This help page is a how-to guide.
It details processes or procedures of some aspect(s) of Wikipedia's norms and practices. It is not one of Wikipedia's policies or guidelines, and may reflect varying levels of consensus and vetting.
|This page in a nutshell: This is an introductory how-to for Wikipedia's most frequently used citation style. It does not cover every option of every citation template. See individual templates' documentation (e.g. at Template:Cite journal) for details beyond this basic cheatsheet.|
|This help page has testcases demonstrating various uses.|
Citation Style 1 (CS1) is a collection of reference citation templates that can be modified to create different styles for different referenced materials. Its purpose is to provide a set of default formats for references on Wikipedia. It includes a series of templates that in turn use Module:Citation/CS1.
The use of CS1 or of templates is not compulsory; per WP:CITESTYLE:
Wikipedia does not have a single house style. Editors may choose any option they want; one article need not match what is done in other articles or what is done in professional publications or recommended by academic style guides. However, citations within a given article should follow a consistent style.
WP:CITEVAR additionally states:
If the article you are editing is already using a particular citation style, you should follow it; if you believe it is inappropriate for the needs of the article, seek consensus for a change on the talk page.
CS1 uses (in addition to Wikipedia's own Manual of Style) elements of The Chicago Manual of Style and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, with significant adaptations.
There are a number of templates that use a name starting with cite; many were developed independently of CS1 and are not compliant with the CS1 style. There are also a number of templates that use one of the general use templates as a meta-template to cite a specific source.
To be compliant with CS1, a template must:
The following is a list of templates that implement Citation Style 1 for one or more types of citations but are not restricted to any specific source.
|Yes||Indicates that the corresponding tool or gadget can generate the template anytime user wishes. However, this does not mean that the tool or gadget fully supports all parameters or provides an interface for them. In fact, none of the mentioned items do so.|
|Sometimes||Indicates that the corresponding tool or gadget may or may not generate the corresponding template. For more information, see associated footnote.|
|Template||Use||Citoid||Citation expander||RefToolbar 2.0||ProveIt||SnipManager|
|((Cite arXiv))||arXiv preprints|
|((Cite AV media))||audio and visual sources||Yes||Yes|
|((Cite AV media notes))||liner notes from albums, DVDs, CDs and similar audio-visual media|
|((Cite conference))||conference papers||Yes|
|((Cite encyclopedia))||edited collections||Yes|
|((Cite episode))||television or radio programs and episodes||Yes|
|((Cite journal))||academic and scientific papers published in journals||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|((Cite magazine))||magazines and newsletters||Yes|
|((Cite mailing list))||archived public mailing lists|
|((Cite news))||news articles in print, video, audio or web||Yes||Sometimes[a]||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|((Cite newsgroup))||online newsgroups|
|((Cite podcast))||audio or video podcast|
|((Cite press release))||press releases||Yes|
|((Cite report))||reports by government departments, instrumentalities, operated companies, etc.||Yes|
|((Cite serial))||audio or video serials|
|((Cite sign))||signs, plaques and other visual sources||Yes|
|((Cite techreport))||technical reports|
|((Cite web))||web sources not characterized by another template||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
There are a number of templates that are CS1 compliant, because they use a CS1 template as a base, but are tied to a specific source; these are listed in Category:Citation Style 1 specific-source templates.
CS1 uses a series of templates that provide a consistent output. The main difference is in parameters optimized for the subject. For example, ((cite book)) has fields for title and chapter, whereas ((cite journal)) has fields for journal and title.
This help page uses the names most commonly used across the templates series; see each template's documentation for details.
CS1 templates present a citation generally as:
(where "n.d." could also be any other valid date formatted per the MOS)
An author may be cited using separate parameters for the author's surname and given name by using
|first= respectively. If a cited source has multiple authors, subsequent authors can be listed in the citation using
|first3=, etc.[Note 1] For symmetry with the other numbered parameters,
|first1= are available as well, as shown in the following example:
((cite book |last1=Hawking |first1=Stephen |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe))
For symmetry with similar parameters for editors and other contributors (discussed further below), longer parameter forms are also available for authors:
|author-first=, as well as numbered variants like
|authorn-first= (with n referring to this author's number in the list). Because the shorthand parameters might erroneously have been used also for editors and other types of contributors by some Wikipedians in the past, please make sure that the parameters actually refer to authors when expanding
|first= parameters to their longer equivalents (equivalent parameters for editors etc. exist as well, see below).
