sources. Please help by adding secondary or tertiary sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((BLP self-published))
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((BLP sources))
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This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((BLP sources section))
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This section of a biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((BLP unsourced))
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This biography of a living person does not include any references or sources. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living people that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((BLP unsourced section))
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((excessive citations))
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((media IMDb refimprove))
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This media article uses IMDb for verification. IMDb may not be a reliable source for film and television information and is generally only cited as an external link. Please help by replacing IMDb with third-party reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((more citations needed))
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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((more citations needed section))
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((More medical citations needed))
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This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
((more science citations needed))
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((one source))
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((original research))
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((primary sources))
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This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this article by adding secondary or tertiary sources. Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((refexample))
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This article gives self-sourcing popular culture examples without describing their significance in the context of the article. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources that describe the examples' significance, and by removing less pertinent examples. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged or removed. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((religious text primary))
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This article uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources, with multiple points of view. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((self-published))
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((speculation))
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((third-party))
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This article may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, potentially preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. Please help improve it by replacing them with more appropriate citations to reliable, independent, third-party sources. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((unreferenced))
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This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((unreferenced section))
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This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((unreliable sources))
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((user-generated))
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Individual message boxes: Issues with style or format
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((Citation style))
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This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Citations broken))
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This article uses citations that link to broken or outdated sources. Please improve the article by following these instructions or discuss this issue on the talk page. Help on using footnotes is available. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Citations broken from PEIS limit))
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This page exceeds Wikipedia's template size limit. Some references and/or templates may not render properly on this page. To possibly view missing references, view this article in the visual editor.[1] Please discuss this issue on the talk page. To solve this problem, use Module:Cite web. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Cleanup bare URLs))
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This article uses bare URLs, which are uninformative for readers and may be threatened by link rot. Please consider converting them to full citations to ensure the article remains verifiable and maintains a consistent citation style. Several templates and tools are available to assist in formatting, such as Reflinks (documentation), reFill (documentation) and Citation bot (documentation). (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Duplicated citations))
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This article lists the same citations more than once. Please consider using named references to ensure each citation appears only one time. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Format footnotes))
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This article includes inline citations, but they are not properly formatted. Please improve this article by correcting them. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Full citations needed))
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This article needs more complete citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding missing citation information so that sources are clearly identifiable. Citations should include title, publication, author, date, and (for paginated material) the page number(s). Several templates are available to assist in formatting. Improperly sourced material may be challenged and removed. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Ibid))
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Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((More footnotes needed))
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This article includes a list of general references, but it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((No footnotes))
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This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Page numbers improve))
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This article cites its sources but its page references ranges are too broad or incorrect. Page ranges in books should be specific, although circumstances may warrant citing a whole chapter or a larger range. You can help improve this article by introducing citations that are more precise. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
((Page numbers needed))
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This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. You can help to improve it by introducing citations that are more precise, and providing page numbers for existing citations. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Note list
  1. ^ As an alternative, you may view this article in the source editor and navigate to the section where the reference is displayed.

Tags inline with article text

Tag Background info from Wikipedia namespace
((according to whom))
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[according to whom?]
((additional citation needed))
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[additional citation(s) needed]
((attribution needed))
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[attribution needed]
((better source needed))
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[better source needed]
((better source needed example))
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[better source needed] Links to self-sourcing examples
((by whom))
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[by whom?]
((chronology citation needed))
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[chronology citation needed]
((circular reference))
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[circular reference] When the sources copy Wikipedia material directly
((circular reporting))
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[circular reporting?] For the subtler case when you suspect the sources are based on facts first published at Wikipedia, but they didn't copy it directly
((citation needed))
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[citation needed]
((citation needed span))
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The sun is hot.[citation needed]
((clarify))
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[clarification needed]
((copyvio link))
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[infringing link?]
((dead link))
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[dead link]
((disambiguation needed))
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[disambiguation needed]
((disputed inline))
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[disputed ]
((dubious))
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[dubious ]
((episode needed))
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[episode needed]
((example needed))
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[example needed]
((example needed span))
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This is a claim that needs one or more examples.[example needed]
((explain))
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[further explanation needed]
((failed verification))
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[failed verification]
((full citation needed))
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[full citation needed]
((how))
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[how?]
((medical citation needed))
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[medical citation needed]
((medical citation needed span))
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This is an uncited biomedical claim.[medical citation needed]
((nonspecific))
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[not specific enough to verify]
((not verified in body))
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[not verified in body]
((original research inline))
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[original research?]
((page needed))
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[page needed]
((primary source inline))
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[non-primary source needed]
((quantify))
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[quantify]
((quote without source))
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[quote citation needed]
((registration required))
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(registration required)
((request quotation))
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[need quotation to verify]
((season needed))
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[season and episode needed]
((self-published inline))
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[self-published source?]
((self-published source))
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[self-published source]
((specify))
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[specify]
((synthesis inline))
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[improper synthesis?]
((third-party inline))
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[third-party source needed]
((unreliable medical source))
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[unreliable medical source?]
((unreliable source?))
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[unreliable source?]
((update after))
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[needs update]
((user-generated inline))
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[user-generated source?]
((user-generated source))
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[user-generated source]
((vague))
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[vague]
((verify quote))
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[verify]
((verify source))
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[verification needed]
((volume needed))
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[volume & issue needed]
((when))
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[when?]
((where))
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[where?]
((which))
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[which?]
((who))
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[who?]
((whose quote))
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[who said this?]
((why))
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[why?]
((year missing))
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[year missing] Use when the year of publication of a source is needed
((year needed))
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[year needed] Use when the date of an event is needed

Links for search

Tag Text that will be shown (and usage notes)
((find sources))
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Find sources: Google (books · news · scholar · free images · WP refs· FENS · JSTOR · NYT · WP Library
((search))
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Overarching copyright issues

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((copypaste))
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This article may have been copied and pasted from another location, possibly in violation of Wikipedia's copyright policy. Please review the source and remedy this by editing this article to remove any non-free copyrighted content and attributing free content correctly, or flagging the content for deletion. Please be sure that the supposed source of the copyright violation is not itself a Wikipedia mirror.

