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The MediaWiki software, which drives Wikipedia, allows the use of a subset of HTML 5 elements, or tags and their attributes, for presentation formatting.[1] But most HTML can be included by using equivalent wiki markup or templates; these are generally preferred within articles, as they are sometimes simpler for most editors and less intrusive in the editing window; but Wikipedia's Manual of Style recommends their use in certain cases. (See Help:Wikitext for wiki equivalents to HTML tags not otherwise discussed below.) And HTML is useful outside of articles, for example for formatting within templates. For help with Cascading Style Sheet use within Wikipedia see Help:Cascading Style Sheets.

Some tags look like HTML, but are actually MediaWiki parser and extension tags, and so are really wiki markup. HTML in pages can be checked for HTML5 compliance by using validation. Some elements and attributes are supported by MediaWiki and browsers, but have been deprecated by HTML 5, and therefore should no longer be used.

Tutorials

This help page gives only an overview of allowed markup. For further assistance and detailed specifications:

Attributes

HTML attributes provide additional information about an element and are always specified in the start tag. They are formatted as a name/value pair like name="value".

Global attributes apply to all tags. Attributes not listed here are not allowed by MediaWiki[1]:

HTML5 microdata attributes apply to all tags:[2]

Other tags such as <table> support specific attributes – these are listed in the appropriate section.

Markup Renders as
This is <span style="color:red;">red</span> text.

This is red text.

The MediaWiki Sanitizer.php does some cleanup on attributes. A best practice is to use the proper syntax.

Elements

These HTML elements are supported by the MediaWiki software. This section gives a brief overview of the HTML element, an example, relevant wikimarkup and templates.

Basic

h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6

Further information: Help:Section and MOS:HEAD

The <h1>...</h1> through <h6>...</h6> tags are headings for the sections with which they are associated. <h1> is used for the article title. Headings are styled through CSS and added to the page's table of contents.

Markup Renders as
<h1>Heading 1</h1>
<h2>Heading 2</h2>
<h3>Heading 3</h3>
<h4>Heading 4</h4>
<h5>Heading 5</h5>
<h6>Heading 6</h6>
Heading 1
Heading 2
Heading 3
Heading 4
Heading 5
Heading 6

Wikimarkup: surround the text with the appropriate number of equal signs. Headers formatted with wikimarkup add an [edit] link.

Markup Renders as
= Heading 1 =
== Heading 2 ==
=== Heading 3 ===
==== Heading 4 ====
===== Heading 5 =====
====== Heading 6 ======
Heading 1
Heading 2
Heading 3
Heading 4
Heading 5
Heading 6


Templates: ((fake heading)) for use in documentation

p

<p>...</p> tag places content into a separate paragraph.

Markup Renders as
<p>HyperText Markup Language</p><p>HyperText Markup Language</p>

HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Markup Language

Wikimarkup: Separate paragraphs by a single blank line.

Markup Renders as
HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Markup Language

HyperText Markup Language

<p>...</p> is especially useful in lists, for list items with multiple paragraphs:

Markup Renders as
* <p>This is a paragraph.</p><p>This is another paragraph in the same item.</p>
* This is a different item.
  • This is a paragraph.

    This is another paragraph in the same item.

  • This is a different item.

Note that the closing tag </p> is not strictly necessary for MediaWiki installations that output HTML 5 (such as Wikipedia).

br

Further information: Help:Line-break handling § <br /> or <br>, and Wikipedia:Don't use line breaks

<br> or <br /> inserts a line break. Both versions of the break are supported by HTML5. Using <br> without the / breaks syntax highlighting, so should be avoided. </br> is invalid.

Markup Renders as
HyperText<br />Markup Language

HyperText
Markup Language

Templates:

hr

Further information: WP:LINE

<hr> or <hr /> represents a paragraph-level thematic break and presents as a horizontal rule.