If a cited source has a large number of authors, one can limit the number of authors displayed when the citation is published by using the
|display-authors= parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.
If a cited author is notable and the author has a Wikipedia article, the author's name can be linked with
|author-link=.[Note 2] If a citation includes multiple notable authors, one may use
|authorn-link=, etc. This method is used because the
|first=-type parameters do not allow wikilinking. However,
|author-link= cannot be used to link to an external website; the external link will not render correctly.[Note 2] Below is an example of a wikilinked author credit:
((cite book |author-last1=Hawking |author-first1=Stephen |author-link1=Stephen Hawking |author-last2=Hawking |author-first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe))
When an author is cited, the date of the cited work is displayed after the author's name, as shown in the example below:
((cite book |author-last1=Hawking |author-first1=Stephen |author-link1=Stephen Hawking |author-last2=Hawking |author-first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |date=2007))
If no author is cited, the date appears after the title, as shown in the example below:
((cite book |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |date=2007))
If the cited source does not credit an author, as is common with newswire reports, press releases or company websites use:
This HTML comment alerts fact-checking and citation-fixing editors, and potentially bots, that the cited source did not name an author—the author was not overlooked. Without this entry editors and bots would waste time researching cited sources for a non-existent author credit.
|author= avoid citations like
((cite news |work=Weekday Times |author=''Weekday Times'' editors |title=...)), unless the article is on a field in which the majority of professional journals covering that field use such a citation style.
Editors should use an
|author= organizational citation when the cited source, such as a committee report, specifically names an official body or a sub-unit of the publisher as the collective author of the work, e.g.
|author=Commission on Headphone Safety or
|author=Rules Sub-committee. Do not use
|author= to assert what you think was probably the collective author when the source itself does not specifically specify a collective author; doing so is original research and falsification of source verifiability and reliability.
|author= should never hold the name of more than one author. Separate individual authors into enumerated individual
An editor may be cited using separate parameters for the editor's last and first name. A single or first editor would use
|editor-first=; subsequent editors would use
If an editor has a Wikipedia article, you may wikilink to that Wikipedia article using
|editor-link=.[Note 2] If a cited work has multiple editors, you may use
|editor3-link=, etc. to wikilink to each editor's Wikipedia article. This method is used because
|editor-first= do not allow wikilinking.
|editor-link= cannot be used to link to an external website.
If a cited source has a large number of editors, one can limit the number of editors displayed when the citation is published using the
|display-editors= parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.
A translator may be cited using separate parameters for the translator's last and first name. A single or first translator would use
|translator-first=; subsequent translators would use
If a translator has a Wikipedia article, you may wikilink to that Wikipedia article using
|translator-link=.[Note 2] If a cited work has multiple translators, you may use
|translator3-link=, etc. to wikilink to each translator's Wikipedia article. This method is used because
|translator-first= do not allow wikilinking.
|translator-link= cannot be used to link to an external website.
|others=Illustrated by John Smith.[Note 2]
Dates are indicated by these parameters:
|orig-date=first published 1859or
|orig-date=composed 1904. This parameter displays only if there is a value for date (or year). Alias: origyear.
When a source does not have a publication date, use
Acceptable date formats are shown in the "Acceptable date formats" table of the Manual of Style/Dates and numbers § Dates, months and years. Further points:
CS1 uses Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers § Dates, months, and years (MOS:DATEFORMAT) as the reference for all date format checking performed by Module:Citation/CS1. For various reasons, CS1 is not fully compliant with MOS:DATEFORMAT. This table indicates CS1 compliance with the listed sections of MOS:DATEFORMAT.