Combined message boxes

Tag Text that will be shown (and usage notes) — multiple issues (top of article)
((multiple issues))

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This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (May 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (Aug 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article may contain excessive or inappropriate references to self-published sources. Please help improve it by removing references to unreliable sources where they are used inappropriately. (March 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful.Find sources: "Sources of articles" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Tag Text that will be shown (and usage notes) — multiple issues (section)
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This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Wikipedia talk:Template index/Sources of articles. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. (June 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This section needs expansion with: examples and additional citations. You can help by adding to it. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Verifiability and sources

Transcluded from Wikipedia:Template messages/Cleanup/Verifiability and sources

Including third-party content

United States government attribution templates

These templates can be added to articles (close to the end of the article, in the References or External links section, for example). Before adding the template to an article, check the details of the usage—some templates require parameters such as a URL. Most of these templates add the articles to the category Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government.

Template Display
((US Air Force)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Air Force website https://www.af.mil.
((AFHRA)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website https://www.afhra.af.mil/.
((Bioguide)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.
((CDC)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
((CIA World Factbook)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.
((USCG)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Coast Guard.
((Country study)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Country Studies. Federal Research Division.
((DADS)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the NIST document: Paul E. Black. "Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures".
((DANFS)) Talk This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
((DHS)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Homeland Security.
((DoE)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Energy.
((FJC Bio)) Talk John Joseph Gibbons at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
((FS1037C)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document: "Federal Standard 1037C".
((FS1037C MS188)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document: "Federal Standard 1037C". (in support of MIL-STD-188)
((GHR)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the United States National Library of Medicine document: "Genetics Home Reference".
((Marine Corps)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.
((NARA)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Archives and Records Administration.
((NASA)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
((NCBI-handbook)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the National Center for Biotechnology Information document: "NCBI Handbook".
((NCBI-scienceprimer)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the NCBI document: "Science Primer".
((NCI-cancer-dict)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the U.S. National Cancer Institute document: "Dictionary of Cancer Terms".
((NHC)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History and Heritage Command.
((NIMH)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Institute of Mental Health.
((NIOSH)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
((NIST-PD)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology website https://www.nist.gov.
((NLM content)) Talk This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.
((NPS)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Park Service.
((NPS.Gov)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Park Service.
((NTSB)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Transportation Safety Board.
((NVR)) Talk This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain.
((OSGguide)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Office of the Solicitor General.
((Recreation.Gov)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the government portal Recreation.gov.
((US DOS)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State.
((US DOS Background Notes)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/countries-areas/. (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets)
((US Army)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army.
((USACE.Army.Mil)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Corps of Engineers.
((USDA)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Agriculture.
((HHS content)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
((USGS)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Geological Survey.
((USGovernment)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Government.
((USGovernment-Navy)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Navy.
((USGovernment-courts)) Talk This article incorporates written opinion of a United States federal court. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the text is in the public domain. "[T]he Court is unanimously of opinion that no reporter has or can have any copyright in the written opinions delivered by this Court." Wheaton v. Peters, 33 U.S. (8 Pet.) 591, 668 (1834)
((Usgs-gazetteer)) Talk Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document: " ". (content from the Geographic Names Information System)

Other

Some of the reference types below use named fields (such as Title=Electric Power Monthly). In these references, you must use the exact field name (capitalization matters). Fields are separated with pipe (|) characters. The order of the fields does not matter.

Public domain

What to type What it makes Where it goes
((1728))
Talk
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChambers, Ephraim, ed. (1728). Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1st ed.). James and John Knapton, et al. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
near bottom
((1771 Britannica))
Talk
Public Domain This article incorporates text from the 1771 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Articles
near bottom
((1911))
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Public Domain
 
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
Articles
near bottom
((Sect1911))
Talk
Public Domain This section incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainEncyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
at the end of a section
((WD1913))
Talk
Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Porter, Noah, ed. (1913). Webster's Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: C. & G. Merriam Co. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
near bottom
((A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature))
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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainCousin, John William (1910). A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource.
Articles
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((Catholic))
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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
near bottom
((DCBL))
Talk
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWace, Henry; Piercy, William C., eds. (1911). Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century (3rd ed.). London: John Murray. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
near bottom
((DNB))
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainDictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
near bottom
((Eastons))
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Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainEaston, Matthew George (1897). Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
at top
((Etude))
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Public DomainThis article incorporates text from a publication that prior to 1923, is in the public domain: The Etude, Philadelphia: Theodore Presser Company ((citation)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
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((Gray's))
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Public domain This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Articles
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((Grocers))
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PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWard, Artemas (1911). The Grocer's Encyclopedia. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
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((GSE))
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GSE: (({1))} Articles
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((JargonFile))
Talk
This article is based in part on the Jargon File, which is in the public domain. Articles
near bottom
((JewishEncyclopedia))
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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSinger, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
near bottom
((KeyTarot))
Talk
This article incorporates text from the public domain 1910 book Pictorial Key to the Tarot by Arthur Edward Waite. Please feel free to update the text. Articles
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((NHC))
Talk
Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History and Heritage Command. Articles
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((Owl))
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This article contains content from the Owl Edition of Nordisk familjebok, a Swedish encyclopedia published between 1904 and 1926, now in the public domain.
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((Political Graveyard))
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This article incorporates facts obtained from: Lawrence Kestenbaum, The Political Graveyard Articles
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((RBD))
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This article includes content derived from the Russian Biographical Dictionary, 1896–1918. Articles
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((Schaff-Herzog))
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Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainJackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1914). New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
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((SeyffertDCA))
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This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Classical Antiquities by Oskar Seyffert, edited by Henry Nettleship and J. E. Sandys (1894). Articles
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((SmithDGRA))
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Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London: John Murray. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. ((cite encyclopedia)): Missing or empty |title= (help) Articles
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((Vectorsite))
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The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite. Articles
Reference

Wikis

For interwiki translation and other copying, see Wikipedia:Copying within Wikipedia.