Markup Renders as
<hr />

Wikimarkup: use ----

Markup Renders as
----


Templates: ((hr))

Comments

Further information: WP:COMMENT

<!--...--> formats the enclosed text as a hidden comment.

Markup Renders as
HyperText<!--Markup Language-->

HyperText

Be careful with spacing around comments. Surrounding a comment with blank lines will result in a blank paragraph, perceived as an extra two blank lines:

Markup Renders as
Content line 1

<!-- Comment -->

Content line 2

Content line 1


Content line 2

Formatting

abbr

<abbr>...</abbr> creates a tooltip to define an abbreviation or acronym that is displayed on mouse-over.

Markup Renders as
<abbr title="HyperText Markup Language">HTML</abbr>

HTML

Templates: ((abbr))

b

Further information: MOS:BOLD

<b>...</b> formats text stylistically offset from other text (bold) without conveying extra importance.

Markup Renders as
<b>HyperText Markup Language</b>

HyperText Markup Language

Wikimarkup: Use ''' to open and close bold text.

Markup Renders as
'''HyperText Markup Language'''

HyperText Markup Language

bdi

<bdi>...</bdi> isolates the content from the surrounding text-direction settings.

Markup Renders as
اليمين إلى اليسارleft to right

اليمين إلى اليسارleft to right

اليمين إلى اليسار<bdi>left to right</bdi>

اليمين إلى اليسارleft to right

Support: Firefox, Chrome

bdo

<bdo>...</bdo> specifies the text direction.

Attributes and values:

Markup Renders as
<bdo dir="rtl">HyperText Markup Language</bdo>

HyperText Markup Language

blockquote

Further information: MOS:QUOTE

<blockquote>...</blockquote> presents text in an offset block.

Markup Renders as
<blockquote>HyperText Markup Language</blockquote>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates: ((quote)); supports pre-formatted attribution and source parameters. For other specialized quotation templates, see Category:Quotation templates.

cite

<cite>...</cite> contains the title of a work. This is a new definition in HTML5— in the previous XML implementation <cite> was used to contain a citation or a reference to other sources. No formatting is applied when this tag is used.

Markup Renders as
<cite>HyperText Markup Language</cite>

HyperText Markup Language

<cite>...</cite> is generally not used directly in Wikipedia articles, and is often misused; see Wikipedia:HTML 5#cite for replacement instructions.

code

<code>...</code> formats a section of computer code. Styled with CSS through mediawiki.skinning/elements.less as a monospaced typeface with a grey background and border.

Markup Renders as
<code>HyperText Markup Language</code>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates: ((code)) uses <syntaxhighlight>. See the "See also" section at the template page for additional code-markup templates.

See § samp and § kbd on this page for semantic markup of output and input, respectively.

data

<data>...</data> formats a machine-readable version of contents.

Markup Renders as
<data value="978-0764502149">HTML for Dummies</data>

HTML for Dummies

Attributes: value

del

<del>...</del> formats deleted text.

Markup Renders as
<del>HyperText Markup Language</del>

HyperText Markup Language

dfn

<dfn>...</dfn> is used for indicating the defining instance of a term.

Markup Renders as
<dfn>Definition</dfn>

Definition

Templates: ((dfn))

em

Further information: MOS:ITALIC

<em>...</em> represents a span of text with emphatic stress (i.e. semantic emphasis). In most browsers, it renders as italic.

Markup Renders as
<em>HyperText Markup Language</em>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates: ((em))

i

Further information: MOS:ITALIC

<i>...</i> represents a span of text offset from its surrounding content without conveying any extra emphasis or importance, and for which the conventional typographic presentation is italic text.

Markup Renders as
<i>HyperText Markup Language</i>

HyperText Markup Language

Wikimarkup: Use '' to open and close italic text.

Markup Renders as
''HyperText Markup Language''

HyperText Markup Language

ins

<ins>...</ins> indicates a range of text that has been added. Styled as underlined text. Used on talk pages to indicate refactored text; see WP:REDACT.