|Acceptable date formats table||yes||Exceptions: linked dates not supported;|
sortable dates not supported (
proper name dates not supported with the exception of 'Easter YYYY' and 'Christmas YYYY';
shortened month names longer than three characters or with terminating periods not supported;
quarterly dates supported in the form 'First Quarter 2020'
|Unacceptable date formats table||yes|
|Consistency||yes||Article-level restrictions are beyond the scope of CS1|
CS1/CS2 templates follow the format specified by the article's
|Strong national ties to a topic||no|
|Retaining existing format||no|
|Era style||no||Dates earlier than 100 not supported. Wikipedia editors seldom read ancient manuscripts directly; the specific, modern, published edition read by the editor is what goes in the source citation. Thus, the date of the source actually consulted should be provided in |
|Julian and Gregorian calendars||limited||Julian prior to 1582; Gregorian from 1582; assumes Gregorian in the overlap period of 1582 – c. 1923|
|Ranges||yes||Exceptions: does not support the use of |
does not support dates prior to 100;
does not support solidus separator (/)
does not support " to " as a date separator
does not support YYYY–YY where the two-digit year is less than 13 (change to YYYY–YYYY to eliminate the error message)
|Uncertain, incomplete, or approximate dates||yes||Exceptions: does not support |
does not support dates prior to 100;
|Days of the week||no|
|Seasons||limited||CS1 capitalizes seasons used as dates in citations, in line with external style guides|
|Centuries and millennia||no|
|Abbreviations for long periods of time||no|
If dates are used, the year range is 100 to present without era indication (AD, BC, CE, BCE). In the case where the same author has written more than one work in the same year, a lower-case letter may be appended to the year in the date parameter (|date=July 4, 1997b) or the year parameter (|year=1997b).
Citation Style 1 and 2 templates automatically render dates (
|archive-date=, etc.) in the style specified by the article's
((use dmy dates)) or
((use mdy dates)) template. Editors may also choose how CS1/CS2 templates render dates by the use of
|cs1-dates=<keyword> in the article's
((use xxx dates)) template.
||long-form publication and access- / archive-dates;|
this is the default case when
||long-form publication dates; abbreviated access- / archive-dates|
||long-form publication dates; year-initial numeric access- / archive-dates (ymd)|
||abbreviated publication and access- / archive-dates|
||abbreviated publication dates; year-initial numeric access- / archive-dates (ymd)|
||year-initial numeric publication, access- and archive-dates (ymd);|
cs1|2 cannot reformat Month YYYY, Season YYYY, date-ranges of any form, or Julian calendar dates into ymd format
Example: to have the CS1/CS2 templates in an article render their publication dates in the long form (fully spelled-out month names) with access-/archive-dates rendered in short form (abbreviated month names), write:
((use dmy dates|date=February 2023|cs1-dates=ls))
This documentation page has
((use dmy dates|date=February 2023|cs1-dates=y)) at the top of this section so this cs1 template will render with ymd dates:
((cite web |title=Example Webpage |url=//example.com |website=Example |date=31 October 2017 |access-date=Dec 5, 2017))
This global setting may be overridden in individual CS1/CS2 templates by use of
|df=; abbreviated date forms are not supported by
Nota bene: CS1/CS2 auto-date formatting does not apply when previewing an article section that does not contain a
((use xxx dates)) template.
((cite press release))and cited articles in
((cite conference)), and
((cite podcast)), where the title is shown in quotation marks. Use title case unless the cited source covers a scientific, legal or other technical topic and sentence case is the predominant style in journals on that topic. Use either title case or sentence case consistently throughout the article. Do not omit a leading "The" from the title. Subtitles are typically separated from titles with ": " though " – " is also used. As with trademarks, Wikipedia does not attempt to emulate any stylistic flourishes used by the cited source's publisher, such as ALL-CAPS, all-lower-case, Small Caps, etc.; use either standard title case or sentence case consistently. If the cited source is itself notable and has a Wikipedia article, the title can be wikilinked. Wikilinking the title will make it impossible to use the "url" parameter to link to an external copy of the cited source, so only do this when citing works that do not need to be externally linked. A link to the actual source is preferred to a link to a Wikipedia article about the source.
|script-title=ar:العربية. Unrecognized codes are ignored and will display in the rendered citation.
|script-chapter=ar:العربية. Unrecognized codes are ignored and will display in the rendered citation. This field will be displayed following the transliterated title.