What to type What it makes Where it goes
((Citizendium))
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This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "Template index/Sources of articles", which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL. Articles
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((from Camerapedia))
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This article was originally based on one in Camerapedia, retrieved at an unknown date under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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This page was originally based on an entry from Comixpedia and is used under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later. Articles
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((OpenHistory))
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This article incorporates text from OpenHistory. Articles
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((wookieepedia content))
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Talk pages

Citations of specific sources

Notes:

What to type What it makes
((ITIS|ID=|taxon=|accessdate=))
Talk

"Genus species". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 1 January 2004.

((FishBase species|genus=|species=|year=|month=))
Talk

Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2004). "Genus species" in FishBase. January 2004 version.

((FishBase species alt|ID=|taxon=|year=|month=))
Talk

Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2004). Genus species in FishBase. January 2004 version.

((FishBase_genus|genus=|year=|month=))
Talk

Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (Year). Species of Genus in FishBase. Month Year version.

((FishBase family|family=|year=|month=))
Talk

Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (Year). "Family" in FishBase. Month Year version.

((Cite iucn|author=|title=|year=|ID=))
Talk

Lastname, Firstname Initial (2022). "Title". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2022. 1234.

((Gutenberg | no=6656 | name=The Kiltartan Poetry Book))
Talk
((MathWorld | urlname=PetersenGraph | title=Petersen Graph))
Talk
Weisstein, Eric W. "Petersen Graph". MathWorld.
((ScienceWorld | urlname=biography/Einstein.html | title=Albert Einstein))
Talk
Weisstein, Eric Wolfgang (ed.). "Albert Einstein". ScienceWorld.
The Encyclopedia of World History at Bartleby.com

((worldhistory|section=|quote=))

  • section – the portion between http://www.bartleby.com/67/ and .html in the URL of the page you wish to cite. For example, if I wished to cite http://www.bartleby.com/67/716.html, the section is 716.
  • quote – What do you want the first part of the included text to read. The default is Citation.

Example: ((worldhistory|section=716|quote=Diderot's encyclopedia banned in 1751))
Creates: Stearns, Peter N. (ed.). Encyclopedia of World History (6th ed.). The Houghton Mifflin Company/Bartleby.com. Diderot's encyclopedia banned in 1751

USGS Geographic Names Information System

((Cite gnis|id|name|type=))

Example: ((Cite gnis|2410240|Cotati))
Creates: "Cotati". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.

USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature

((Gpn|id|name))

Example: ((Gpn|65876|Stickney))
Creates: "Stickney". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.

Citations of generic sources

Transcluded from Wikipedia:Citation templates

Citation templates are used to format citations in a consistent way, as an alternative to formatting the citations by hand. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Templates may be used or removed at the discretion of individual editors, subject to agreement with other editors on the article. Because templates can be contentious, editors should not add citation templates, or change an article with a consistent citation format to another, without gaining consensus; see WP:CITECONSENSUS and WP:CITEVAR. The various citation templates may be freely mixed, since they all produce a similar format. WP:DUPLINK and WP:OVERLINK do not apply to citations. It is expected that a reference citation includes wikilinks to the relevant article for the source, such as The New York Times, rather than The New York Times.

Use in footnotes

Further information: Help:Footnotes

For a citation to appear in a footnote, it needs to be enclosed in "ref" tags. You can add these by typing <ref> at the front of the citation and </ref> at the end. Alternatively you may notice above the edit box there is a row of "markup" formatting buttons which include a <ref></ref> button to the right—if you highlight your whole citation and then click this markup button, it will automatically enclose your citation in ref tags (i.e. <ref>citation</ref>).

Note, if this is a new page or if there are not already references previously cited, it is necessary to create a section usually named "Notes" or "References" near the end of the page; see WP:FNNR and MOS:APPENDIX for more information on section names:

==Notes==
((Reflist))

or

==Notes==
<references />

Using the same footnote multiple times

Further information: WP:REFNAME

Add a name attribute when creating a footnote <ref name="name">citation text</ref>. Thereafter, the footnote may be referenced by just using the following expression <ref name="name" />.

Using multiple pages from the same source

Further information: Help:References and page numbers

When an article cites many different pages from the same source, there are two main methods of unifying them instead of copying a completely new citation. One method is shortened footnotes (see Shortened footnotes), which automatically displays an entirely new reference listing in the References section per unique page citation. Another method is to use the template ((rp)), which appends any type of positional information (such as page numbers, chapter numbers, or audiovisual time code) directly to each given citation in the article body, which would result in text such as : 2345  appearing after a superscripted footnote number.

Creating links to citations

Wikilinks to citation templates can be created using the templates ((harv)), ((harvnb)), ((harvtxt)), ((sfn)), etc. For example, this "Mumford 1999" links to a citation template below. This is of particular interest when using shortened footnotes.[1] (See the examples below or wikilinks to full references.)

Using commas rather than periods

((Citation)) creates a citation in the same format as most of the Citation Style 1 templates, except that the periods (or full stops) are replaced with commas, and there is no final period or full stop. A complete list of templates that are mimicked by ((citation)) can be found at ((citation/core)). The parameter |mode= can be used to alter the punctuation.

Examples

See also: Category:Citation templates

Below are examples of how to use various templates to cite a book, encyclopedia, journal, website, comic strip, video, editorial comics, etc.

For a list of tools that can help create some of the templates below, see: Wikipedia:Citation tools.

Citations are commonly embedded in reference templates. For more information, see: Wikipedia:Footnotes.

