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Nuclear engineering is the engineering discipline concerned with designing and applying systems that utilize the energy released by nuclear processes.[1][2] The most prominent application of nuclear engineering is the generation of electricity. Worldwide, some 440 nuclear reactors in 32 countries generate 10 percent of the world's energy through nuclear fission.[3] In the future, it is expected that nuclear fusion will add another nuclear means of generating energy.[4] Both reactions make use of the nuclear binding energy released when atomic nucleons are either separated (fission) or brought together (fusion). The energy available is given by the binding energy curve, and the amount generated is much greater than that generated through chemical reactions. Fission of 1 gram of uranium yields as much energy as burning 3 tons of coal or 600 gallons of fuel oil,[5] without adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.[6]

What nuclear engineers do

Nuclear engineers work in such areas as the following:[7][8][9]

Many chemical, electrical and mechanical and other types of engineers also work in the nuclear industry, as do many scientists and support staff. In the U.S., nearly 100,000 people directly work in the nuclear industry. Including secondary sector jobs, the number of people supported by the U.S. nuclear industry is 475,000.[15]

History of nuclear engineering

An argument can be made that nuclear engineering was born in 1938, with the discovery of nuclear fission.[16] However, from the engineering perspective of applying science to create something new, a more fitting beginning might be 1942 when Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) began operating at the University of Chicago as a part of the Manhattan Project. The first artificial nuclear reactor, CP-1, was designed by a team of physicists who were concerned that Nazi Germany might also be seeking to build a bomb based on nuclear fission. (The earliest known nuclear reaction on Earth occurred naturally, 1.7 billion years ago, in Oklo, Gabon, Africa.) The second artificial nuclear reactor, the X-10 Graphite Reactor, was also a part of the Manhattan Project, as were the plutonium-producing reactors of the Hanford Engineer Works.

The first nuclear reactor to generate electricity was Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I), which did so near Arco, Idaho, in 1951.[17] EBR-I was a standalone facility, not connected to a grid, but a later Idaho research reactor in the BORAX series did briefly supply power to the town of Arco in 1955.

The first commercial nuclear power plant, built to be connected to an electrical grid, is the Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, which began operation in 1954. The second appears to be the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, which produced electricity in 1957.

For a brief chronology, from the discovery of uranium to the current era, see Outline History of Nuclear Energy or History of Nuclear Power.

See List of Commercial Nuclear Reactors for a comprehensive listing of nuclear power reactors and IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) for worldwide and country-level statistics on nuclear power generation.

Where nuclear engineers work

In the United States, nuclear engineers are employed as follows:[18]

Worldwide, job prospects for nuclear engineers are likely best in those countries that are active in or exploring nuclear technologies[citation needed]:

Country Nuclear capabilities
Algeria See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Argentina See Nuclear Power in Argentina.
Armenia See Nuclear Power in Armenia.
Australia See nuclear sector and Australia's Uranium.
Austria "Austria operates one central radioactive waste management and interim storage facility –

Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH (NES) for pre-disposal management including treatment, conditioning and interim storage of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW)."[19] Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf GmbH (NES) collects, processes, conditions, and stores radioactive waste and does decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities for the Republic of Austria.[20]

Azerbaijan See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Bangladesh See WNA:Bangladesh and Nuclear Power in Bangladesh.
Belarus See WNA:Belarus and Nuclear Power in Belarus.
Belgium See Nuclear Power in Belgium and nuclear sector.
Bolivia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Botswana See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa.
Brazil See nuclear sector and Nuclear Power in Brazil.
Bulgaria See nuclear sector and Nuclear Power in Bulgaria.
Burundi See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Cambodia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Canada WNA: Nuclear Power in Canada, nuclear sector, and

Nuclear Power in Canada.