Titles containing certain characters will both display and link incorrectly unless those characters are replaced or encoded like this:
|Character||Must be replaced with|
Language codes known to cs1|2 for languages that do not use a Latin script are:
|language=French, Portuguese. See the list of supported codes and names. Do not use templates or wikilinks. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. When the only source language is English, no language is displayed in the citation. The use of languages recognized by the citation module adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources. Because cs1|2 templates are often copied from en.wiki to other wikis, the use of language codes is preferred so that language names render in the correct language and form: espagnol at a French-language wiki instead of the English word "Spanish". Aliases: lang
Further information: WP:CITEHOW
<title>of the homepage, which may appear as the page title in your browser tab, depending on browser). Do not append ".com" or the like if the site's actual title does not include it (thus
|work=[[Salon (magazine)|Salon]], not
Salon.com). If no clear title can be identified, or the title explicitly is the domain name, then use the site's domain name. Do not falsify the work's name by adding descriptive verbiage like "Website of [Publisher]" or "[Publisher]'s Homepage". Capitalize for reading clarity, and omit "www.", e.g. convert "www.veterinaryresourcesuk.com" to "VeterinaryResourcesUK.com".
((Cite book)). If the nature of the work and its relation to the site, book, or other context in which it is found is complicated or confusing, simply explain the situation after the citation template and before the
</ref>that closes the citation.
|newspaper=The Aberdeen Times
|publisher=The Aberdeen Times
|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]
|publisher=The New York Times Company
|publisher=in such a case, but some printed style guides suggest "author", while many Wikipedia editors have used "self-published" for increased clarity. When an exhaustive attempt to discover the name of the publisher (try whois for websites, and WorldCat for books, etc.) fails, use
|publisher=<!--Unspecified by source.-->to explicitly indicate that this was checked, so other editors do not waste time duplicating your fruitless efforts. Do not guess at the publisher when this information is not clear. See next entry for co-published works and how to specify multiple publishers and their locations.
|publication-place=): Geographical place of publication (not where you found your copy, nor location of material in the source). This is usually City, Country, or City, US State. The city name by itself can be used for world-recognized cities like New York, London (except in articles about Canadian topics), Paris, Tokyo. Simply having a unique name does not mean it is globally recognizable; e.g., many people do not know where Mumbai is, especially if they are old enough that it was called Bombay for much of their lives. If in doubt, be more not less specific, since "Toronto, Canada" and "San Francisco, California" do not actually hurt anything. Be more specific when a City, Country would be ambiguous, e.g.
|location=Hanley, Staffordshire, UK, versus
|location=Hanley, Worcestershire, UK. Do not use sub-national postal abbreviations ("DE", "Wilts", etc.), per MOS:POSTABBR.[disputed ] The location parameter should be omitted when it is implied by the name of the work, e.g. The Sydney Morning Herald. The location parameter should be used when the location is part of a common appellation of but not the actual title of a periodical. For example, the newspaper sometimes called the New York Daily News is actually Daily News and can be entered with
|location=New York, which yields: Daily News. New York. A similar example is The Times of London (contrast The New York Times). Per WP:SAYWHEREYOUGOTIT, provide the location of the edition you are using (e.g., if a publisher has operations in both New York and London and you have the London-published edition, use
|location=London, even if the publisher's corporate HQ is in New York). If your edition specifically gives multiple locations, this can be indicated with, e.g.,
|location=New York / London. This same technique can be used for co-published works, e.g.:
|location=Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois / Los Angeles
|publisher=[[Council of Science Editors]] / [[Loyola Marymount University]] Press; just get them in corresponding order in both parameters. The templates do not have separate
|publisher1=, etc., parameters. For historical publications that are still worth citing and still findable (e.g. via book digitizers – see the "via" parameter below), do not confuse the printer (printing press owner-operator) with the publisher (organization or person that sponsored the work); an edition may have a printer's name in larger type than the publisher, but for citation purposes we care about the publisher. If the distinction cannot be determined for certain in a particular case, list both. While some off-site publishers lean toward omitting publishing locations, they can serve more than purely bibliographical purposes on Wikipedia (e.g. an overabundance of material published in one place in an article about another place may reveal an editorial bias).