Source Template Common usage Examples
book ((cite book))
title
((cite book
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| title = 
| publisher = 
| series = 
| volume = 
| edition = 
| date = 
| location = 
| pages = 
| language = 
| url = 
| doi = 
| id = 
| isbn = 
| mr = 
| zbl = 
| jfm =))
((cite book
| last = Mumf...
| first = David
| author-link = David Mumford
| title = The Red Book of V...
| publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
| series = Lecture Notes ...
| volume = 1358
| edition = 2nd expanded
| location = Berlin
| date = 1999
| page = 198
| doi = 10.1007/b62130
| isbn = 354063293X
| mr = 1748380
| zbl = 0945.14001))

Mumford, David (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Vol. 1358 (2nd expanded ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 198. doi:10.1007/b62130. ISBN 354063293X. MR 1748380. Zbl 0945.14001.

((cite book
| last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
| first2 = Jeff | last2 = Grubb
| first3 =David | last3 = Noonan
| title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
| location = Berlin
| publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
| pages = 198–203
| date = September 2001
| isbn = 0-786918-50-0))

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001). Manual of the Planes. Berlin: Wizards of the Coast. pp. 198–203. ISBN 0-786918-50-0.

((Citation))
((Citation
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| last2 = 
| first2 = 
| author-link2 = 
| title = 
| place = 
| publisher = 
| series = 
| volume = 
| orig-date = 
| year = 
| edition = 
| chapter = 
| chapter-url = 
| page = 
| pages = 
| language = 
| url = 
| archive-url = 
| archive-date = 
| doi = 
| id = 
| isbn = 
| mr = 
| zbl = 
| jfm = ))
((Citation
| last = Mumf... | first = David
| author-link = David Mumfo...
| title = The Red Book of V...
| place = Berlin
| publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
| series = Lecture Notes ...
| volume = 1358
| edition = 2nd expanded
| date = 1999
| page = 198
| doi = 10.1007/b62130
| isbn = 354063293X
| mr = 1748380
| zbl = 0945.14001))

Mumford, David (1999), The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 1358 (2nd expanded ed.), Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 198, doi:10.1007/b62130, ISBN 354063293X, MR 1748380, Zbl 0945.14001

((Citation
| last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
| last2 = Grubb | first2 = Jeff
| last3 = Noonan | first3 = David
| title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
| place = Berlin
| publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
| pages = 198–203
| date = September 2001
| isbn = 0-786918-50-0))

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001), Manual of the Planes, Berlin: Wizards of the Coast, pp. 198–203, ISBN 0-786918-50-0

journal
paper
thesis
dissertation
See also ((cite thesis))
((cite journal))
title
((cite journal
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| title = 
| journal = 
| volume = 
| issue = 
| pages = 
| publisher = 
| location = 
| date = 
| language = 
| url = 
| jstor = 
| issn = 
| doi = 
| id = 
| mr = 
| zbl = 
| jfm = 
| access-date = ))
((cite journal
| author-link = Stephen Brey...
| title = Copyright: A Rejo...
| journal = UCLA Law Review
| volume = 20
| pages = 75–83
| date = October 1972))

Breyer, Stephen (October 1972). "Copyright: A Rejoinder". UCLA Law Review. 20: 75–83.

((cite journal
| last1 = Bailey | first1 = David H.
| author-link1 = David H. Bailey (mathematician)
| last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
| author-link2 = Peter Borwein
| last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
| author-link3 = Jonathan Borwein
| title = The Quest for Pi
| journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
| volume = 19
| issue = 1
| pages = 50–57
| publisher = Springer-Verlag
| location = Berlin
| date = 25 June 1997
| url = https://www.davidhbailey.com...
| issn =0343-6993
| doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
| mr = 1439159
| zbl = 0878.11002))

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Peter; Borwein, Jonathan M. (25 June 1997). "The Quest for Pi" (PDF). Mathematical Intelligencer. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 19 (1): 50–57. doi:10.1007/BF03024340. ISSN 0343-6993. MR 1439159. Zbl 0878.11002.

((Citation))
journal (or periodical)
((Citation
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| last2 = 
| first2 = 
| author-link2 = 
| title = 
| journal = 
| volume = 
| issue = 
| pages = 
| date = 
| orig-date = 
| year = 
| language = 
| url = 
| jstor = 
| archive-url = 
| archive-date = 
| doi = 
| id = 
| mr = 
| zbl = 
| jfm = ))
((Citation
| last = Breyer
| first = Stephen
| author-link = Stephen Bre...
| title = Copyright: A Rejo...
| journal = UCLA Law Review
| volume = 20
| pages = 75–83
| date = October 1972))

Breyer, Stephen (October 1972), "Copyright: A Rejoinder", UCLA Law Review, 20: 75–83

((Citation
| last1 = Bailey | first1 = David H.
| author-link1 = David H. Bailey (mathematician)
| last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
| author-link2 = Peter Borwein
| last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
| author-link3 = Jonathan Borwein
| title = The Quest for Pi
| journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
| volume = 19
| issue = 1
| pages = 50–57
| publisher = Springer-Verlag
| location = Berlin
| date = 25 June 1997
| url = https://www.davidhbailey.com...
| issn =0343-6993
| doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
| mr = 1439159
| zbl = 0878.11002))

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Peter; Borwein, Jonathan M. (25 June 1997), "The Quest for Pi" (PDF), Mathematical Intelligencer, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 19 (1): 50–57, doi:10.1007/BF03024340, ISSN 0343-6993, MR 1439159, Zbl 0878.11002

website ((cite web))
title
url
((cite web
| url = 
| title = 
| last = 
| first = 
| date = 
| website = 
| publisher = 
| access-date = 
| quote = ))
((cite web
| last = Spiegel
| first = Rachel
| title = Research: Thalido...
| url = http://science-educat...
| access-date = 30 April 2006
| url-status=dead
| archive-url = http://web.archive...
| archive-date = 3 March 2006))

Spiegel, Rachel. "Research in the News: Thalidomide". Archived from the original on 3 March 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2006.