Central African Republic See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa.
Chile See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
China See WNA:Nuclear Power in China, and Nuclear Power in China.
Congo, Democratic Republic See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa.
Croatia See WNA:Nuclear Power in Slovenia and Nuclear Power in Croatia.
Czech Republic See WNA: Nuclear Power in Czech Republic and Nuclear Power in the Czech Republic.
Cuba See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Denmark See WNA:Nuclear Energy in Denmark and Nuclear Power in Denmark.
Ecuador See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Egypt See Start of construction of Egypt's first nuclear power plant and El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant.
Equatorial Guinea See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa.
Estonia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Ethiopia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Finland See WPA:Nuclear Power in Finland and Nuclear Power in Finland.
France See WPA:Nuclear Power in France and Nuclear Power in France.
Gabon See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa.
Georgia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Germany See WPA:Nuclear Power in Germany and Nuclear Power in Germany.
Ghana See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Guinea See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa
Guyana See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Hungary See WNA:Nuclear Power in Hungary and Nuclear Power in Hungary.
India See WNA:Nuclear Power in India and Nuclear Power in India.
Indonesia See WNPA:Nuclear Power in Indonesia and Nuclear Power in Indonesia.
Iran See WNA:Nuclear Power in Iran and Nuclear Power in Iran.
Israel See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Italy See WNA:Nuclear Power in Italy and Nuclear Power in Italy.
Japan See WNA:Nuclear Power in Japan and Nuclear Power in Japan.
Jordan See WNA:Nuclear Power in Jordan and Nuclear Power in Jordan.
Kazakhstan See WNA:Uranium and Nuclear Power in Kazakhstan and Nuclear Power in Kazakhstan.
Kenya See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Korea, North See Nuclear power in North Korea.
Korea, South See WNA:Nuclear Power in South Korea and Nuclear Power in South Korea.
Kyrgyzstan See WNA:Uranium in Kyrgyzstan.
Laos See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Latvia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Lithuania See WNA:Nuclear Power in Lithuania and Nuclear Power in Lithuania.
Malawi See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa.
Malaysia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Mali See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Mauritania See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Mexico See WNA:Nuclear Power in Mexico and Nuclear Power in Mexico.
Mongolia See WNA:Uranium in Mongolia.
Morocco See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa.
Myanmar See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Namibia See WNA:Uranium in Namibia.
Netherlands See WNA:Nuclear Power in the Netherlands and Nuclear Power in the Netherlands.
New Zealand See WNA:Nuclear Energy Prospects in New Zealand.
Niger See WNA:Uranium in Niger.
Nigeria See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Norway See Nuclear power in Norway.
Oman See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Pakistan See WNA:Nuclear Power in Pakistan and Nuclear Power in Pakistan.
Paraguay See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Peru See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Philippines See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Poland See WNA:Nuclear Power in Poland and Nuclear Power in Poland.
Romania See WNA:Nuclear Power in Romania and Nuclear Power in Romania.
Russia See WNA:Nuclear Power in Russia and Nuclear Power in Russia.
Rwanda See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Saudi Arabia See WNA:Nuclear Power in Saudi Arabia and Nuclear Power in Saudi Arabia.
Senegal See WNA: Uranium in Africa and Uranium in Africa.
Serbia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Singapore See Singapore is considering the nuclear option for its energy transition… again.
Slovakia See WNA:Nuclear Power in Slovakia and Nuclear Power in Slovakia.
Slovenia See WNA:Nuclear Power in Slovenia and Nuclear Power in Slovenia.
South Africa See WNA:Nuclear Power in South Africa and Nuclear Power in South Africa.
Spain See WNA:Nuclear Power in Spain and Nuclear Power in Spain.
Sri Lanka See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Sudan See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Sweden See WNA:Nuclear Power in Sweden and Nuclear Power in Sweden.
Switzerland See WNA:Nuclear Power in Switzerland and Nuclear Power in Switzerland.
Syria See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Taiwan See WNA:Nuclear Power in Taiwan and Nuclear Power in Taiwan.
Tajikistan See WNA:Uranium in Tajikistan.
Tanzania See WNA:Uranium in Africa.
Thailand See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Tunisia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Turkey See WNA:Nuclear Power in Turkey and Nuclear Power in Turkey.
Uganda See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Ukraine See WNA:Nuclear Power in Ukraine and Nuclear Power in Ukraine
United Arab Emirates See WNA:Nuclear Power in the United Arab Emirates and Nuclear Power in the United Arab Emirates.
United Kingdom See WNA:Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom and Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom.
United States See WNA:Nuclear Power in the USA and Nuclear Power in the USA.
Uzbekistan See WNA:Uranium in Uzbekistan.
Venezuela See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Vietnam See WNA:Nuclear Power in Vietnam and Nuclear Power in Vietnam.
Yemen See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Zambia See Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries.
Zimbabwe See WNA:Uranium in Africa.

Nuclear engineering schools and training

Organizations that provide study and training in nuclear engineering include the following:

Region/Country Schools and Training
Africa The IAEA has 45 Member States in Africa. “The IAEA’s technical cooperation (TC) programme is the main mechanism for assisting Member States in the peaceful, safe and secure application of nuclear science and technology.”[21] Education in nuclear and radiation safety is a component.
Asia Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT).[22]
Armenia IAEA Technical Communication Program.[23]
Australia UNSW Nuclear Engineering.[24]
Austria EU Science Hub.[25]
Bangladesh University of Dhaka.[26]
Belarus Belarusian State University.[27]
Belgium EU Science Hub.[28]
Brazil COPPE UFRJ.
Brunei See https://www-pub.iaea.org/mtcd/publications/pdf/pub1626web-52229977.pdf
Bulgaria EU Science Hub.[29]
Cambodia See https://www.khmertimeskh.com/50896212/pride-of-cambodia-students-graduate-with-degrees-in-civil-nuclear-science/.
Canada See Canadian-Universities.net.
China Harbin Engineering University and Harbin Engineering University.

North China Electric Power University and North China Electric Power University.

Tsinghua University and Tsinghua University.