((Cite dictionary |entry=skeptic |entry-url=https://www.dictionary.com/browse/skeptic?s=t#collins-section |title=[[Collins English Dictionary]] |edition=Complete & Unabridged Digital |date=2012 |location=London |publisher=[[HarperCollins]] |via=[[Dictionary.com]] |access-date=11 February 2023))
An editor may use any one of the following parameters in a given citation to refer to the specific page(s) or place in a cited source that contains the information that supports the article text. If more than one of the following parameters are used in the same citation, the error message Extra
|at= (help) will display in the published citation. When more than one of the following parameters is used in error,
|page= overrides both
|at=. To resolve the error, remove extra parameters of this type until only one remains in the affected citation.
|page=12((hyphen))34. This will not only properly display a hyphen, but also reduce the likelihood that an editor/bot will convert this to
|pages=236–239. Separate non-sequential pages either with commas or semicolons, for example
|pages=157, 159. The form
|pages=461, 466–467is used when you are citing both non-contiguous and sequential pages. For page numbers higher than 999, either do not use thousands separators or enclose the page number in accept-this-as-written markup to avoid commas being erroneously interpreted as list separators, e.g.
|pages=((1,234((endash))1,235)). For multiple hyphenated pages, use the accept-this-as-written markup to avoid the hyphens being converted to dashes, e.g.
|at=parameter including, but not limited to, track, hours, minutes and seconds, act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, etc. Examples include
|at=Act III, Scene 2.
|quote=. Use either
|quote-pages=, but not both. Should be a subset of the page(s) specified in
|at=. Displays preceded by
|no-pp=yes. If hyphenated, use ((hyphen)) to indicate this is intentional (e.g.
|quote-page=3((hyphen))12). Alias: none.
|quote=. Use either
|quote-pages=, but not both. Should be a subset of the pages specified in
|at=. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,). Displays preceded by
|no-pp=yesis defined. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate because individual page numbers contain hyphens, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use double parentheses to tell the template to display the value of
|quote-pages=without processing it, and use ((hyphen)) to indicate to editors that a hyphen is really intended:
|quote-pages=((3((hyphen))1((ndash))3((hyphen))15)). Alias: none.
If the same source is reused with different pages, separate citations must be created. A way around this problem is to use a short citation
((rp)) to provide linked page number citations.
|edition=Revised thirddisplays as: Revised third ed. The edition parameter can be omitted if there is no content difference between two editions of the same work; e.g. if a book was identically published in the UK and the US except, for example, ISBN number and cover art, it is not necessary to indicate either "UK" or "US" edition; or if citing minute:seconds of a film available in both a regular edition and a "Special Limited Collector's Edition", if the running time and cut are the same, it is not necessary to cite the particular edition.
|series=should be limited to
First/Second/Third/... Series, or similar.[Note 3]
|volume=I–IV. Separate non-sequential volumes either with commas or semicolons, for example
|volume=I, III. The form
|volume=I, III–Vis used when you are citing both non-contiguous and sequential volumes. For volume numbers higher than 999, either do not use thousands separators or enclose the volume number in accept-this-as-written markup to avoid commas being erroneously interpreted as list separators.
|issue=2, ''Modern Canadian Literature''. Please choose either
|number=depending on what nomenclature is actually used in a publication. If a publication carries both, issue and number designations (typically one being a year-relative and the other an absolute value), provide them both, for example
|issue=2 #143. Separate ranges with an en dash: – , and non-sequential numbers either with commas or semicolons. For numbers higher than 999, either do not use thousands separators or enclose the number in accept-this-as-written markup to avoid commas being erroneously interpreted as list separators.