((cite web
| title = 
| url = 
| website = 
| date = 
| access-date = ))

(Write date as one of the formats shown at MOS:DATE; e.g. |date=22 July 2009 or |date=July 22, 2009.)

((cite web
| last = Hansen
| first = James E.
| author-link = James E. Hansen
| last2 = Ruedy | first2 = R.
| last3 = Sato | first3 = M.
| last4 = Lo | first4 = K.
| title = GISS Surface Temperature An...
| website = NASA.gov
| publisher = [[Goddard Institute for...
| date = December 15, 2005
| url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis...
| access-date = September 28, 2006))

Hansen, James E.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (15 December 2005). "GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation". NASA.gov. NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Retrieved 28 September 2006.

((Citation))
title
url
((Citation
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| last2 = 
| first2 = 
| author2-link = 
| title = 
| publisher = 
| date = 
| year = 
| url = 
| access-date = ))
((Citation
| last = Spiegel
| first = Rachel
| title = Research: Thalido...
| url=http://science-educat...
| access-date = 30 April 2006))

Spiegel, Rachel, Research in the News: Thalidomide, retrieved 30 April 2006

((Citation
| last1 = Hansen | first1 = James E.
| author1-link = James Hansen
| last2 = Ruedy | first2 = R.
| last3 = Sato | first3 = M.
| last4 = Lo | first4 = K.
| title = GISS Surface Temperature An...
| publisher = [[Goddard Institute for ...
| date = December 15, 2005
| url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis...
| access-date = September 28, 2006))

Hansen, James E.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (15 December 2005), GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, retrieved 28 September 2006

comic ((cite comic))[2]
((cite comic
| writer= 
| penciller= 
| inker= 
| story= 
| title= 
| volume= 
| issue= 
| date= 
| publisher= 
| page= 
| panel= ))
((cite comic
| writer=[[Stan Lee|Lee, Stan]]
| penciller=[[Jack Kirby|Kirby, Jack]]
| inker=[[Christopher Rule|Rule, Christopher]]
| story=The Fantastic Four!
| title=[[Fantastic Four|The Fantastic Four]]
| volume=1
| issue=1
| date=November 1961
| publisher=[[Marvel Comics]]
| page=3
| panel=2))

Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Rule, Christopher (i). "The Fantastic Four!" The Fantastic Four 1: 3/2 (November 1961), Marvel Comics

comic strip ((comic strip reference))[3]
((comic strip reference
| cartoonist= 
| strip= 
| paper= 
| location= 
| date= 
| supplement= 
| syndicate= 
| page= ))
((comic strip reference
| cartoonist=[[Milton Caniff|Caniff, Milton]]
| strip=[[Steve Canyon]]
| paper=Journal Herald
| location=Dayton, OH
| date=July 15, 1967
| supplement=Color Comics Supplement
| syndicate=Newspaper Syndicate
| page=1))

Caniff, Milton (c). Steve CanyonJournal Herald (Dayton, OH). July 15, 1967, [Color Comics Supplement], Newspaper Syndicate: 1.

conference
report
or paper
((cite conference))
title
book-title
((cite conference
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| title = 
| book-title = 
| pages = 
| publisher = 
| date = 
| location = 
| url = 
| doi = 
| id = 
| access-date = ))
((cite conference
| last = Turk
| first = M.
| first2 = A.
| last2 = Pentland
| title = Face recognition ...
| book-title = Proc IEEE Con...
| place = Maui, Hawaii
| pages = 586–591
| date = 1991))

Turk, M.; Pentland, A. (1991). "Face recognition using eigenfaces". Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Maui, Hawaii. pp. 586–591.

((cite conference
| last1 = Evans | first1 = N. R.
| last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
| last3 = Bond | first3 = H.
| last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
| last5 = Nelan | first5 = E.
| last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
| title = Direct detection of the ...
| book-title = American Astronomical Society 207th ...
| publisher = AAS
| date = January 9, 2006
| url = http://www.aas.org/ ... 30.htm))

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D. (9 January 2006). "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope". American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting. AAS.

((Citation))
contribution
title
((Citation
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| first2 = 
| last2 = 
| author-link2 = 
| editor-last = 
| editor-first = 
| editor-last2 = 
| editor-first2 = 
| contribution = 
| contribution-url = 
| series = 
| date = 
| pages = 
| place = 
| publisher = 
| url = 
| doi = 
| id = ))
((Citation
| last1 = Turk | first1 = M.
| last2 = Pet... | first2 = A.
| contribution = Face recog...
| title = Proc IEEE Confere...
| place = Maui, Hawaii
| pages = 586–591
| date = 1991))

Turk, M.; Petland, A. (1991), "Face recognition using eigenfaces", Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Maui, Hawaii, pp. 586–591

((Citation
| last1 = Evans | first1 = N. R.
| last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
| last3 = Bond | first3 = H.
| last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
| last5 = Nelan | first5 = E.
| last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
| contribution = Direct detection of ...
| title = American Astronomical...
| publisher = AAS
| date = January 9, 2006
| contribution-url = http://...30.htm))

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D. (9 January 2006), "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope", American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting, AAS

court case (legal decision) ((Cite court))
((cite court
| litigants = 
| vol = 
| reporter = 
| opinion = 
| pinpoint = 
| court = 
| date = 
| url= ))
((cite court
| litigants=Roe v. Wade
| vol=410
| reporter=U.S.
| opinion=113
| date=1973
| url=https://www.law.corn...))