Markup Renders as
<ins>HyperText Markup Language</ins>

HyperText Markup Language

kbd

<kbd>...</kbd> indicates user input such as keyboard input or voice commands.

Markup Renders as
Press <kbd>Enter</kbd>

Press Enter

Templates:

mark

<mark>...</mark> represents a run of text in one document marked or highlighted for reference purposes, due to its relevance in another context. Marked text is formatted with a yellow background by default.

Markup Renders as
<mark>HyperText Markup Language</mark>

HyperText Markup Language

<mark style="background:lightblue;">HyperText Markup Language</mark>

HyperText Markup Language

Support: Not supported by Internet Explorer 8 and below.

pre

<pre>...</pre> element represents a block of preformatted text. In MediaWiki, <pre> is actually a parser tag and not HTML, but the function is the same. It also prevents the parsing of templates.

Markup Renders as
<pre>HyperText Markup Language</pre>
HyperText Markup Language
HTML entities

<pre> parses HTML entities. If you want to escape this, replace & with &amp;, or use <syntaxhighlight lang="text"> instead.

Markup Renders as
<pre>&amp;</pre>
&
<pre>&lt;</pre>
<
<pre>&amp;amp;</pre>
&amp;
<pre>&amp;lt;</pre>
&lt;

Templates:

q

<q>...</q> is used to mark a short quotation. There has been very little implementation of this element in Wikipedia yet.

Markup Renders as
<q>HyperText Markup Language</q>

HyperText Markup Language

MOS:QUOTATIONS says Wikipedia should instead use "", ((quote)), or <blockquote>.

rp, rt, ruby

Further information: Ruby character

<ruby>...</ruby> marks spans of phrasing content with ruby annotations.

Browsers that do not support ruby characters will show the ruby text in normal size, enclosed in parentheses and after the normal content.

Markup Renders as
<ruby><rp>(</rp><rt>とう</rt><rp>)</rp><rp>(</rp><rt>きょう</rt><rp>)</rp>
</ruby>

(とう)(きょう)

Templates:

s

<s>...</s> is used to indicate content that is no longer accurate or relevant and that has been struck from the page. It is not appropriate when indicating document edits; to mark a span of text as having been removed from a document, use <del>.

Markup Renders as
<s>HyperText Markup Language</s>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates: ((strikethrough))

samp

<samp>...</samp> indicates sample output from a program or computing system. Examples include: output of a program, script, or Wikipedia template; status displays or audio announcements made by an app or device; file system directory listings and samples from them, such as paths and file names.

Markup Renders as
<samp>HyperText Markup Language</samp>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates: ((samp)) applies monospace styling, and gives the text in dark grey to distinguish from code (<code>) and input (<kbd> or ((kbd))).

small

Further information: WP:FONTSIZE

<small>...</small> format small text.

Markup Renders as
<small>HyperText Markup Language</small>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates:

strong

<strong>...</strong> formats a span of text with strong importance or unusual emphasis; in most browsers it renders as boldface. This should generally not be used in Wikipedia articles, per WP:Neutral point of view policy. See MOS:BOLD on use of this element and other boldfacing. Most semantic emphasis, including in quoted material, should be rendered with the <em> element.

Markup Renders as
<strong>HyperText Markup Language</strong>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates: ((strong))

sub

Further information: WP:SUBSCRIPT

<sub>...</sub> formats a span of text as a subscript.

Markup Renders as
HyperText <sub>Markup Language</sub>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates:

sup

Further information: WP:SUPSCRIPT

<sup>...</sup> formats a span of text as a superscript.

Markup Renders as
HyperText <sup>Markup Language</sup>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates:

time

<time>...</time> defines either a time (24 hour clock), or a date in the Gregorian calendar, optionally with a time and a time-zone offset.

