The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress in the United States, which can be used for shelving books in a library. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries.[1]

LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books (and authors), which also defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "42037605" and "https://lccn.loc.gov/42037605".[a] The Classification is also distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically.[b] Finally, the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982".[c]

The classification was developed by James Hanson (chief of the Catalog Department), with assistance from Charles Martel, in 1897.[2] With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, and the Putnam Classification System (developed while Putnam was head librarian at the Minneapolis Public Library).[3] It was designed specifically for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K (Law) and parts of B (Philosophy and Religion) were well developed.

LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis; many of the classification decisions were driven by the practical needs of that library rather than epistemological considerations.[4] Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is essentially enumerative in nature. That is, it provides a guide to the books actually in one library's collections, not a classification of the world.

In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system.[1]

The National Library of Medicine classification system (NLM) uses the initial letters W and QSQZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC, eschewing LCC's R for Medicine. Others use LCC's QPQR schedules and include Medicine R.[clarification needed][5][6]

Classification

Java programming books in the QA subclass.
Java programming books in the QA subclass.
Letter Subject area
A General Works
B Philosophy, Psychology, Religion
C Auxiliary Sciences of History
D World History and History of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc.
E History of America
F History of the Americas
G Geography, Anthropology, and Recreation
H Social Sciences
J Political Science
K Law
L Education
M Music
N Fine Arts
P Language and Literature
Q Science
R Medicine
S Agriculture
T Technology
U Military Science
V Naval Science
Z Bibliography, Library Science, and General Information Resources

Class A – General Works

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class A -- General Works

Class B – Philosophy, Psychology, Religion

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class B -- Philosophy, Psychology, Religion

Class C – Auxiliary Sciences of History

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class C -- Auxiliary Sciences of History

Class D – World History and History of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc.

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class D -- History, General and Old World

Class E – History of America

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class E -- History of America

Class F – Local History of the Americas

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class F -- Local History of the United States and British, Dutch, French, and Latin America

Class G – Geography, Anthropology, Recreation

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class G -- Geography. Anthropology. Recreation

Class H – Social Sciences

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class H -- Social sciences

Class J – Political Science

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class J -- Political science

Class K – Law

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class K -- Law

Class L – Education

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class L -- Education

Class M – Music

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class M -- Music

Class N – Fine Arts

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class N -- Fine Arts

Class P – Language and Literature

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class P -- Language and Literature

The PN-subclass shelf.
The PN-subclass shelf.

Class Q – Science

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class Q -- Science

Class R – Medicine

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class R -- Medicine

Class S – Agriculture

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class S -- Agriculture

Class T – Technology

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class T -- Technology

Class U – Military Science

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class U -- Military Science

Class V – Naval Science

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class V -- Naval Science

Class Z – Bibliography, Library Science

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class Z -- Bibliography. Library Science. Information resources

See also

Notes

  1. ^ LCCN also covers authors, which LCC does not. For authors (people), the letter 'n' accompanies the number, and they too define URLs in a parallel catalog, such as "n83160096" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/n83160096". (So LCCN may be called alphanumeric.)
  2. ^ LCSH too is developed by the Library and assigns alphanumeric IDs. A closer look at this example shows refinements defined in 2004, 2007, and 2009. LCSH: Boarding schools.
  3. ^ "FT MEADE" and "Copy 1" are specific to the Library of Congress collection, where FT MEADE refers to a facility located at Fort Meade. All libraries that use LCC assign call numbers that begin "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982" to their copies of the 1982 edition of this book.

References

  1. ^ a b Lavallee, Andrew (July 20, 2007). "Discord Over Dewey: A New Library in Arizona Fans a Heated Debate Over What Some Call the 'Googlization' of Libraries". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 25, 2013. Some 95% of U.S. public libraries use Dewey, and nearly all of the others, the OCLC says, use a closely related Library of Congress system.
  2. ^ Dittmann, Helena (2000). Learn Library of Congress classification. Internet Archive. Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-3696-9.
  3. ^ Andy Sturdevant. "Cracking the spine on Hennepin County Library's many hidden charms". MinnPost, 02/05/14.
  4. ^ Hickey, Doralyn J. (1969). "Reviewed work: The Use of the Library of Congress Classification: Proceedings of the Institute on the Use of the Library of Congress Classification Sponsored by the American Library Association, Resources and Technical Services Division, Cataloging and Classification Section, New York City, July 7-9, 1966, Richard H. Schimmelpfeng, C. Donald Cook". The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy. 39 (3): 294–296. doi:10.1086/619784. JSTOR 4306016.
  5. ^ Taylor, A. G., & Joudrey, D.N. (2009). The organization of information. 3rd ed. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited.
  6. ^ Chan, L. M.(2007). Cataloging and classification: An introduction. 3rd ed. Scarecrow Press.
  7. ^ National Library of Canada. "Class FC: a classification for Canadian history" (PDF). PDF publication. National Library of Canada. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  8. ^ Rutherford, D. "Canadian History Call Numbers". Queens University Library. Retrieved May 21, 2018.