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).

encyclopedia,
edited collection
((cite encyclopedia))
title
encyclopedia
((cite encyclopedia
| title = 
| encyclopedia = 
| volume = 
| pages = 
| publisher = 
| date = 
| id = 
| access-date =))
((cite encyclopedia
| title = Kirkegaard...
| encyclopedia = Grote Winkler Pri...
| editor-last = Winkler Pri...
| editor-first = Anthony
| editor-link = Anthony Win...
| volume = 9
| publisher = Elsevier
| date = 1882))

Winkler Prins, Anthony, ed. (1882). "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund". Grote Winkler Prins. Vol. 9. Elsevier.

((cite encyclopedia
| last = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link = Martin Kramer
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Bernard Lewis
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Hist...
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| location = London
| date = 1999
| url = ))

Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". In Boyd, Kelley (ed.). Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. Vol. 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–720.

((Citation))
contribution=name of article
((Citation
| last = 
| first = 
| contribution = 
| date = 
| title = 
| editor-last = 
| editor-first = 
| volume = 
| pages = 
| place = 
| publisher = 
| id = ))
((Citation
| contribution = Kirkegaard...
| title = Grote Winkler Pri...
| editor-last = Winkler Pri...
| editor-first = Anthony
| editor-link = Anthony Win...
| volume = 9
| publisher = Elsevier
| date = 1882))

Winkler Prins, Anthony, ed. (1882), "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund", Grote Winkler Prins, vol. 9, Elsevier

((Citation
| last = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians ...
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://...is.htm))

Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley (ed.), Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, vol. 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720

episode
(television or radio)
((cite episode))
title
((cite episode
| title = 
| episode-link = 
| url = 
| series = 
| series-link = 
| credits = 
| network = 
| station = 
| air-date = 
| began = 
| ended = 
| season = 
| seriesno = 
| number = 
| minutes = 
| transcript = 
| transcript-url= ))
((cite episode
| title = BBC-TV Presents: ...
| episode-link = BBC Snooker World ...
| series = Wide World of Snooker
| series-link = Wide World of Snooker ...
| credits = Presenters: [[Dennis ...
| network = [[BBC]]
| station = [[BBC Two]]
| city = [[Sheffield]], ...
| air-date = 2008-04-27
| minutes = 2:34))

Presenters: Dennis Taylor and Clive Everton (27 April 2008). "BBC-TV Presents: The 2008 World Snooker Championship Live at The Crucible". Wide World of Snooker. Sheffield, England. 2:34 minutes in. BBC. BBC Two.

((cite episode
| title = Duet
| episode-link = Duet (Stargate Atlant...
| series = Stargate Atlantis
| series-link = Stargate Atlantis
| air-date = August 5, 2005
| season = 2
| number = 4))

"Duet". Stargate Atlantis. Season 2. Episode 4. 5 August 2005.

mailing list ((cite mailing list))
title
url
((cite mailing list
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| title = 
| mailing-list = 
| date = 
| url = 
| access-date = ))
((cite mailing list
| last=Murdock
| first=Ian
| author-link=Ian Murdock
| title=Debian GNU/Linux 0.9...
| mailing-list=debian-announce
| date=26 October 1995
| url=https://lists.debian.or...
| access-date =20 April 2007))

Murdock, Ian (26 October 1995). "Debian GNU/Linux 0.93 Release 6 now available". debian-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved 20 April 2007.

map ((cite map))
author
date (or year)
title
publisher
((cite map
| author = 
| date = 
| title = 
| url = 
| publisher = 
| section = 
| access-date = ))
((cite map
| author=Kansas Departmen...
| date=2005
| title=Official State Trans...
| url=http://www.ksdot.org/b...
| edition=2005–2006
| location=Topeka
| publisher=Kansas Departmen...
| section=F9
| access-date=March 30, 2007))

Kansas Department of Transportation (2005). Official State Transportation Map (PDF) (Map) (2005–2006 ed.). Topeka: Kansas Department of Transportation. § F9. Retrieved 30 March 2007.

((cite map
| author1=Skelly Oil Company
| author2=Diversified Map Co
| date=1966
| title=Highway Map of Oklahoma
| scale=[1:1,500,000]
| location=St. Louis
| publisher=Diversified Map Co
| section=11C
| oclc=67708775))

Skelly Oil Company; Diversified Map Co (1966). Highway Map of Oklahoma (Map). [1:1,500,000]. St. Louis: Diversified Map Co. § 11C. OCLC 67708775.

news article ((cite news))
title
((cite news
| last = 
| first = 
| title = 
| newspaper = 
| location = 
| pages = 
| language = 
| publisher = 
| date = 
| url = 
| access-date = ))
((cite news
| last = Finn
| first = Gary
| title = What a growing lad needs is ...
| pages = 
| newspaper = The Independent
| location = London
| date = 31 August 1998
| url = https://www.independent.co.uk ...))

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998). "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair". The Independent. London.

((cite news
| last = Andersen
| first = David
| last2 = Witter
| first2 = Lameen
| title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO...
| work = Marine Corps News
| date = 17 February 2006
| url = https://www.military.com/vet...
| access-date = 6 June 2006))

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006). "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success". Marine Corps News. Retrieved 6 June 2006.

((Citation))
newspaper (or magazine, journal, periodical)
((Citation
| last = 
| first = 
| author-link = 
| last2 = 
| first2 = 
| author-link2 = 
| title = 
| newspaper = 
| pages = 
| date = 
| year = 
| url = 
| archive-url = 
| archive-date = 
| access-date = ))
((Citation
| last = Finn
| first = Gary
| title = What a growing lad needs is ...
| pages = 
| newspaper = The Independent
| location = London
| date = 31 August 1998
| url = https://www.independent.co.uk ...
| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web ...
| archive-date = 2010-03-06))

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998), "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair", The Independent, London, archived from the original on 6 March 2010

((Citation
| last1 = Andersen | first1 = David
| last2 = Witter | first2 = Lameen
| title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO...
| newspaper = Marine Corps News
| date = 17 February 2006
| url = https://www.military.com/vet...
| access-date = 2 June 2006))

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006), "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success", Marine Corps News, retrieved 2 June 2006

newsgroup
posting
(DO NOT
USE TO
VERIFY)
((cite newsgroup))
title
((cite newsgroup
| title = 
| author = 
| date = 
| newsgroup = 
| id = 
| url = 
| access-date = ))
((cite newsgroup
| author = Gary S. Terhune
| title = Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del...
| date = January 11, 2004
| newsgroup = microsoft.pub...
| id = uAIVMjC2DHA.2336@TK2...
| url = https://groups.googl...
| access-date = May 16, 2006))

Gary S. Terhune (11 January 2004). "Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del function on W98, 2nd". Newsgroupmicrosoft.public.win98.gen_discussion. uAIVMjC2DHA.2336@TK2MSFTNGP09.phx.gbl. Retrieved 16 May 2006.