Markup Renders as
<time>10:00</time>

Attributes: datetime

Support: Not supported by Internet Explorer 8 and below.

u

Further information: MOS:BADEMPHASIS and MOS:QUOTE

<u>...</u> represents a span of text offset from its surrounding content without conveying any extra emphasis or importance, and for which the conventional typographic presentation is underlining; for example, a span of text in Chinese that is a proper name (a Chinese proper name mark), or span of text that is known to be misspelled.

Markup Renders as
<u>HyperText Markup Language</u>

HyperText Markup Language

Templates: ((underline))

var

Further information: MOS:ITALIC

<var>...</var> formats text in italics to indicate a variable in a mathematical expression or programming context, or placeholder text that the reader is meant to mentally replace with some other literal value.

Markup Renders as
*<var>E</var>=<var>m</var>c<sup>2</sup> (c is a constant not a variable)
*<code><nowiki>((</nowiki><var>TemplateName</var>|<var>parameter</var>=<var>value</var><nowiki>))</nowiki></code>
*If <var>A</var> then <var>B</var>
  • E=mc2 (c is a constant not a variable)
  • ((TemplateName|parameter=value))
  • If A then B

Templates:

wbr

Further information: Help:Line-break handling § <wbr /> and soft hyphens

<wbr> is a word break opportunity; that is, it specifies where it would be OK to add a line-break where a word is too long, or it is perceived that the browser will break a line at the wrong place.

Markup Renders as
Now is the time to become a power editor, by learning HyperText Markup Language

Now is the time to become a power editor, by learning HyperText Markup Language

Now is the time to become a power editor, by learning Hyper<wbr>Text Markup Language

Now is the time to become a power editor, by learning HyperText Markup Language

As the browser window is adjusted narrower, the second example wraps between Hyper and Text.

Lists

Further information: Help:List and MOS:LIST

Do not leave blank lines between items in a list unless there is a reason to do so, since this causes the MediaWiki software to interpret each item as beginning a new list.

dl, dt, dd

<dl>...</dl>, <dt>...</dt> and <dd>...</dd> are used to create a description list (formerly definition list) with terms and descriptions. Terms are displayed in bold and descriptions are indented. Each term must include one or more descriptions.

Markup Renders as
<dl>
<dt>Term</dt>
<dd>Definition 1</dd>
<dd>Definition 2</dd>
</dl>
Term
Definition 1
Definition 2

Wikimarkup: <dt> is created using ; while automatically enclosed in <dl>...</dl>. <dd> is created using : for each value. For a single or first value the : can be placed on the same line after ; where subsequent values must be placed on separate lines.

Markup Renders as
; Term
: Definition 1
: Definition 2
Term
Definition 1
Definition 2

Templates: ((defn))

ol, ul, li

<ol>...</ol> represents an ordered list; <ul>...</ul> represents an unordered list; <li>...</li> represents a list item within either type of list.

Markup Renders as
<ol>
<li>Item 1</li>
<li>Item 2</li>
</ol>
  1. Item 1
  2. Item 2
<ul>
<li>Item 1</li>
<li>Item 2</li>
</ul>
  • Item 1
  • Item 2

Wikimarkup: use * for items in an unordered list and # for ordered lists.

Markup Renders as
# Item 1
# Item 2

  1. Item 1
  2. Item 2
* Item 1
* Item 2

  • Item 1
  • Item 2

Templates: for a variety of specialized uses, see Category:List formatting and function templates.

Containers

div

Further information: Span and div

<div>...</div> is a generic container for flow content that displays as a block element.

Markup Renders as
HyperText <div>Markup</div> Language
HyperText
Markup
Language

span

Further information: Span and div

<span>...</span> is a container for flow content that displays as an inline element.

Markup Renders as
HyperText <span>Markup</span> Language

HyperText Markup Language

Tables

Further information: Help:Table and MOS:TABLES

table, td, tr

<table>...</table> defines a table.