|url-access=parameter, see Registration or subscription required. Other notes about reprintings, etc., should be placed after the template, and before
When MediaWiki encounters an external link URL with a '.pdf' or '.PDF' extension, it renders the external link with a PDF icon in place of the usual external-link icon. To make rendered cs1|2 citations that link to PDF documents somewhat more accessible, cs1|2 automatically adds a parenthetical PDF annotation so that those readers using screen-reader technology can know the type of the linked file. This is imperfect because some on-line sources redirect .pdf URLs to .html landing pages (this is common for PDF documents behind paywalls or registration barriers). Because the parenthetical PDF annotation happens automatically, editors are not required to set
|format=PDF, though doing so causes no harm. The
|format=PDF parameter may be deleted as part of a more substantial edit but editors should consider that many cs1|2 templates are copied from en.Wikipedia to other-language Wikipedias when articles here are translated to that other language. Do not assume that other-language Wikipedias use up-to-date cs1|2 templates; many do not, so removing
|format=PDF here can affect readers/translators at other Wikipedias.
Main pages: Wikipedia:External links and Wikipedia:Citing sources
Links to sources are regarded as conveniences and are not required, except when citing Web-only sources. There are many digital libraries with works that may be used as sources.
Do not link to:
Links should be kept as simple as possible. For example, when performing a search for a Google Book, the link for Monty Python and Philosophy would look like:
But can be trimmed to:
A direct link to a specific page may be used if supported by the host. For example, the link to page 172 of Monty Python and Philosophy on Google Books:
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme.
https:// will be supported by all browsers; however,
news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by
%20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
Online sources linked by
|section-url= are presumed to be free-to-read. When they are not free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these url-holding parameters are presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as
For example, this cites a web page that requires registration but not subscription:
which renders as:
Links inserted by named identifiers are presumed to lie behind a paywall or registration barrier – exceptions listed below. When they are free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. When the sources linked by these named-identifier parameters are not presumed to carry a free-to-read full text (for instance because they're just abstracting services), they may not be marked as
Some named-identifiers are always free-to-read. For those named identifiers there are no access-indicator parameters; the access level is automatically indicated by the template. These named identifiers are:
For embargoed pmc that will become available in the future, see pmc-embargo-date.
Further information: Wikipedia:Link rot
The original link may become unavailable. When an archived version is located, the original URL is retained and
|archive-url= is added with a link to an archived copy of a web page, usually from services like WebCite and the Internet Archive.
|archive-date= must be added to show the date the page was archived, not the date the link was added. When
|archive-url= is used,
|archive-date= are required, else an error will show. When an archived link is used, the citation displays with the title linked to the archive and the original link at the end: Monty Python and Philosophy. Archived from the original on 2013-05-01.
When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting
|url-status=usurped suppresses display of the original URL (but
|archive-url= are still required).
The following identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g.
|arxiv=hep-th/9205027(before April 2007) or
|arxiv=0706.0001(April 2007 – December 2014) or
|arxiv=1501.00001(since January 2015). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html". Aliases: eprint.
|asin=B00005N5PF. Aliases: ASIN.
uk. Aliases: none.
1974AJ.....79..819H. Aliases: none.
10.1101/078733for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or https://doi.org/10.1101/078733;
10.1101/2020.07.24.220400for https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.24.220400). Aliases: none.
10.1.1.176.341for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.176.341). Aliases: none.
10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (
10.). Aliases: DOI.
|eissn=1557-2986. Aliases: EISSN.
|hdl=20.1000/100. Aliases: HDL.
978-0-8126-9593-9. Hyphens in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, use sbn. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Aliases: ISBN.
979-0-9016791-7-7. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Aliases: ISMN.
|issn=2049-3630. Aliases: ISSN.
|jfm=53.0144.01. Aliases: JFM.
|jstor=3793107. Aliases: JSTOR.
|lccn=e09001178. Aliases: LCCN.
|mr=630583. Aliases: MR.
|oclc=9355469. Aliases: OCLC.
|ol=7030731M. Aliases: OL.
|osti=4367507. Aliases: OSTI.
|pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. . Aliases: PMC.
|rfc=3143. Aliases: RFC.
|sbn=356-02201-3. Aliases: SBN.
|ssrn=1900856. Aliases: SSRN.
|s2cid=37220927. Aliases: S2CID.
|zbl=0472.53010For zbMATH search results like
|jfm=35.0387.02. Aliases: ZBL.