((cite newsgroup
| title = How can helping "Kids in Af...
| author = Trodel
| date = June 10, 2006
| newsgroup= humanities.philosophy.ob...
| id = 1149950890.204481.35810@h76g20...
| url = https://groups.google.com/g...
| access-date = July 3, 2006))

Trodel (10 June 2006). "How can helping "Kids in Africa" be in my self interest". Newsgrouphumanities.philosophy.objectivism. 1149950890.204481.35810@h76g2000cwa.googlegroups.com. Retrieved 3 July 2006.

patent ((Cite patent))
inventor-last
((cite patent
| inventor-last = 
| inventor-first = 
| inventor-link = 
| inventor-last2 = 
| inventor-first2 = 
| inventor-link2 = 
| publication-date = 
| issue-date = 
| title = 
| country-code = 
| description = 
| patent-number = ))
((cite patent
| inventor-last1 = Degermark
| inventor-first1 = Mikael
| inventor-last2 = Brodnik
| inventor-first2 = Andrej
| inventor-last3 = Carlsson
| inventor-first3 = Svante
| inventor-last4 = Pink
| inventor-first4 = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US))

US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Brodnik, Andrej & Carlsson, Svante et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

press release ((cite press release))
title
((cite press release
|last= 
|first= 
|date= 
|title= 
|url= 
|location= 
|publisher= 
|agency= 
|access-date=))
((cite press release
|last=Roithmayr
|first=Mark
|date=February 5, 2007
|title=Autism Speaks ...
|url=http://autismspeaks.org...
|location=New York
|publisher=[[Autism Speaks]]
|access-date=November 19, 2007))

Roithmayr, Mark (5 February 2007). "Autism Speaks and Cure Autism Now Complete Merger" (Press release). New York: Autism Speaks. Retrieved 19 November 2007.

((cite press release
|author=<!--Not stated-->
|title=Sprint 4G LTE Lights Up...
|url=http://newsroom.sprint.com...
|location=Overland Park, Kansas
|publisher=[[Sprint Nextel]]
|date=November 26, 2012
|access-date=November 28, 2012))

"Sprint 4G LTE Lights Up in 11 New Cities and Counties in Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia" (Press release). Overland Park, Kansas: Sprint Nextel. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.

video
(movie, television production, documentary, etc.)
((cite AV media))
people
title
((cite AV media
| people = 
| title = 
| medium = 
| publisher = 
| location = 
| date = 
| url = ))
((cite AV media
| people = Al-Issawi, Omar (Director)
| title = Harab libnan
| medium = Television production
| publisher = Al-Issawi, Om...
| location = Lebanon
| date = 2001))

Al-Issawi, Omar (Director) (2001). Harab libnan (Television production). Lebanon: Al-Issawi, Omar.

((cite AV media
| people = Dick Cavett
| title = The Dick Cavett Show — Rock...
| medium = DVD
| publisher = Shout Factory
| date = 2005))

Dick Cavett (2005). The Dick Cavett Show — Rock Icons (1969) (DVD). Shout Factory.

video game ((cite video game))
title
developer
((cite video game
| title = 
| developer = 
| publisher = 
| date = 
| platform = 
| version = 
| level = 
| language = 
| isolang = 
| quote = ))
((cite video game
| title=[[Halo 3]]
| developer= [[Bungie]]
| publisher=[[Microsoft Game Studios]]
| date=September 25, 2007
| platform=[[Xbox 360]]
| version=1.0
| level=The Storm
| language=English
| isolang= 
| quote='''Arbiter''': More Brutes? /...))

Bungie (25 September 2007). Halo 3 (Xbox 360) (1.0 ed.). Microsoft Game Studios. Level/area: The Storm. Arbiter: More Brutes? / Master Chief: Worse.

Wikidata ((Cite Q))
QID (Q number)
((cite Q
| QID))
((cite Q|Q29396757))

Albert Einstein (1905). "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?". Annalen der Physik (in German). 323 (13): 639–641. doi:10.1002/ANDP.19053231314. ISSN 0003-3804. Wikidata Q29396757.


Harvard reference and shortened footnote examples

See also: Template:Harvard citation documentation

These templates automatically create a one-directional link to the first matching citation template on the same page. All of the following templates are supported: ((citation)) · ((cite book)) · ((cite journal)) · ((cite web)) · ((cite conference)) · ((cite encyclopedia)) · ((cite mailing list)) · ((cite news)) · ((cite press release)) · ((cite arXiv)) · ((cite AV media)) (an up-to-date list is at Help:Citation Style 1). To use the links, the template must define |surname= (or |last=) and |date= (or |year=).