Markup Renders as
<table border=1>
<tr>
<td>data</td>
<td>data</td>
</tr>
</table>
data data

Attributes:

th

<th>...</th> defines a table header; styled as centered and bold.

Markup Renders as
<table border="1">
<tr>
<th>Header</th>
<th>Header</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>data</td>
<td>data</td>
</tr>
</table>
Header Header
data data

Attributes:

caption

<caption>...</caption> adds a caption to a table.

Markup Renders as
<table border=1>
<caption>Caption</caption>
<tr>
<td>data</td>
<td>data</td>
</tr>
</table>
Caption
data data

Attributes:

thead, tfoot, tbody

<thead>, <tfoot> and <tbody> are not supported, but are automatically generated when the page is rendered.

Obsolete/deprecated elements

Main page: Wikipedia:HTML5 § Obsolete elements and attributes

These elements are now obsolete and either deprecated or removed in HTML5, but still supported by browsers.[3] These tags either have an alternate tag or a template that replaces their function with CSS. See Wikipedia:HTML5 § Obsolete elements and attributes for more details on obsolete HTML parts and their replacements.

center

For centering tables, see Help:Table § Centering tables.

<center>...</center> (obsolete) is used to center text elements.

Templates: ((center)) uses CSS.

font

<font>...</font> (obsolete) is used to set the font size, font face and color of text.

Templates: ((font)) uses CSS.

rb

<rb>...</rb> (obsolete) Used to mark base text in a ruby annotation

For replacements, see: Help:HTML in wikitext#rp, rt, ruby

strike

<strike>...</strike> (obsolete) formats strike-through characters; use <s> instead.

tt

<tt>...</tt> (obsolete) formats text in a fixed-width font. Use <code>, <kbd> or <samp> instead.

Templates: ((mono)) uses CSS.

Unsupported elements

These elements are not supported, but have equivalent wiki markup. Attempting to use any element not whitelisted by Sanitizer.php will result in the markup showing as plain text.

a

Further information: Help:Wiki markup § Links and URLs

<a> is used to create links. Use the [[ ]] wikimarkup for internal/intrawiki links and interwiki links, and [ ] for external links.

input

Further information: mw:Extension:InputBox

<input> is used to create forms. The <inputbox> extension tag is used to create a text box with a button.

HTML Tidy

HTML Tidy is an outdated HTML4 library that is slated for removal. Tidy parses the MediaWiki output and cleans it up to increase the likelihood that valid HTML4 is rendered. For example, with Tidy enabled, <br>, </br>, <br/>, <br.> all rendered as <br />. Tidy is not enabled for MediaWiki interface pages. Tidy was never perfect and has been known to introduce errors.

Exceptions

In some pages in the MediaWiki namespace, typically the short messages like button labels, HTML is not parsed, and tags will be exposed.

User and sitewide CSS and JavaScript pages are interpreted as if inside a <pre> block. See Help:User style.

Validation

Main page: Help:Markup validation

The MediaWiki software attempts to fix HTML errors, but it does not catch all of them. Where HTML is used, it is helpful to verify it with the W3C Markup Validation Service.

Parser and extension tags

For a machine-generated list, see Special:Version#mw-version-parser-extensiontags. It may include tags not documented here.

Parser tags
<gallery>, <includeonly>, <noinclude>, <nowiki>, <onlyinclude>, <pre>
Extension tags
<categorytree>, <charinsert>, <chem> (alias <ce>), <graph>, <hiero>, <imagemap>, <indicator>, <inputbox>, <mapframe>, <maplink>, <math>, <math chem>, <poem>, <ref>, <references>, <score>, <section>, <syntaxhighlight> (alias <source>), <templatedata>, <templatestyles>, <timeline>

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Allowable elements and attributes are defined in the Sanitizer.php module.
  2. ^ "The microdata model". HTML Living Standard.
  3. ^ a b c d e "HTML5: A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML: Obsolete Features". W3C. 31 July 2014.

External links