In very rare cases, valid identifiers (f.e., as actually printed on publications) do not follow their defined standard format or use non-conforming checksums, which would typically cause an error message to be shown. Do not alter them to match a different checksum. In order to suppress the error message, some identifiers (
|sbn=) support a special accept-this-as-written markup which can be applied to disable the error-checking (as
|<param>=((<value>))). If the problem is down to a mere typographical error in a third-party source, correct the identifier value instead of overriding the error message.
For some identifiers, it is possible to specify the access status using the corresponding
For ((cite journal)), some identifiers (specifying free resources) will automatically be linked to the title when
|title-link= are not used to specify a different link target. This behaviour can be overridden by one out of a number of special keywords for
|title-link= to manually select a specific source (
|title-link=doi) for auto-linking or to disable the feature (
It is not necessary to specify a URL to a link identical to a link also produced by an identifier. The
|url= parameter (or
|title-link=) can then be used for providing a direct deep link to the corresponding document or a convenience link to a resource that would not otherwise be obviously accessible.
A custom identifier can be specified through
|id=NCJ 122967will append "NCJ 122967" at the end of the citation. You can use templates such as
|id=((NCJ|122967))to append NCJ 122967 instead.
Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability § Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors should signal restrictions on access to material provided via the external links included in a citation. These levels describe requirements or constraints related to accessing and viewing the cited material; they are not intended to indicate the ability to reuse, or the copyright status, of the material, since that status is not relevant to verifying claims in articles.
Four access levels can be used:
free: the source is free to read for anyone (from the viewpoint of the provider of the source – could still be blocked by client-side filtering or safeguarding, or distributor-based geoblocking)
registration: a free registration with the provider of the source is required to access the source, even if a limited preview, abstract or review may still be available without registration
limited: there are other constraints (such as a cap on daily views, a restriction to certain day or night times, or providing the contents only to certain IP ranges/locales on behalf of the provider of the source) to freely access this source as a whole
subscription: the source as a whole is only accessible via a paid subscription with the provider of the source ("paywall"), even if a limited preview, abstract or review may still be available without subscription
As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, each value is attributed to a specific external link.
... |quote=Tōkyō tawā |script-quote=ja:東京タワー |trans-quote=Tokyo Tower ...
The module creates HTML IDs by default suitable for use with shortened footnotes using the Harv- and sfn-family templates. These styles use in-text cites with a link that will jump to the ID created by the CS1 template. The ID is created from up to four author last names and the year, of the format
|ref=ID: Creates a custom ID equivalent to the value ID. This is useful where the author and/or date is unknown. The
((harvid)) template may be used here to create an ID for the Harv- and sfn-family templates.
|Kind||Wikitext||ID created||Targetable by|
|Default, one name||
|Default, two names||
These features are not often used, but can customize the display for use with other styles.
|mode=cs1, element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (
.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For
|mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (
,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
<references />or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. Mask parameters can take an enumerator in the name of the parameter (e.g.
|authorn-mask=) to apply the mask to a specific name.
|display-authors=2will display only the first two authors in a citation (and not affect the display of editors). Likewise,
|display-editors=2will display only the first two editors (and all authors).
|display-editors=0are special cases suppressing the display of all authors or editors including the et al. By default, all authors and editors are displayed.
|display-authors=etaldisplays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: none.
.); for no terminating punctuation, specify
|postscript=empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Additional text, or templates that render more than a single terminating punctuation character, will generate a maintenance message.
|postscript=is ignored if quote is defined.
et al. is the abbreviation of the Latin et alii ('and others'). It is used to complete a list of authors of a published work, where the complete list is considered overly long. The abbreviation is widely used in English, thus it is not italicized per MOS:FOREIGN.