What to type What it makes
  • Article text.((sfn|Turner|1851|pp=10–11)) (Shortened footnote template)
  • Article text.((sfn|Smith|1879|p=289))

==Notes==
((reflist))

  • Article text.[1]
  • Article text.[2]
Notes
  1. ^Turner 1851, pp. 10–11
  2. ^Smith 1879, p. 289
Templates used within <ref>...</ref> tags or within the ((efn)) family of templates:
  • ((Harvard citation|Turner|1851|pp=10–11))
  • ((Harv|Smith|1879|p=289))
  • ((Harvtxt|Turner|1851)) asserts that ... (author's name part of text)
  • ((Harvnb|Smith|1879)) (no brackets)
  • ((Harv|Lincoln|Washington|Adams|Johnson|2007|pp=88–89)) (multi-author)

Three Harvcol templates are altered to use colons to indicate page numbers. These are also used within <ref>...</ref> tags or within the ((efn)) family of templates:

Harvcol templates

Variations

Wikipedia does not dictate a particular way to insert citations into an article. As a result, there are multiple ways to structure citations in an article; multiple ways to insert individual citations; and multiple ways to link a short citation (e.g. Turner 1851) with the full citation in the bibliography, when using a style that calls for short citations.

There are three primary ways to format individual full citations:

  1. By hand. These are simply typed directly; however, when using shortened footnotes, each individual full citation can be surrounded with ((wikicite)) to ensure that the appropriate shortened references are linked to the full references below.
  2. Using the Citation Style 1 templates, such as ((cite book)), ((cite web)), ((cite journal)), or ((cite news)).
  3. Using the generic ((Citation)) template.

The main differences between the generic ((Citation)) template and the specific Citation Style 1 templates are:

  1. The Citation Style 1 templates produce citations with individual sections (e.g. title, author, publisher, etc.) separated by periods, with a trailing period, while ((Citation)) separates sections with a comma and has no trailing punctuation. (However, this can be changed using the |separator= and |postscript= parameters.)
  2. Not all Citation Style 1 templates can easily be replaced by the ((Citation)) template. Generally, any Citation Style 1 template of a general nature (e.g. book; web site; journal or newspaper article; article in an edited collection or encyclopedia; etc.) can be replaced, but specialized templates (court cases, comic books, video games, etc.) cannot very easily.
  3. Some of the parameter names differ. For example, citing an article in an edited collection uses the misnamed ((cite encyclopedia)) template, with |title= for the article name and |encyclopedia= for the collection name; the equivalent parameters in ((Citation)) are named contribution and title, respectively.

There are three ways to structure citations as a whole in an article (see Help:Citations quick reference for a tabular comparison of these three ways):

  1. Footnotes. These simply place the citation inside of a <ref>...</ref> reference, which inserts a small bracketed, superscripted number. When clicked on, it links to a correspondingly-numbered footnote (more properly an endnote) placed elsewhere in the article. The footnotes themselves are inserted using ((reflist)), which is typically placed by itself in a Notes (or References) section near the end of the article. When there are multiple references to the same citation, typing can be saved by using <ref name="foo">...</ref> the first time, and just <ref name="foo"/> elsewhere. When there are citations that differ only in page number, there are two alternatives: write all the citations out in full, including the page number, or use one citation without page numbers along with the ((rp)) template to add an inline page number after the small bracketed footnote number.
  2. Footnotes with list-defined references. All inline citations take the form <ref name="foo"/>. The reference list at the end of the article is a list of full citations, each of which takes the form <ref name="foo">...</ref>, all of which are surrounded by <references>...</references>.
  3. Shortened footnotes. Instead of the full citation appearing in the footnote, a short form appears (e.g. Turner 1851), giving only the author and year (or in some styles, a shortened version of the article or book title), and page number if appropriate. The full citation appears later on, in a bibliography section. This usually follows directly after the footnotes, is titled "References" or "Bibliography", and contains all relevant citations, listed in (typically) alphabetical order. This style is especially appropriate when there are large numbers of references overall and frequent cases of multiple references to the same work, especially in the presence of differing page numbers.

When using shortened footnotes, there are three ways to link the short and full references:

  1. Insert manual links. These look like e.g. <ref>[[#CITEREFPereira2006|Pereira 2006, p. 25]]</ref>. If a citation template is used for the full reference, the anchor (e.g. #CITEREFPereira2006) is automatically attached to the full reference; if the full reference is typed by hand, surround the reference with ((wikicite)) to attach the anchor to it.
  2. Insert links using a Harvard citation template, e.g. <ref>See, for example: ((Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25))</ref>. This will insert a footnote into the text and link it to the citation with the corresponding last name and year. Other variations of the Harvard citation templates format the short citation differently.
  3. Use the ((sfn)) template for the whole of the footnote. The ((sfn)) template creates its own named <ref>...</ref> tags: ((sfn|Pereira|2006|p=25)) is exactly equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>[[#CITEREFPereira2006|Pereira 2006]], p. 25.</ref> which is itself equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>((Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25))</ref>.

See also WP:Footnotes and WP:Citing sources for general information, and WP:CITEX for specific examples of exactly how to write the code for various combinations of the above styles.

Discussing citations on talk pages

When citations are brought to talk pages, noticeboards and other discussions, follow the group of citations, or the text you have added, with ((Reflist-talk)).

((Reflist-talk))

This template places the citations in their own box under the bold header References at the position where the template was inserted; otherwise the citations (and any others in the talk page) will be listed at the end of the talk page, below all sections. The resulting reference box does not appear in the table of contents.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Parenthetical referencing may also use wikilinks to citation templates, but inline parenthetical referencing was deprecated in September 2020. In contrast to parenthetical referencing or shortened footnotes, citations using the footnote system don't require wikilinks of course, as the inline citations in this method simply appear as numbers within the text, linking to a list of full citations (and notes) at the end of the article (like this).
  2. ^ Notes on ((cite comic)):
    • This template allows for a cartoonist field to be used instead of the individual fields if there is a sole creator, as in Bone, or an artist field if the penciller and inker is the same person.
    • The style of this template is based on Allen Ellis' Comic Art in Scholarly Writing: A Citation Guide, 1999.
    • See the template's talk page for more details and field explanations.
  3. ^ Notes on ((comic strip reference))