Croatia EU Science Hub.[30]
Cyprus EU Science Hub.[31]
Czech Republic EU Science Hub.[32]
Denmark EU Science Hub.[33]
Estonia EU Science Hub.[34]
Finland EU Science Hub.[35]
France EU Science Hub.[36]
Germany EU Science Hub.[37]
Greece EU Science Hub.[38]
Hungary EU Science Hub.[39]
IAEA STAR-NET: Regional Network for Education and Training in Nuclear Technology, https://www.star-net.online/en/?page_id=16, universities:

National Polytechnic University of Armenia Republic of Armenia

Baku State University, Republic of Azerbaijan

Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Republic of Belarus

Belarusian National Technical University, Republic of Belarus

Belarusian State University, Republic of Belarus

L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, Republic of Kazakhstan

Sarsen Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Republic of Kazakhstan

D. Serikbayev East Kazakhstan Technical University (EKTU), Republic of Kazakhstan

AGH University of Science and Technology (Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica w Krakowie), Republic of Poland

National Research Nuclear University «MEPhI», Russian Federation

Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Russian Federation

The National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russian Federation

Odessa National Polytechnic University (OPNU), Ukraine

Samarkand State University, Republic of Uzbekistan

The IAEA also provides guidance for nuclear engineering curricula: https://www-pub.iaea.org/mtcd/publications/pdf/pub1626web-52229977.pdf

India https://www.iitk.ac.in/net/old/onp.htm and IIT Kanpur.
Indonesia See https://tf.ugm.ac.id/2014/04/19/developing-nuclear-education-in-indonesia/
Iran 13 atomic energy primary schools /high schools, more schools being built,[40]Isfahan University of Technology,[41] See https://www.nti.org/education-center/facilities/amir-kabir-university-of-technology-2/
Ireland EU Science Hub.[42]
Israel See https://in.bgu.ac.il/en/engn/nuclear/Pages/default.aspx
Italy EU Science Hub.[43]
Japan https://www.ne.t.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en

https://www.nuclear.sci.waseda.ac.jp/index_en.html

Jordan https://www.just.edu.jo/FacultiesandDepartments/FacultyofEngineering/Departments/NuclearEngineering/Pages/Nuclear%20Engineering.aspx
Latin America Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (LANENT) https://www.iaea.org/services/networks/lanent
Latvia EU Science Hub.[44]
Lithuania EU Science Hub.[45]
Luxembourg EU Science Hub.[46]
Malaysia Universiti Teknologi Malaysia[47][48]
Malta EU Science Hub.[49]
Mexico https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/41/133/41133846.pdf
Netherlands EU Scienc Hub.[50]
Norway https://www.ntnu.edu/
Philippines https://ansn.iaea.org/Common/topics/OpenTopic.aspx?ID=13280
Poland EU Science Hub.[51]
Portugal EU Science Hub.[52]
Romania EU Science Hub.[53]
Russia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Research_Nuclear_University_MEPhI_(Moscow_Engineering_Physics_Institute)

https://tpu.ru/en/about/department_links_and_administration/department/view/?id=7863

Saudi Arabia https://ne.kau.edu.sa/Default-135008-EN
Serbia https://www.bg.ac.rs/en/members/institutes/Vinca.php
Slovakia EU Science Hub.[54]
Slovenia EU Science Hub.[55]
South Korea TBA
Spain EU Science Hub.[56]
Sweden EU Science Hub.[57]
Switzerland https://ethz.ch/en/studies/master/degree-programmes/engineering-sciences/nuclear-engineering.html
Taiwan https://www.studyintaiwan.org/university/program/2565
Thailand https://www.eng.chula.ac.th/en/department/department-of-nuclear-technology
Turkey https://nuke.hacettepe.edu.tr/en/department-69

http://nukbilimler.ankara.edu.tr/en/nuclear-research-and-technologies-department/ http://www.nuce.boun.edu.tr/

Ukraine https://www.uatom.org/en/training-of-nuclear-specialists
United Arab Emirates https://www.ku.ac.ae/academics/college-of-engineering/department/department-of-nuclear-engineering#about
United Kingdom[58]

University of Birmingham

University of Bristol

University of Cambridge

University of Central Lancashire

University of Cumbria

Defence Academy of the United Kingdom

University of Dundee

Imperial College London

Lancaster University

University of Leeds

University of Liverpool

The University of Manchester

Nottingham Trent University

Nuclear Technology Education Consortium (NTEC)

The Open University

University of Sheffield

University of Surrey

University of the West of Scotland

United States[59]

Air Force Institute of Technology

Abilene Christian University

Clemson University

Colorado School of Mines

Georgia Institute of Technology

Idaho State University

Kansas State University

Louisiana State University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Missouri University of Science and Technology

North Carolina State University

Ohio State University

Oregon State University

Penn State University

Purdue University

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

South Carolina State University

Texas A&M University

United States Military Academy at West Point

University of California, Berkeley

University of Florida

University of Idaho

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

University of Maryland

University of Massachusetts Lowell

University of Michigan

University of Missouri

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

University of New Mexico

University of Pittsburgh

University of South Carolina

University of Tennessee

University of Texas

University of Utah

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Virginia Commonwealth University

Virginia Tech

Nuclear engineering organizations

See also

References

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Further reading