There are occasions where Module:Citation/CS1 emits error or maintenance messages because of, or makes changes to, the values assigned to a select set of parameters. Special markup can be used to enforce that a value will nonetheless be accepted as written. The markup for this is
((value)), i.e., wrap the entire parameter value in two sets of parentheses. Parameters that support this markup are:
||The various name parameters (including their enumerated variants) are checked for extra comma and semicolon separator characters which may indicate that the parameter is holding more than one name. If so, the list of names should be split up over multiple n-enumerated parameters. Corporate names, however, are sometimes comma-separated lists of names as well and so are erroneously flagged as a multiple-name error; markup can be used to indicate this.|
Legitimate names may be caught by the generic-name test. This markup can prevent legitimate names from being flagged as generic.
||Identifiers are checked for validity to the extent possible. In rare cases, identifiers actually used in published works deviate from the checked standard format but are nonetheless valid. If the problem is down to a mere typographical error in a third-party source, correct the identifier instead of overriding the error message.|
||Spaces are inserted between commas and succeeding characters in comma-separated lists of issues, a hyphen is converted to an ndash in issue ranges, etc. A hyphenated issue number and an issue range cannot be distinguished, nor can a four-or-more-digit number with a thousands-separator from a comma-separated list of two or more issues. Markup can be applied to the entry as a whole or to individual list entries.|
||Spaces are inserted between commas and succeeding characters in comma-separated lists of volumes, a hyphen is converted to an ndash in volume ranges, etc. A hyphenated volume and an volume range cannot be distinguished, nor can a four-or-more-digit volume with a thousands-separator from a comma-separated list of two or more volumes. Markup can be applied to the entry as a whole or to individual list entries.|
||Spaces are inserted between commas and succeeding characters in comma-separated lists of pages, a hyphen is converted to an ndash in page ranges, etc. A hyphenated page number and a page range cannot be distinguished, nor can a four-or-more-digit number with a thousands-separator from a comma-separated list of two or more pages. Markup can be applied to the entry as a whole or to individual list entries; does not apply to |
||Trailing dots are normally removed from the value assigned to |
||The parameter may also accept a number of special keywords (|
||Markup to suppress error messages and automatic Vancouver reformatting of allowed corporate names.|
When viewing the page, CS1 templates render the URL to the title to create a link; when printing, the URL is printed. External link icons are not printed.
Not all factually accurate pieces of information about a source are used in a Citation Style 1 citation. Examples of information not included:
Main page: Help:Citation tools
CS1 templates may be inserted manually or by use of tools:
Error checking scripts:
This section documents interactions between WP:TemplateData and tools which use that data to edit Wikipedia such as VisualEditor and bots. Before making changes to the TemplateData be aware of these interactions.
|website=is "required" IABot makes the following edit: .
|access-date=does not show.
|url=is not supplied, then
|access-date=does not show; by design.
|title=field includes a newline or an invalid character then the link will be malformed; see Web links.
|) in the value will truncate it. Use
|author-link=will break the link; this field is for the name of the Wikipedia article about the author, not a website.
|last1=is not defined, then
|last2=will not show. By design.
|at=do not show.
:en:for the English Wikipedia) in order to create an interwiki link. The prefix for Wikidata nodes is
:wikidata:) to be followed by the Q<id> number of the corresponding entry. (Similar, Wikisource uses
:wiktionary:) and Commons
:commons:), followed by the corresponding article name.) Alternatively, if a suitable custom interwiki prefix is defined for another authority control repository, this can be used as well. For example, to link to an author's VIAF entry (with code
:VIAF:<id>can be used, even if this would resolve to an independent external site. In the absence of a local article such links can help to at least establish a connection to a particular author and, if an article gets created in the English Wikipedia as well in the future, these links can be fixed up by bots to point to the local article instead.
For instance the journal Physical Review, was numbered volumes 1–35 from 1893 to 1912 (the first series). From 1913 to 1969, the volume numbering restarted at 1 and went up to 188 (the second series). In 1970, Physical Review split into different parts, Physical Review A, Physical Review B, Physical Review C, and Physical Review D, where volumes again restarted at 1 (the third series). Since there are two publications identified as Physical Review, Volume 1, there is a need to distinguish which is which by use of
|series=First Series or
|series=Second Series. While Physical Review A is in the third series of the Physical Review media franchise, it is the first series of the publication known as Physical Review A. Since there is no confusion about what Physical Review A, Volume 1 could be referring to, there is no need to clarify to which numbering series the journal belong.
In particular, note that the
|series= parameter is not to be used to distinguish the different parts of a media franchise, like Physical Review A, Acta Crystallographica Section A, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B.